Purpose: The time course of muscle stiffness of muscles around the shoulder joint and the scapula was investigated according to the degree of muscle weakness. This study was conducted to clarify the recovery process of muscle hardness of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint and the scapula after the shoulder internal and external rotational exercises.
Methods: Participants were 7 healthy men (23.6 ± 1.4 yr), repeated internal and external rotations of the shoulder joint until the mean work of three internal and external rotations each was less than 90%, 80%, or 70% of the standard. Muscle hardness of the supraspinatus muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, and the rhomboideus muscle was measured before, immediately after, and 1to 72 hr after each bout of exercise.
Muscle hardness was measured as Strain ratio using an ultrasound real-time tissue elastography. In addition, the rates of change were calculated using muscle hardness before exercise as the standard, to compare differences in the rate of change after exercise between conditions.
Results: The rates of change of the Strain ratio between measurements taken before and after exercise were compared among conditions for the infraspinatus muscle. Results were -7.1 ± 5.3, -15.2 ± 10.3, and -25.0 ± 8.8, respectively, at 90%, 80%, and 70%, with a significant difference between a decrease to 90% and to 70% (p < 0.05). Significant difference was found in the change over time for the infraspinatus muscle only between values obtained immediately after exercise and after 72 hr at a decrease to 70% (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Those results described above demonstrated that the infraspinatus muscle and the supraspinatus muscle were harder immediately after exercise when the shoulder joint was at a higher degree of muscle weakness, and demonstrated that the change was likely to be recovered after 72 hr.
Background: Rotation of the femoral component in total knee replacement (TKR) is very important for good long-term results. Malrotation of the femoral component usually requires subsequent reimplantation. We performed X-ray projections of the knee at 90° to determine proper rotation of the femoral component without use of computed tomography.
Methods: The axial projection of the distal femur was measured in post-TKR cases. During the TKR operation, Whiteside’s method had been used to provide symmetrical flexion space. The exact outer rotation of the femoral component was measured by x-ray determination of the middle condylar twist angle, from the central epicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis.
Results: The middle condylar twist angle was in outer rotation, with an average of 3.36° (range: 1-7.6), similar to the literature. Six of the patients underwent bilateral TKR. In total, the case series included 18 women and 15 men, with average age of 71.34 years-old (range: 56-85). As a clinical evaluation we used Knee Society Score (2011). From results 2 patients were not very satisfied with the instability TKR. Axially X-ray seemed to be only which could distribute these patients.
Summary: X-ray values have the same evaluation as computed tomography. The results were 2 patients in pattern of 48, which were sufficient to extrapolate to whole population according to the statistical methods. This corresponds to 4% which we can add to evaluate satisfaction of all patients after TKR and eventually lower the total of unsatisfactory patients which is total of ¼ of total. It is also forensic reason for all patients. Our recommendation to have good results and patient satisfaction in TKR is to do x-rays before and after operation. Important are x-rays antero-posterior, lateral, and Kanekasu projection to know the rotation after TKR. Other cases without stability in flexion are nor very rarely planed for revision surgery, which is much more expensive, and burdens overall health system.
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