Background: Beta 2- micro globulin (β2-MG) is involved in human malignancies. Increased synthesis and release of β2-MG, as indicated by elevated serum, plasma, or urine β2-MG concentration, occurs in several malignant diseases.
Objective: The study was designed to assess the role of serum Beta2- micro globulin in the support of the diagnosis of different types of pediatric malignancies.
Subjects and Methods: This case - control study was carried out on 137 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed pre-treated malignant diseases who were admitted to pediatric oncology center at Basra Children’s Specialty Hospital, their ages ranged from 3 months to 15 years, during the period from the 1st of November 2014 till the end of October 2015, 71 were males and 66 were females and 148 healthy children and adolescents (83 were males and 65 were females) matched for age and sex regarded as control group. Cases and control characteristics were assessed from data collection by special questionnaire. All patients and control group were investigated for Beta2- microglobulin by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The study had revealed that level of Beta2-microglobulin was significantly higher in patients with malignancy in comparison to control group, P value < 0.001.Also the serum Beta2- microglobulin level for both hematological malignancies and solid malignancies was assessed and it was found that significantly higher percentage of elevated serum Beta2- microglobulin level was present in patients with hematological malignancies in comparison to solid malignancies, P value <0.01.The study also had revealed that there was a significant correlation between the initial white blood cells count ≥ 50000 cells/ml and abnormal serum Beta2- microglobulin level, P value < 0.01,but there was no significant differences in serum Beta2- microglobulin level in relation to risk groups and immunophynotypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ,morphological subtypes of acute myloid leukemia, stages of each type of lymphoma (Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and the histopathological subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. After subjecting variables (specific to acute lymphoblastic leukemia) to logistic regression analysis, the significant independent risk factor that associated with abnormal serum Beta2- microglobulin level was high initial white blood cells count (≥50000 cells/ml).
Conclusion: Serum Beta2- microglobulin level is significantly higher in patients with hematological malignancies and high initial white blood cells count(≥50000cells/ml) .From this study, serum Beta2- microglobulin could be recommended in the initial work up for diagnosis of childhood malignancy.
In the present work, samples of building material are analyzed for their naturally occurring radioisotope activity such as uranium, radium, and radon. The radon emission rates, and the annual effective doses, “AED”, are also investigated.The activity of twenty-four samples, taken from the local markets of Saudi Arabia, was determined using the "Sealed-cup Technique” and Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors, "SSNTD.” The uranium concentration activity of the samples is found to vary from 0.62 to 4.68 ppm with an average of 1.92±0.42 ppm. The radium concentration varies from 0.61 to 4.64 Bq·kg−1, with an average of 1.91±0.42 Bq·kg−1, the radon concentration in the samples varies from 42.29 to 319.97 Bq·m−3 with an average of 131.53±28.94 Bq·m−3. The value of the dissolved radon concentration in the collected samples varies from 12.99 to 98.97 Bq·m−3 with an average of 40.41±8.89 Bq·m−3. The mass exhalation rates are found to vary from 1.54 to 11.65 mBq·kg−1·h−1, with an average of 4.79±1.05 mBq·kg−1·h−1, while the surface inhalation rates vary from 76.97 to 582.35 mBq·m−2·h−1, with an average of 239.38±52.66 mBq·m−2·h−1. The AED due to indoor uses varies from 1.07 to 8.07 mSv·y−1, with an average of 3.32±0.73 mSv·y−1. The AED due to indoor plus outdoor uses varies from 1.47 to 11.10 mSv·y−1, with an average of 4.56±1.0 mSv·y−1. The results of this study show that the values obtained for most samples are within the internationally accepted recommended values. Therefore, these samples can be used as building materials as they do not pose a major risk to humans.
Today, there is a considerable increase in localizing adrenal bulks with the bringing radiologic diagnosis methods having high technology into use and improvement in diagnostic tests. Adrenal glands are vital tissues for the organism due to the hormones they secrete. Death is a natural result in the absence of adrenal cortex.Adrenal bulks can be seen with different clinical, laboratory and radiological data. These bulks are often benign and rarely malign. They can be functional or non-functional. Major treatment methods used fort he treatment of adrenal gland primary tumors or metastases are surgery, arterial embolisation, chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation and radiotherapy [1-4].
Spleen is one of the most important organ of the reticuloendothelial system and coordinates the immune response. Splenectomy is performed for hypersplenism, and staging of hematological malignancy. In conservatively followed patients, radiation therapy can be used to reduce hypersplenism symptoms. Splenectomy or palliative radiotherapy to spleen may probably cause an immune suppressive condition. This may probably local and systemic complications.
German surgeon, Vincenz Czerny, transplanted a patient’s own lipoma located in the hip to it’s breast after gland excision due to mastitis in 1895. Dr. Vincenza reported that for at least a year he didnt observe any problem on the operated breast .Injection of adipose tissue to the breast has been used in breast cancer patients during breast reconstruction and lumpectomy. And in cases of revision autologous tissues are used for reconstruction. In clinical practice, many breast cancer patients apply to the clinics mostly after radiotherapy for reconstruction. Rigotti et al used purified autologous lipoaspirates in breast cancer patients with late term complications of radiation therapy and observed increase in neovascularization and wound healing . Panettiere and colleagues compared aesthetic and functional features of fat grafts in radiotherapy received breast cancer patients and control group. In the fat graft group, all clinical symptoms and aesthetic scores were significantly higher than the control group .
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