Research Article

Primary anal malignant melanoma: A case report

Harsumeet S Sidhu* and Sonia Sandeep

Published: 04/15/2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-004

Anal melanoma is a rare and highly aggressive mucosal melanocytic malignancy. It is the third most common after melanomas of the skin and retina. The peak incidence in seen in the sixth and seventh decades. The clinical symptoms are pain, anal mass, bleeding per rectum, tenesmus or change in the bowel habits. It affects anal canal, rectum or both with a tendency to spread along submucosal planes. It is mostly beyond complete resection at the time of diagnosis and majority of patients die of metastasis. MR imaging significantly increases the diagnosis of anal melanoma in its early stages.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jro.1001031 Cite this Article

References

  1. Heyn J, Placzek M, Ozimek A, Baumgaertner AK, Siebeck M, et al. Malignant melanoma of the anal region. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007; 32: 603–607.
  2. Chang AE, Karnell LH, Menck HR. The National cancer data base report on cutaneous and noncutaneous melanoma: a summary of 84836 cases from the past decade. Cancer. 1998; 83: 1664-1678. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9781962
  3. Klas JV, Rothenberger DA, Wong WD, Madoff RD. Malignant tumors of the anal canal: the spectrum of disease, treatment and outcomes. Cancer. 1999; 85: 1686-1693. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10223561
  4. Zhang S, Gao F, Wan D. Effect of misdiagnosis on the prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma. J cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136: 1401-1405. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20130908
  5. Falch C, Stojadinovic A, Hann-von-Weyhern C, Protic M, Nissan A, et al. Anorectal malignant melanoma: extensive 45 year review and proposal for a novel staging classification. J Am Coll Surg. 2013; 217: 324-335. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23697834
  6. Moore R. Recurrent melanosis of the rectum, after previous removal from the verge of the anus, in a managed sixty five. Lancet. 1857; 1: 290.
  7. Saraswat B, Purohit R, Singh A, Yadav R. Primary anal malignant melanoma: a case report. Int Surg J. 2015; 2: 304-307.
  8. Felz MW, Winburn GB, Kallab AM, Lee JR. Anal melanoma: an aggressive malignancy masquerading as haemorrhoids. South Med J. 2001; 94: 880-885. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11592745
  9. Park HJ, Kim HJ, Park SH, Lee JS, Kim AY, et al. Primary anorectal melanoma: MRI findings and clinicopathological correlations. AJR. 2018; 211: 98-108. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29927334
  10. Kim KW, Ha HK, Kim AY, Kim TK, Kim JS, et al. Primary malignant melanoma of the rectum: CT findings in eight patients. Radiology. 2004; 232: 181-186. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15220501
  11. Matsuoka H, Nakamura A, Iwamoto K, Sugiyama M, Hachiya J, et al. Anorectal malignant melanoma: Preoperative usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging. J Gastroenterol. 2005; 40: 836–842. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16143890
  12. Kelly P, Zagars GK, Cormier JN, Ross MI, Guadagnolo BA. Sphincter sparing local excision and hypofractionated radiation therapy for anorectal melanoma: a 20 year experience. Cancer. 2011; 117: 4747-4755. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446049
  13. Stefanou A, Nalamati SP. Anorectal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2011; 24: 171-176. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22942799
  14. Singer M, Mutch MG. Anal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2006; 19: 78–87. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20011314
  15. Yap LB, Neary P. A comparison of wide local excision with abdominoperineal resection in anorectal melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2004; 14: 147-150. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15057046
  16. Lens MB, Dawes M. Interferon therapy for malignant melanoma: a systemic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 1818-1825. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11919239
  17. Ulmer A, Metzger S, Fierlbeck G. Successful palliation of stenosing anorectal melanoma by intratumoral injections of natural interferon β. Melanoma Res. 2002; 12: 395-398. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12170190
  18. van Schaik PM, Ernst MF, Meijer HA, Bosscha K. Melanoma of the rectum: A rare entity. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14: 1633–1635. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2693766/