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Submitted: December 14, 2022 | Approved: December 22, 2022 | Published: December 23, 2022

How to cite this article: Öztürk N, Hazir A, Kaydan MB. Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) on Strawbery (Fragaria vesca L., Rosaceae) in Silifke, Mersin, Turkey. J Plant Sci Phytopathol. 2022; 6: 170-172.

DOI: 10.29328/journal.jpsp.1001094

Copyright License: © 2022 Öztürk N, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) on Strawbery (Fragaria vesca L., Rosaceae) in Silifke, Mersin, Turkey

Naim Öztürk1, Adalet Hazir1 and M Bora Kaydan2*

1Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Çukurova University, 01380, Sarıçam, Adana, Turkey
2Biotechnology Application and Research Centre, Çukurova University, 01250, Adana, Turkey

*Address for Correspondence: M Bora Kaydan, Biotechnology Application and Research Centre, Çukurova University, 01250, Adana, Turkey, Email:


Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae), called “wild strawberry”, “woodland strawberry”, “Alpine strawberry”, “Carpathian strawberry” or “European strawberry” is grown naturally throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere and produces fruits. The plant can be spread mostly by stolons as well as by the seeds to establish new populations. Recently tissue culture is also very common to produce new seedlings. The wild woodland strawberry is native to Europe and Asia and is the most widely distributed species of the genus Fragaria occurring throughout Europe, Northern Asia, North America, and Northern Africa (PIER, 2013; USDA NRCS, 2012). Their flesh develops from the receptacles of pollinated flowers that open in May or June and in sunny locations continue to flower until the first frosts come. Strawberries can be economically produced in various climatic and soil conditions. Strawberries, with their rich mineral content and unique flavor and aroma, are also an important source of antioxidant compounds such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids [1]. In the world, China (3,2 billion tonnes) is the biggest strawberry producer followed by America (3,2 billion tonnes) and Mexico (861 billion tonnes) FAO, 1/Trade Map (27.v.2021). Strawberry production in Turkey country is concentrated in the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Marmara regions, respectively [2]. In the Western and Central-Eastern Anatolia Region and the Black Sea Region, the interest in strawberry production is also increasing [3]. In 2020 strawberry production was the highest in the Mersin province with 188 Thousand tonnes, second in Aydın with 68 thousand tonnes, and third in Konya with 51 thousand tonnes [4].

Pests, diseases, and problems caused by weeds are the most important factors negatively affecting strawberry production. Pests that cause productivity to go down in strawberries are Chaetosiphon fragaefolli Cockerell (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Tetranychus urticae Koch, and T. cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysonoptera: Thripidae). The spider mites (T. urticae and T. cinnabarinus) are known to be the pests that do the most harm to production [5,6].

There were 33 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) belonging to eight families namely, Acantho-coccidae, Diaspididae, Margarodidae, Monophellidae, Ortheziidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae, and Rhizoceidae recorded on Strawberry all over the world [7]. Among, them, Planococcus citri Risso (Pseudococcidae) is a highly polyphagous, adaptable mealybug that can feed on many host plants in a variety of conditions, and can reproduce rapidly. It has been reported on over 200 host-plant species belonging to 191 genera and 82 families [7]. Although Planococcus citri is of Old World origin [8], it is now established in all the temperate and tropical zoogeographic regions and lives under glass in higher latitudes. Citrus mealybug is recorded in America previously by McKenzie [9] on Fragaria vesca. Madanlar and Yoldaş [6] also recorded that Planococcus citri was present on Strawberry plantations in İzmir province in Turkey.

Citrus mealybugs are primarily pests of citrus but have been collected from at least 27 host plant families including indoor ornamentals, vegetables, and fruits. Host plants include Amaryllis sp. (Jersey lily), Ananas comosus (pineapple), Annona squamosa (sugar-apple), Asparagus sp., Begonia sp., Bougainvillea sp., Cactus sp., Canna sp. (canna lily), Citrus sp., Cocos nucifera (coconut), Solenostemon sp. (coleus), Codiaeum sp. (croton), Cucumis melo (muskmelon), Cucurbita sp., Cyclamen sp. (primrose or Persian violet), Cyperus sp. (flatsedge), Dahlia sp., Dioscorea sp. (yam), Euphorbia sp. (milkweed), Ficus sp. (Figure trees or Figure), Fragaria sp. (strawberries), Gardenia sp., Impatiens sp. (jewelweeds or touch-me-not), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Mangifera indica (mango), Musa sp. (banana), Narcissus sp. (daffodil), Nicotiana sp., Oryza latifolia (grass), Persea americana (avocado), Phoenix dactylifera (date palm), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pyrus communis (pear), Pyrus malus (apple), Rosa sp., Solanum melongena (eggplant), Theobroma cacao (cacao), and Tulipa sp. (tulip) [9,10].

In this note, the authors report the presence of Planococcus citri in on strawberries and add a new record for Turkey.

The authors noted the species during the surveys on Fragaria vesca plantations in Mersin, Silifke. At the collecting sites, the Planococcus citri (Figure 1) density was quite high and the infestation was easy to recognize. Samples were collected on the branches, stems, and leaves of the host plants. This mealybug was collected in eight collection sites among 56 collection sites (Table 1). Each sample was placed into a plastic bag and taken to the laboratory for examination. Specimens were prepared for light microscopy using the slide-mounted method of Kosztarab & Kozar [11] and identified according to the keys in Williams (2004).

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Figure 1: Planococcus citri on Fragaria vesca a) Infestation, b) Different stages of Planococcus citri.

Table 1: Information on the collection sites.
No Date Location Space Present/Absent
1 20.06.2022 Burunucu 15.000 +
2 20.06.2022 Kurtuluş 50.000 +
3 22.06.2022 Bolacalıkoyuncu 2000 -
4 22.06.2022 Bolacalıkoyuncu 7850 -
5 22.06.2022 Taşucu 5000 -
6 22.06.2022 Taşucu 8000 -
7 22.06.2022 Taşucu 9500 +
8 22.06.2022 Taşucu 4300 -
9 22.06.2022 Taşucu 6900 -
10 22.06.2022 Gülümpaşalı 20.000 -
11 22.06.2022 Burunucu 30.000 -
12 22.06.2022 Burunucu 3000 -
13 22.06.2022 Burunucu 15.000 -
14 22.06.2022 Ulugöz 8700 -
15 22.06.2022 Atik 11.400 -
16 22.06.2022 Çeltikçi 38.000 -
17 22.06.2022 Çeltikçi 7000 -
18 23.06.2022 Kapızlı 14.375 +
19 23.06.2022 Kapızlı 14.800 -
20 23.06.2022 Kapızlı 14.625 -
21 23.06.2022 Kapızlı 4800 -
22 23.06.2022 Kapızlı 10.000 -
23 23.06.2022 Kapızlı 7000 -
24 23.06.2022 Olukbaşı 12.250 -
25 23.06.2022 Olukbaşı 11.875 -
26 23.06.2022 Sökün 8550 -
27 23.06.2022 Sökün 27.570 -
28 23.06.2022 Sökün 3153 -
29 23.06.2022 Kurtuluş 17.000 -
30 23.06.2022 Altınkum 10.000 -
31 23.06.2022 Sökün 17800 +
32 23.06.2022 Sökün 34200 -
33 23.06.2022 Sökün 18.848 -
34 23.06.2022 Sökün 24.036 -
35 27.06.2022 Atik 4288 -
36 27.06.2022 Çeltikçi 4000 -
37 27.06.2022 Çeltikçi 15.000 -
38 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 5000 -
39 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 5000 -
40 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 5000 -
41 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 6400 -
42 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 13.000 -
43 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 13.600 -
44 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 10.800 -
45 27.06.2022 Kurtuluş 7000 -
46 27.06.2022 Sökün 11.000 -
47 27.06.2022 Sökün 3025 -
48 27.06.2022 Sökün 15.000 -
49 27.06.2022 Sökün 8767 -
50 27.06.2022 Sökün 15.400 -
51 27.06.2022 Sökün 10.000 -
52 27.06.2022 Esenbel 12.000 +
53 27.06.2022 Esenbel 6250 -
54 27.06.2022 Esenbel 9375 -
55 27.06.2022 Esenbel 17.900 +
56 29.06.2022 Kabasakallı 2550 (sera) +

The citrus mealybug is regarded as an important plant pest worldwide [7]. This mealybug may reach high populations and may cause reduced plant growth or plant death. Even though P. citri is an important pest in Citrus Growings it has the potential to inflict significant damage to many other crops including Strawberries in all growing regions (CABI, 2012). This mealybug rapidly became a very important pest on many ornamental plants, Greenhouses and many fruits it can be a potential pest on Strawberries as well.

Mealybug management on strawberries

For sustainable management of P. citri on Strawberries the population dynamics must be monitored and must be kept under control. For this reason, further studies must be done.

Biological control: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Nephus includens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Sympherobius sp. (Neuroptera: Hemerobilidae) with Leptomastix dactylopii and Angyrus psedococci (Hymenoptera: Encytridae) can be used for biological control of P. citri.

Chemical control: The Strawberry is Harvested very frequently. For this reason Chemical application must be done if it is needed. The application must be done correctly time with Selective insecticides such as Spirotetramat, Sulfoxaflor and Pyrethrin according to commercial advice.


The Authors would like to thank Yusuf GÜN (Director of Silifke Agricultural Centre), Abit DÖLEK (Agriculture Engineer at Silifke Agricultural Centre), and Zehra YILMAZER (Agriculture Engineer at Silifke Agricultural Centre) for helping to collect the samples.

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