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Submitted: January 10, 2022 | Approved: April 04, 2022 | Published: April 05, 2022

How to cite this article: ChowhanKhalil MS. Nematicides in Egypt. J Plant Sci Phytopathol. 2022; 6: 022-023.

DOI: 10.29328/journal.jpsp.1001069

Copyright License: © 2022 Khalil MS. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Nematicides in Egypt

Mohamed S Khalil*

Agricultural Research Center, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory (CAPL), El-Sabaheya, Alexandria, Egypt

*Address for Correspondence: Mohamed S Khalil, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, El-Sabaheya, Alexandria, Egypt, Email: melonema@gmail.com

Abstract

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are famous aggressive pests that attack several crops worldwide. A lot of farmers are suffering from nematode diseases which cause critical crop losses. At the same time, the most of available solutions for this problem are depending on synthetic nematicides. These chemical nematicides not only cause environmental and health problems but also may cause resistance in nematodes. Despite the occurrence of resistance in nematodes under field conditions still less clear. Therefore, this note is about the registered nematicides in Egypt which may help those who are interested in nematicides. Also, the chemical group and mode of action of nematicides were mentioned according to the insecticide resistance action committee (IRAC) [1] and fungicide resistance action committee (FRAC).

Introduction

Globally, the production of nematicides in pesticide markets was estimated at 1.3 billion U.S. dollars in 2020 [2]. Moreover, the demand for nematicides is expected to increase gradually in markets to reach 1.6 billion U.S. dollars by 2025 [2].

In Egypt, diffusion and the aggressiveness of plant-parasitic diseases were noticed during the last five years, therefore, it has expected that the demand for nematicides will be increase during the next decade. But unfortunately, synthetic nematicides may have a lot of environmental and medical defects. So, this may create more interest in the probable alternatives to synthetic nematicides in the nearest future.

Indeed, nematicides were originally considered insecticides and acaricides, but lately, a member of the fungicides group was joined to the nematicides family namely; fluopyram [3]. Moreover, different synthetic nematicides belong to several groups of pesticides. The following two sections clarified the registered nematicides in Egypt [4].

Registered nematicides in Egypt

1. Non-fumigant nematicides

Organophosphate group

  • Cadusafos (20% CS and 10% G)
  • Ethoprophos (40% EC, 20% EC and 10% G)
  • Fenamiphos (40% EC and 10% G)
  • Fosthiazate (10% G, 30% CS and 75% EC)
  • Imicyafos (30% SL)

Carbamate group

  • Oxamyl (24% SL, 10%G)

Avermectins group

  • Abamectin (2% and 5% SC)

TriTerpinoides group

  • Azadirachtin (3.2% EC)

Pyridinl-ethyl-benzamides group

  • Fluopyram (40% SC)

2. Fumigant nematicides (soil sterilizes)

Compounds in this section are mostly used in protected cultivations (under greenhouse conditions). Most organosulfur compounds are considered methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators [5-8].

Organosulfur group

  • Dazomet (96% MG)
  • Dimethyl disulfide (94.8% EC)
  • Metam potassium (69% SL)
  • Metam sodium (51% SL)

Organochlorine group

  • Dazomet (96% MG)
  • Dimethyl disulfide (94.8% EC)
  • Metam potassium (69% SL)
  • Metam sodium (51% SL)

Organochlorine group

  • 1, 3 Dichloropropene (60.8%) + Chloropicrin (33.3%) (94.1% EC)
  • Table 1
Table 1: The nematicide groups and their mode of action.
Nematicide groups Mode of action
Organophosphate Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors
Carbamate
Avermectin Glutamate-gate chloride channel allosteric modulators
TriTerpinoides Unknown mode of action
Pyridinl-ethyl-benzamides Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHI)- complex II
Organosulfur non-specific (multi-site) inhibitors
Organochlorine GABA-gate chloride channel blockers
Nematicide formulations

All registered nematicides in Egypt included certain formulations such as EC, G, SL, SC, CS and MG. The abbreviation of these formulations was explained in Table 2 [9-11].

Table 2: The types of nematicide formulations.
Formulation Mean of abbreviation
EC Emulsifiable concentrate
SC Suspension concentrate
CS Capsule suspensions
G Granules
MG Microgranules
SL Soluble (liquid) concentrate
References
  1. Insecticide Resistance Action Committee | IRAC. irac-online.org
  2. Fernández L. Nematicides market value globally 2025 | Statista. 2021.
  3. Khalil MS, Selim RE. Fluorinated nematicides: Novel classes in the way. J Plant Sci Phytopathol. 2021; 5: 14-16. https://www.heighpubs.org/jpsp/jpsp-aid1055.php
  4. Agricultural Pesticides Committee. apc.gov.eg     
  5. Nakubulwa S, Kusiima J, Kadobera D, Mutyoba JN, Ario AR, et al. Acute metam sodium poisoning caused by occupational exposure at a flower farm - Uganda, October 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018; 67: 414 - 417.
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  7. Cox C. Metam Sodium. J Pesticide Reform. 2006; 26: 12-16.
  8. Kim J, Lam W, Quistad G, Casida J. Sulfoxidation of the soil fumigants metam, methyl isothiocyanate, and dazomet. J Agri Food Chem. 1994; 42: 2019-2024.
  9. Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority. 2020. https://apvma.gov.au/node/10901
  10. Hazia DK. Recent advancement in pesticides formulations for user and environment friendly pest management. Int J Res Rev. 2015; 2: 35-40.
  11. Bhattacharyya A, Barik SR, Ganguly P. New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: present status and future challenges. The J Plant Pro Sci. 2009; 1: 9-15.