Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates (survival rate 15-50% ). The incidence of oral cancer worldwide is approximately 3% of all malignancies, thus creating a significant worldwide health problem . The most common form of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which accounts for 96% of all cancers of the oral cavity . Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oropharyngeal and pharyngeal SCC is the sixth most common malignancy in the world today . Oral cancer has a mean survival rate of five years, which is much lower than other cancers . Early detection will allow oral cancer to be 90% curable and less cost effective for treatment .
Early detection of oral cancer is therefore important to reduce the incidence of mortality of fatal disease. Methods that are available for early detection involves being knowledgeable in oral cancer’s etiology, methods for detecting and examination which require for the clinician to follow the advancement of the methods of detection. Competent, well-educated oral health care providers are needed to provide proper oral cancer screening examinations, for early oral, head, and neck cancer detection. The detection rate of OSCC screening is only 0.12% . Therefore, we focused on the important of advanced screening and detecting methods for early diagnosis of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.
Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are regarded as the main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) table 1, while human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is emerging as the leading risk factor in cancers of the oropharynx. One study of 143 patients found HPV-16 present in 16.8% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas .
The main method for evaluation of healing processes of the jaws in oral and maxillofacial surgery are radiological diagnostics. Quantitative description is possible by measuring the relative bone density, which puts the mean grey value of a certain area in relation to the surrounding bone tissue. In this research the intra- and interindividual variability is determined for this method and a standard operation procedure is elaborated.
Therefore ten panoramic radiographs of typical surgical indications in oral a maxillofacial surgery were analyzed by three different members of the workgroup, five times each. The measurements were analyzed with descriptive and comparative statistical methods.
The mean coefficient of variation was 2.972% ± 2.361%. The measurements of defect regions were more consistent (2.252% ± 1.928%) than the measurements of surrounding bone (3.691% ± 2.626%). The analysis of variance did not show a statistically significant influence of the different raters to the measurements (ANOVA, Pr>F = 0.9462).
Following the standard operation procedure this method seems to be an easy, cheap and close to practice way to visualize healing process of the jaws. Especially in the mandibula, but also in the maxilla with special reconsideration of the sinus-region, it seems to be suitable.
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance to infection control of various dental laboratories in Durban.
Study design: This was a qualitative survey.
Setting: Dental laboratories in Durban area, South Africa.
Subject: Registered laboratory technicians.
Study methodology: Convenient random sampling method was used.
Results: There was poor compliance to infection control procedures by most dental laboratories. Majority, 66.67%, of the dental laboratories relied on dental clinics for disinfection of dental impressions; therefore, they did not disinfect the impressions. On the other hand, only 33.33% carried out disinfection of dental impressions on their own. A high number (53.3%) of the respondents had disinfection areas within their dental laboratories, 6.7% had no disinfection areas while 40% depended upon dental clinics for all disinfections. About 60% of the dental technicians had valid vaccinations against Hepatitis B Virus while 40% had no vaccination against HBV.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there was substantial nonconformity to infection control measure in all dental laboratories. There should be comprehensive inspection of dental laboratories prior to licensing and thereafter by the South African Dental Technician Council’s inspectors to ensure that all dental laboratories comply with the various infection control measures.
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