Background: In line with the so-called “embodiment concept”, human bodily experience is characterized by the immediate feeling that our body is localized in a certain position in space and that the self is localized within these body limits.
Aim: To verify in a cohort of patients affected by unilateral spatial neglect (NSU) secondary to cerebrovascular damage the possible correlation between a comprehensive neuromotor/neuropsychological rehabilitative treatment and the modification of body representation.
Setting: A rehabilitation institute for the treatment of neurological gait disorders and neuropsychological failures.
Methods: 12 patients (7 males, 5 females; mean age 60 ± 2yy) affected by NSU secondary to cerebral stroke and recovered in the Neurological Rehabilitation Section of the Clinical Institute Città di Brescia were recruited for the aim of this study. In accordance with our inclusion criteria we recruited 4 patients affected by ischemic stroke and 8 patients affected by haemorragic stroke; 9 patients of our study group arrived from a coma state period. Recruited patients underwent at time T0 (hospitalization day) to a functional impairment evaluation (Motricity Index = MI; Trunk Control Test = TCT; Functional Ambulation Category = FAC) and to a neuropsychological evaluation (Behavioural Inattention Test = BIT; Representional drawing; Personal Neglect evaluation scale); each evaluation was repeated in the same way at time T1 (intertime between 2 and 4 months after hospitalization) and time T2 (inter time between 5 and 6 months after hospitalization). At time T0 each patient began an individualized integrated (motor and neuropsychological) rehabilitative treatment course.
Results: In all patients recruited a statistical significant modification was observed for the MI LL left, the TCT and the FAC; no significant statistical modification was observed for the MI UL left, the MI UL and the MI LL right. The t-test showed a significant statistical modification of the personal neglect evaluation scale while no significant statistical modification was defined for the spontaneous human figure drawing test proceeding from time T0 to time T1. The spontaneous drawing of the human figure showed an individual different trend and modification in all patients recruited. A correlation analysis was made comparing the mean value of all motor scales (G1) with the mean value of all neuropsychological scales (G2) and no statistical significant correlation was observed between G1 (T0) and G1 (T1), G1 (T0) and G2 (T0), G1 (T0) and G2 (T1), G2 (T0) and G1 (T1), G2 (T0) and G2 (T1), G1 (T1) and G2 (T1). A second correlation analysis was made comparing all single motor scales with the neuropsychological scales, for the group made by 12 patients and the group made by 5 patients. For the group made by 12 patients, we observed the subsequently significant correlations: MI UL left (T0) correlates with MI LL left (T0); MI LL left (T0) correlates with MI LL left (T1); MI UL left (T1) correlates with MI LL left (T1); MI LL left (T1) correlates with FAC (T1); TCT (T1) correlates with FAC (T1). For the group made by 5 patients, we observed the subsequently significant correlation: TCT (T2) correlates with FAC (T2). In the group made by 12 patients, the mean amelioration of the time related normalized (T0-T1) motor scales is equal to 49% while to 63% was observed for the neuropsychological scales. The mean amelioration of the neuropsychological scale proceeding from time T0 to T1 is equal to 26% with an increase equal to 57% proceeding from time T1 to T2. The neurocognitive amelioration can be observed especially between the 5th and 6th month from the ischemic cerebral damage with a mean increase from 26% to 57%.
Conclusions: It would certainly make sense to treat patients with NSU from the neuropsychological point of view in the long term and from the neuro-motor point of view in the first 3-4 months after stroke; in all this, we cannot exclude that an improvement of the visuo-spatial exploration, emphasized by the neuropsychological treatment, can positively influence also patient’s motor outcome.
Non-invasive electrical stimulation in the form of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been documented as an optional assessment and treatment technology for decades.In contrast, translation of the robust clinical evidence supporting the effectiveness of FES’ enhancement of muscle force generation and adding to the recovery of motor control following damage to the brain appears limited. Furthermore, enabling many patients to regain locomotion ability though utilization of FES as a standard care option in rehabilitation medicine remains unmet. This perspective evolved over years of collaborative experience in clinical research, teaching, and patient care having a common goal of advancing patients’ rehabilitation outcomes. The clinical successes are supported by repeated evidence of FES utilization across the life span, from toddlers to elders, from hospitals’ critical care units to the home environment. The utilization include managing multiple deficits associated with the musculo-skeletal, neurological, cardio-pulmonary, or peripheral vascular systems. These successes were achieved in no small part because of the technological advancement leading to today’s wearable wireless FES systems that are being used throughout the continuum of rehabilitation care. However, failures to benefit from FES utilization are likewise numerous, collectively depriving most patients from using the technology to maximize their rehabilitation gains. The most critical failures are both clinical and technological. Whereas numerous barriers to NMES and FES utilization have been published, the focus of this perspective is on barriers not considered to date.
“It was a delightful experience publishing my manuscript with the Clinical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. They offered me lots of opportunities I never had from most publishing houses and their prompt services are greatly appreciated.”
Akowuah Jones AsafoDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Your service is very good and fast reply, Also your service understand our situation and support us to publication our articles.
Ayman M Abu MustafaPalestine College of Nursing, Khan Younis, Gaza Strip, Palestine
The service is nice and the time of processing the application is fast.
Long ChingDepartment of Neurosurgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong
“The choice to submit the forensic case study to the Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research was dictated by the match between the content and the potential readership. The publication process proved to be expedient and we were provided with constructive feedback from reviewers. The final article layout is attractive and conforms to standards. All-in-all, it has been a rewarding process.”
Elisabeth H. WiigPh.D, Boston University Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders and Knowledge Research Institute, Inc., 2131 Reflection Bay Drive, Arlington, Texas 76013, USA
“Mobile apps and wearable technology are becoming ubiquitous in our environment. Their integration with healthcare delivery is just beginning to take shape. The early results are promising and the possibilities great.
Helen FiggeBS, PharmD., MBA, CPHIMS, FHIMSS, Adjunct Professor, Global Healthcare Management, MCPHS University, Chief Strategy Offi cer, MedicaSoft, Senior Advisor, National Health IT (NHIT) Collaborative for Underserved, New York HIMSS, National Liaison, Health 2.0 Boston, Past Chair, Chair Innovation, USA
You are such a nice person. Your journal co-operation is very appreciable and motivational.
Archna DhasmanaDepartment of Biotechnology, Uttaranchal college of Applied and Life Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
Thank you very much for your support and encouragement. I am truly impressed by your tolerance and support.
Thank you very much
Nasrulla AbutalebDiaverum: PADC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
We appreciate your approach to scholars and will encourage you to collaborate with your organization, which includes interesting and different medical journals.
With the best wishes of success, creativity and joy in life, prosperity in the medical field.
Nataliya KitseraIvano- Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine
I wanna to thank clinical journal of nursing care and practice for its effort to review and publish my manuscript. This is reputable journal. Thank you!
Atsedemariam AndualemWollo University, Ethiopia
"This is my first time publishing with the journal/publisher. I am impressed at the promptness of the publishing staff and the professionalism displayed. Thank you for encouraging young researchers like me!"
Adebukola AjiteEkiti State University, Nigeria
I am delighted and satisfied with. Heighten Science Publications as my manuscript was thoroughly assessed and published on time without delay. Keep up the good work.
Dr. Shuaib Kayode AremuIdo-Ekiti/Afe Babalola University, Nigeria
Submission of paper was smooth, the review process was fast. I had excellent communication and on time response from the editor.
Ayokunle DadaEkiti State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
"It was a pleasure to work with the editorial team of the journal on the submission of the manuscript. The team was professional, fast, and to the point".
Moran Sciamama-SaghivNC A&T State University, USA
Publishing with the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology was a rewarding experience as review process was thorough and brisk. Their visibility online is second to none as their published articles appear in all search engines. I will encourage researchers to publish with them.
Dr. Elizabeth A AwoyesukuUniversity of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
The editorial process was quickly done. The galley proof was sent within a week after being accepted for publication.
The editorial team was very helpful and responded promptly.
Thank you and your company for effective support of authors which are very much dependable on the funds gambling for science in the different countries of our huge and unpredictable world. We are doing our work and should rely on a teams like Galley Proof-HSPC. Great success to all of you for the 2019th!
Be well all the year long.
Victor V ApollonovRussia
Thank you for your attitude and support. I am sincerely grateful to you and the entire staff of the magazine for the high professionalism and fast quality work. Thank you very much!
The services of the journal were excellent. The most important thing for an author is the speed of the peer review which was really fast here. They returned in a few days and immediately replied all of my questions. I want to refer this platform to all scholars. Many thanks.
We thank to the heighten science family, who speed up the publication of our article and provide every support.
In 2017, I submitted a manuscript to the journal Archives of Biotechnology and Biomedicine belonging to Heighten Science Publications Corporation. Within one week I already received the response from the editor. All processing steps were really fast so in terms of a speedy publication I can particularly recommend the journal Archives of Biotechnology and Biomedicine. The responsible contact person of the journal was always available, which gives a trustworthy impression to the author. Also the peer review process was clear and constructive. So from my experience with Heighten Science Publications Corporation I can recommend publishing there.
Yvonne MastUniversity of Tubingen, Germany
The Journal Clinical Nephrology provides a good opportunity for readers to stay updated in the field of clinical nephrology. Additionally - it provides a good opportunity for authors to publish their work.
Publication of the accepted manuscripts is sufficiently rapid.
The trust factor between the journal and me, as an author, is very important and well preserved.
Peer review process very rapid and effective.
Leonid FeldmanAssaf Harofeh Medical Center, Israel
I am to express my view that Heighten Science Publications are reliable quick even after peer review process. I hope and wish the publications will go a long way in disseminating science to many interested in scientific research.
Ajit Kumar RoyCollege of Fisheries, CAU(I), Tripura, India
Your journal has accomplished its intended mission of providing very effective and efficient goals in dealing with submissions, conducting the reviewing process and in publishing accepted manuscripts in a timely manner. Keep up the great work and services that you provide.
John St. CyrUniversity of Jacqmar, Inc., USA
I, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, am serving as Editor on Archives of Biotechnology and Biomedicine (ABB). I submitted an editorial titled, 'Edible vaccines to combat Infectious Bursal Disease of poultry' for publication in ABB. After submitting the manuscript; the services rendered by the management and technical personnel to handle and process the manuscript were marvelous. Plagiarism report was shared with me with complements before reviewers' comments, All steps including article processing and service charges were well taken care of keeping in view the author's interest/preference. All together, it was an encouraging and wonderful experience working with ABB personnel.
Muhammad Sarwar KhanUniversity of Agriculture, Pakistan