Research Article

Foot Arch Differences in Elderly People at Standing: Considering Gender and Age

Michel Bertani, Denise Soares*, Everton Rocha and Leandro Machado

Published: 02/13/2017 | Volume 1 - Issue 1 | Pages: 034-038

ABSTRACT

Background: The foot is an important and complex structure that provides support, balance and propulsion to locomotion, thus, its proper care can help to have a better life quality avoiding pain. The medial longitudinal arch is an important structure that is related to injury risks when it shows some impairment. The purpose of this study was to characterize the foot arch index in people in relation to age and gender.

Methods: The sample was composed of a total of 122 subjects, 79 healthy young subjects (40 women and 39 men) and 43 healthy elderly subjects (32 women and 11 men). Ten seconds of standing barefoot plantar pressure was measure through Tekscan F-Scan device, and the data processing, filtering, and arch index (AI) calculation were performed using MATLAB™ 7.0.

Findings: The elderly group presented a lower arch (AI-0.23) than the young group (AI-0.13) (p=0.000); young female and male groups show similar AI, while the elderly female group showed lower arch (AI-0.23) than the elderly male group (AI-0.18) (p=0.033).

Interpretation: The foot arch has a trend to be lower with aging, and even lower within elderly female subjects, probably due to some decrease within plantar muscle’s stiffness, that in turn may be related to lower physical activity and footwear choices.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jnpr.1001005 Cite this Article

REFERENCES

  1. Lin CH, Chen JJ, Wu CH, Lee HY, Liu YH. Image analysis system for acquiring three-dimensional contour of foot arch during balanced standing. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2004; 75: 147-157. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Z137OQ
  2. Mootanah R, Song J, Lenhoff MW, Hafer JF, Backus SI, et al. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function? Gait Posture. 2013; 37: 452-456. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6Tazv0
  3. Nilsson MK, Friis R, Michaelsen MS, Jakobsen PA, Nielsen RO. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. J Foot Ankle Res. 2012; 5:3. Ref.: https://goo.gl/dLCz75
  4. Teyhen DS, Stoltenberg BE, Collinsworth KM, Giesel CL, Williams DG, et al. Dynamic plantar pressure parameters associated with static arch height index during gait. Clinical Biomechanics. 2009; 24: 391-396. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Zf9mjg
  5. Cavanagh PR, Morag E, Boulton AJM, Young MJ, Deffner KT, et al. The relationship of static foot structure to dynamic foot function. Journal of Biomechanics. 1997; 30: 243-250. Ref.: https://goo.gl/e5TjpR
  6. Razeghi M, Batt ME. Foot type classification: a critical review of current methods. Gait Posture. 2002; 15: 282-291. Ref.: https://goo.gl/IAvXOv
  7. Imaizumi K, Iwakami Y, Yamashita K, Hiejima Y. Development of an evaluation system for foot arch types in the elderly using foot pressure distribution data. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). 2012; Ref.: https://goo.gl/7ccZmJ
  8. Menz HB, Morris ME. Footwear Characteristics and Foot Problems in Older People. Gerontology. 2005; 51: 346-351. Ref.: https://goo.gl/lnq6a1
  9. Wong CK, Weil R, de Boer E. Standardizing foot-type classification using arch index values. Physiother Can. 2012; 64: 280-283. Ref.: https://goo.gl/lY0RCH
  10. Zifchock RA, Davis I, Hillstrom H, Song J. The Effect of Gender, Age, and Lateral Dominance on Arch Height and Arch Stiffness. Foot & Ankle International. 2006; 27: 367-372. Ref.: https://goo.gl/8BFTXs
  11. Jonely H, Brismee JM, Sizer PS, James CR. Relationships between clinical measures of static foot posture and plantar pressure during static standing and walking. Clin Biomech. 2011; 26: 873-879. Ref.: https://goo.gl/z53Luv
  12. Fukano M, Fukubayashi T. Gender-based differences in the functional deformation of the foot longitudinal arch. The Foot. 2012; 22: 6-9. Ref.: https://goo.gl/iNmweG
  13. Hillstrom HJ, Song J, Kraszewski AP, Hafer JF, Mootanah R, et al. Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot. Gait Posture. 2013; 37: 445-451. Ref.: https://goo.gl/VlP4nE
  14. Riskowski JL, Dufour AB, Hagedorn TJ, Hillstrom HJ, Casey VA, et al. Associations of foot posture and function to lower extremity pain: results from a population-based foot study. Arthritis Care Res. 2013; 65: 1804-1812. Ref.: https://goo.gl/cLPJCs
  15. Janchai S, Chaiwanichsiri D, Silpipat N, Tiamprasitt J. Ageing feet and plantar arch characteristics of the Thai elderly. Asian Biomedicine. 2008; 2: 297-303. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xpOjXp