Volume 5 Issue 1

Volume 4 Issue 2

Volume 4 Issue 1

Volume 3 Issue 2

Volume 3 Issue 1

Volume 2 Issue 2

Volume 2 Issue 1

Volume 1 Issue 1

Recent Articles

2021-01-11 Case Report

Acute urinary retention and hyponatremia from central hypothyroidism


A mass arising from the pituitary gland commonly damages cells of the anterior pituitary gland and affects the secretion of gonadotropins and growth hormone. However, central hypothyroidism and secondary adrenal insufficiency from such damage is a rare phenomenon. Acute urinary retention as the main symptom of central hypothyroidism is also an unusual initial presentation. We report a male patient who comes with frequent urinary retention and hyponatremia at our hospital.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001042 Cite this Article

2021-01-25 Thesis

After human: The world of brain-net on earth

“The mind of man is capable of anything….because everything in in it, all the past as well as all the future [Joseph Conrad]”. Why I am using above quote and what is the relation to what point I am coining you will understand its relevant your own as you moving line by line of this write-up.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001043 Cite this Article

2021-03-19 Case Report

Cerebral arterial air embolism with anterior spinal cord syndrome after CT-guided hook-wire localization of Lung mass and pulmonary nodule


Systemic arterial air embolism (SAAE) is a rare but serious complication of CT-guided hook wire localization of pulmonary nodule usually with catastrophic and poor outcome. Hook wire needle localization is done pre-operatively by placing wire around or into the pulmonary nodule to provide the thoracic surgeon accurate location guidance of the target nodule for Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) wedge resection with safety margins. Physicians should be aware of this possible complication during the procedure in order to rescue the patient promptly as it requires rapid diagnosis and management. We describe a 55-year-old male who underwent a CT-guided hook wire needle localization of left upper lobe lung cancer and left lower lobe pulmonary nodule prior to planned VATS wedge resection who developed altered mental status and bilateral lower extremities paralysis after wire placement was completed. His CT head demonstrated small air embolism in the left occipital area, confirming the diagnosis of cerebral air embolism and follow up CT and MRI of the head revealed multiple areas of brain infarction. In addition, he was diagnosed with anterior spinal cord syndrome (ACS), most likely due to anterior spinal artery ischemia from micro air embolism on the basis of clinical findings but with negative ischemic changes on MRI of the spinal cord. His mental status recovered but he remained paraplegic and transferred to inpatient rehabilitation service.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jnnd.1001044 Cite this Article

2021-03-23 Review Article

Cortical spreading depolarizations in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage and the role of ketamine


Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is one of the main complications of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage and one of its causes is the cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Cortical spreading depolarizations are waves of neuronal and glial depolarizations in which there is loss of neuronal ionic homeostasis with potassium efflux and sodium and calcium influx. In damaged brain areas and brain areas at risk, such as those adjacent to subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), CSDs induce microvascular vasoconstriction and, therefore, hypoperfusion and spread of ischemia. Several studies have been devoted to minimize secondary injuries that occur hours to days after an acute insult. Ketamine, a drug until recently contraindicated in the neurosurgical population for potentially causing intracranial hypertension, has re-emerged as a potential neuroprotective agent due to its pharmacodynamic effects at the cellular level. These effects include anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and those of microthrombosis and cell apoptosis controls, and of modulation of brain excitotoxicity and CSDs. A literature review was performed at PubMed covering the period from 2002 to 2019. Retrospective studies confirmed the effects of ketamine on the control of CSDs and, consequently, of DCI in patients with SAH, but did not show improvement in clinical outcome. The influence of ketamine on the occurrence/development of DCI needs to be further confirmed in prospective randomized studies.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML