Reasons why new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 infections are likely to spread
Takuma Hayashi*, Takashi Ura, Kaoru Abiko, Masaki Mandan, Nobuo Yaegashi and Ikuo Konishi
Published: 04/28/2020 | Volume 3 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-003
The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) originally emerged in China during December 2019 and had become a global pandemic by March 2020. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two other coronaviruses have caused world-wide outbreaks in the past two decades, namely SARS-CoV (2002–2003) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012–present). The surface spike glycoprotein (S), which is critical for virus entry through engaging the host receptor and mediating virus host membrane fusion, is the major antigen of coronaviruses. Recent studies provide molecular insights into antibody recognition of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the relationship between the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) including the latest findings.
Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jgmgt.1001005 Cite this Article
- Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2020. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/
- Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020; 579: 270-273. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32015507
- Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, Goldsmith JA, Hsieh CL, et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science. 2020; 367: 1260-1263. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32075877
- Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Edward C, Holmes EC, et al. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine. 2020; 26: 450–452.
- Pesu M, Watford WT, Wei L, Xu L, Fuss I, et al. T-cell-expressed proprotein convertase furin is essential for maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Nature. 2008; 455: 246-250. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18701887
- Ji HL, Zhao R, Matalon S, Matthay MA. Elevated Plasmin(ogen) as a Common Risk Factor for COVID-19 Susceptibility. Physiol Rev. 2020; 100: 1065-1075. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32216698
- Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, et al. Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. Cell. 2020: 181: 281-292. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32155444
- Abraham S, Kienzle TE, Lapps W, Brian DA. Deduced sequence of the bovine coronavirus spike protein and identification of the internal proteolytic cleavage site. Virology. 1990; 176: 296-301. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2184576
- Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G, Yang H, Wang C, et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2. Science. 2020; pii: eabb7015. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32269068
- Lewis d. Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree. Nature. 2020.