Death due to road traffic accident (RTA) was one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in India. In the present cross-sectional study, only the victim using two-wheelers, four-wheelers, and pedestrians were included for comparison to determine the pattern of injuries in these victims of the road traffic accident. There was a predominance of males in all three types of victims of RTA with a peak age of incidence seen in 21-30 years in two-wheeler victims, 41-50 years in four-wheeler victims, and 51-60 years in pedestrian victims. Four-wheeler (HMV/LMV) was the commonest type of offending vehicle involved in all types of victims with collision/ dash as the commonest manner of an accident. Head was the commonest region involved in pedestrian and two-wheeler victims as compared to the thorax in four-wheeler victims of accidents. Abrasion was the commonest surface injury in two-wheeler victims and pedestrians. The laceration was more common in two-wheeler victims as compared to crushed injury in pedestrian victims of road traffic accidents. The brain was the commonest organ involved in two-wheeler and pedestrian as compared to lungs in four-wheeler victims. The liver and spleen were more commonly involved in two-wheeler victims as compared to kidneys and bladder in pedestrian.
Forensic analysts are more than ever facing challenges upon conducting their deep investigative analysis on digital devices due to the technological progression. Of these are the difficulties present upon analyzing web browser artefacts as this became more complicated when web browser companies introduced private browsing mode, a feature aiming to protect users’ data upon opening a private browsing session, by leaving no traces of data on the local device used. Aiming to investigate whether the claims of web browser companies are true concerning the protection private browsing provides to the users and whether it really doesn’t leave any browsing data behind, the most popular desktop browsers in Windows were analyzed after surfing them regularly and privately. The results shown in this paper suggest that the privacy provided varies among different companies since evidence might be recovered from some of the browsers but not from others.
This study provides an update to a previous study exploring time to restoration of adjudicative competence within an Outpatient Competence Restoration Program (OCRP). Authors examined the probability of restoration for individuals referred for outpatient competence restoration in the U.S. capital, and revisited the requirements of American Law, taking a closer look at how programmatic changes improve restoration and encourage adherence. Competence to stand trial remains a critical screening function of the judicial system to ensure that defendants have a basic understanding of courtroom procedures. Competency restoration is therefore an attempt to protect both the integrity of the system and the rights of defendants. Aggregate data from the OCRP’s previous four years of competence restoration efforts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, restoration rates, and time to restoration. Poisson regression modeling identiﬁed probability diﬀerences in restoration between sequential restoration periods. Since our initial analysis, the DC OCRP has been successful in restoring 97 of 345 participants (28.1%), with referral rates increasing from year to year. 39.2% are now restored after the 3rd round of competency restoration. Poisson regression modeling of individuals attaining competence during six successive restoration periods showed that diﬀerences for the first five rounds of restoration were not statistically significant (p = 0.418). In the 6th round, however, the difference in percentage of restored participants was statistically significant compared to previous rounds (irr = 0.32; p = 0.0001). We discuss the policy implications, especially those that suggest that the DC OCRP has improved its ability to restore competence beyond the 1st round of restoration.
The economic inequalities associated with suicide risks among 50 states in the United States were identified in this paper to form the dynamic panel data set from 1981 to 2016. The effects of growing income inequalities on suicides in the Unites States were estimated using the Arellano–Bond method. This paper is the first to associate the social inequalities with suicides using the state-level dynamic panel data in America. It is found that the change of unemployment rates significantly and positively impact the changes of the overall suicides rates, female and male suicides rates. The changes of Top 10% income index are uniformly positive to the change of female, male and overall state-level suicide rates. The Gini index has positive correspondence within the overall and female groups, along with the insignificantly vague evidence within the male groups. The potential endogeneity problem inferring from the fixed effect estimation has been also investigated accordingly.
The major use of alternative light sources (ALS) in the evaluation of bloodstains has been primarily focused on detection of whole blood, with relatively little attention to visualization of blood serum. Serum may become separated from blood pools during clotting, and because it is relatively invisible on certain backgrounds, go undetected by a perpetrator attempting to clean up a crime scene. Recently, Ultraviolet 365 (UV 365) was shown to be an effective tool in blood evaluation, useful for detection of even minute quantities of blood serum. Here the effects of environmental conditions on blood serum stain appearance were evaluated, including temperature, pH, protease sensitivity, solubility, and aging. Interestingly, it was found that the UV fluorescence of serum increases upon exposure to heat, which was accompanied by color changes under visible light and decreased solubility in multiple solvents. The efficiency of visualization of serum stains was somewhat variable, depending on the type of material on which it was dried. Finally, the current study documents the effect of heating on formation of fluorescent serum halo rings in dried bloodstains. Taken together, these data demonstrate that blood serum detection may be affected by certain conditions that influence its visualization under both visible and UV light.
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