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Recent Articles

2020-01-20 Case Report

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in a 76-year old woman presenting with pulmonary nodule and accelerating acute kidney injury

Abstract

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a form of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), is a rare disease with an often-occult presentation. It is more common in 4th and 5th decades of life but can be seen in all ages.

This case report details a 76-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain, generalized weakness, and malaise, who was found to have pulmonary nodules on chest imaging. Biopsy of the lung nodule showed organizing pneumonia. Initially, antibiotics were used to treat the patient. However, she developed acute renal failure a few days after presentation and found to have positive serum C-ANCA as well as elevated ANCA-PR3 serologies. A subsequent kidney biopsy demonstrated pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis that was consistent with GPA and the patient was started immediately on combination immunosuppressive therapy, plasmapheresis, and hemodialysis.

GPA’s clinical and radiological presentation can mimic other common conditions such as pneumonia, malignancy, bacterial sinusitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and urinary tract infection. Because of this, a high level of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and treatment to alter the high mortality rate in this disease entity. All forms of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) should be in the differential diagnosis for all patients presenting with multiorgan system involvement particularly in individuals with pulmonary and renal manifesations.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcn.1001048 Cite this Article

2020-02-26 Case Report

A remote cause of anuria in a child

Abstract

Acute renal injury is a rare complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with mesPGN. Here we present a 2-year-old male patient with 4 days history of anuria, generalized edema and hypervolemia. Any evidence other than proteinuria and renal failure could not be identified with laboratory tests and doppler ultrasonography. Anuric presentation was thought to be related with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, diffuse mesangial sclerosis or acute tubular necrosis. However, renal biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (mesPGN). Prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day was prescribed. Diuresis was started gradually and on the 10th day of disease, anuria was resolved and acute renal injury recovered without any sequel. This case is presented because of the incompatibility between clinical findings and histopathologic diagnosis. It is concluded that although rare, anuria and acute renal injury could be the presenting symptom of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcn.1001050 Cite this Article

2020-04-13 Letter to the Editor

Meanings of microalbuminuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children

Abstract

We investigated the existence of microalbuminuria in children with corticosteroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in complete remission. In the study of a series of 18 cases, we noted a clearly different evolution depending on the existence or absence of pathological micro albuminuria.

Microalbuminuria appears to be a prognostic discrimination parameter in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcn.1001051 Cite this Article

2020-04-13 Research Article

Persistent hydronephrosis after pyeloplasty: Is it a true obstruction? The role of endourology

Abstract

Introduction: Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty remains the gold standard in the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The diagnostic criteria for defining the failure of pyeloplasty are not well-defined or even arbitrary. Likewise, the ideal treatment of persistent hydronephrosis after pyeloplasty is not well established. We tested an innovative endourological procedure, which simultaneously allows a diagnostic definition of failure and treatment when necessary.

Materials and methods: The endourological procedure was applied prospectively to 13 cases from 2006 to 2015. The mean hydronephrosis was 3 cm and all the patients showed an obstructive pattern at scintigraphie. Of these, only 2 patients had symptoms. The procedure consisted in the endoscopic calibration of the pyeloureteral junction. In case of confirmed persistent stenosis, the procedure continued with the high pressure dilation of the junction. The calibration/dilation procedure was carried out with a balloon catheter, previously used for high pressure dilation in the obstructive megaureter. In all patients, a ureteral stent was positioned for 6 - 8 weeks.

The patients were then followed up using ultrasound and renoscintigraphie.

Results: According to the endoscopic balloon procedure, anastomosic stenosis was confirmed in 3 cases, treated with high pressure dilation during the same procedure. In 10 cases no stenosis was found and we followed-up these patients with periodic ultrasound and scintigraphie.

Conclusion: The calibration/dilation of the pyeloureteral junction represents in our opinion a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool that allows to limit the repetition of open surgery only to symptomatic cases and those non-responders to endoscopic treatment.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcn.1001052 Cite this Article

2020-06-05 Review Article

How does urine pH effect the tooth decay?

Abstract

The basic aim of the present study was to relate tooth decay with the pH of the urine. pH is very important aspect which affects and depends upon the urine specificity .The glomerulus is a necessary part in the structure of kidney .The glomerulus is involved in the filtration of blood ,which is involved in acidification with the help of kidneys. A cavity or hole is formed within the tooth and it can leads towards tooth decay. Cavity in its structure is so small when it is at its starting point but with the passage of time cavity becomes large in between of the teeth and it can be a main reason to the complex diseases. A total of 100 students get participated in this study from Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan. In this subjects went into the lab with their urine samples taking in the urine collection bag. In this a strip is used to find the values pH. Strip is placed in the urine collection bag for a minute. Then we noted the different values of different subjects. We designed a research project based upon the results that depend upon either there was any relation among tooth decay and pH. The aim of the project was either there is any relation among the tooth decay and urine pH. It was concluded that there was no any kind of relation among urine pH and tooth decay.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcn.1001054 Cite this Article

2020-07-17 Case Report

Specific meningoencephalitis in patients with transplanted kidney

Abstract

We described a case of specific (tuberculous) encephalitis in a patient after kidney transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy, continuously required in post-tranplant period, may cause various complications, such as infections. Specific meningoencephalitis is an infection that is rarely diagnosed and more common in immunocompromised patients.

Case report: A 30-year-old man had kidney transplantation (kidney donor was his father). He previously was two years on chronic hemodialysis treatment because of end-stagerenal disease based on diabetic nephropathy. He has diabetes type 1. The early post-transplant period duly passed with satisfactory clinical and laboratory parameters of renal function. Two months after transplantation, he presented with febrile condition, signs of septicemia and dehydration with significant neurological deficit and expressed meningeal signs. In cerebrospinal fluid we found lymphocytosis, elevated proteins and positive micobacterium tuberculosis antibodies (Hexagon method) and we suspected to specific etiology of meningitis. Performed computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain with contrast confirmed the expected finding.

Due to the poor prognosis of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunocompromised patients, only prompt diagnosis can improve survival in this group of patients. The therapeutic protocol after kidney transplantation include the prophylactic use of antituberculous drug (Isoniazid 300 mg) during the 9 months.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcn.1001055 Cite this Article