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Recent Articles

2021-01-29 Short Communication

Differences between anorexia patients and participants of the Minnesota hunger experiment: Consequences for treatment

The hunger experiment was carried out in 1944 by Anselm Keys and others in the American city of Minnesota. The aim was to investigate the consequences of starvation in order to be able to restore the health of hunger victims of the Second World War. How could they be treated in the best possible way to regain a healthy weight?

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jatr.1001013 Cite this Article

2021-02-15 Research Article

Estimation of cotinine level among the tobacco users and nonusers: A cross-sectional study among the Indian population

Abstract

Background: Epidemiological studies in smokers indicate a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the risk of developing certain smoking related diseases. The alkaloid nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco.

Objective: To estimate the cotinine level excretion in urine among smoked and smokeless tobacco users and nonsmokers among the Indian population.

Materials and method: The study sample consisted of 250 subjects who were apparently healthy, asymptomatic and not using any drug. The study sample was divided into smoked tobacco users (bidi and cigarette), smokeless tobacco users, both smoked and smokeless tobacco users and controls (non-users of tobacco in the past or present).

Results: The mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p – value < 0.05) more among smoked tobacco users in comparison to smokeless tobacco users and non-users of tobacco. Whereas, the mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p - value < 0.05) more among smokeless tobacco users in comparison to non-users of tobacco.

Conclusion: The mean cotinine levels among smokers and both smokeless and smoked tobacco users were found to be higher than only smokeless tobacco users and non-users of tobacco.

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2021-02-18 Review Article

Drug treatment and rehabilitation in China: Theoretical rationales and current situations

Global drug use has reached epidemic levels, with approximately 269 million drug users worldwide [1]. Problematic drug use may lead to serious physical, social, and mental health problems.

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