The problems of reproduction in the camel are not extensively investigated as in the bovine, caprine and ovine species. There is need to elucidate the problem in detailed in order to overcome the problem of production and genetic multiplication. The information collected on these problems is derived mainly from questioning the camel owners, slaughterhouse material and very limited clinical and farm observations.
This study is aimed at investigating the age related changes in postnatal development of red Sokoto goat stomach. In this study, a total of ten red Sokoto goat digestive tract samples were used and they were grouped into five (5) age categories (group A to E). The goat ages were estimated using dentition eruption and wearing. The stomach was identified and separated from the other part of digestive tract. The gross study revealed that the stomach was composed of four (4) segments that named; rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum with anatomical demarcations between them. The biometric study of weight, length, width, thickness, and volume was found to be increasing with advancement in postnatal ages with the following valves shows the mean value of weight, length, width, thickness and volume were to be 29 to 58.0 (g), 23.5, to 52.1 (cm), 15.4 to 29.0 (cm), 0.48 to 1.0 (mm) and102 to 432 (cm3) from group A to group E respectively. Based on the above findings it was suggested that more research should be conducted using histological techniques and electron microscopy in order to finalize on the findings.
The study was conducted in Ilu and Waliso districs of South West Shoa Zone to investigate the perception of dairy cattle producers on oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination services. A total of 122 respondents (38 from Ilu and 84 from Waliso districts) owning at least one lactating cow and participated in synchronization program were randomly selected and interviewed individually by using semi- structured questionnaire. Both primary and secondary data were used to generate reliable information on the intended topic. All collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 20 and the output was presented by descriptive statistics such as percentage and mean values in inform of graphs. Most of the respondents (67.15%) indicated that their satisfaction level towards synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. Only few of them reported being satisfied as (medium-13.45%, good - 12.35% and very good - 7.05%). This might be because of shortage of feed, silent heat, poor performance of the inseminator and low awareness of farmers on the technology. From the study it was also noted that the overall percentage (26.22%) of calving rate to oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. This might be due to heat detection problem (36%); A.I technician efficiency (29.25%), absence of A.I technician (23.9%) and distance of A.I center (10.25%). Therefore, the skill and knowledge based training should be given for both the farmers and implementers to enhance perception and adoption of the technology.
Over the last few years, antimicrobial shampoo therapy has been increasingly used to treat skin infections in order to reduce systemic use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to compare the in vitro bactericidal effect of a black currant oil based shampoo (S1) to a chlorhexidine 4% shampoo (S2) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Escherichia coli (EC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolates.
A collection of 50 bacterial strains from skin swabs of dogs with superficial recurrent pyoderma was selected: 10 MSSP, 10 MRSP, 10 SA, 10 EC and 10 PA. The two shampoos were blindly tested in duplicate with a microdilution plate method, with scalar concentrations from 1:2 to 1: 256. The MBC was performed for each dilution. A linear regression was used to detect a statistically significance between the two shampoos.
All isolates were completely killed at 1:2 up to 1:16 dilution of the two antiseptic products. At the 1:32 dilution the first bacterial growths were observed, in particular for 2 and 4 strains of MRSP by S1 and S2 respectively. The first lethal dilution for SA was at 1:64 for S1/S2 and only for S2 against SP. No significant difference was observed between the two shampoos according to the results of linear regression significant for: i) MRSP, PA and EC (p < 0.05); ii) MSSP and SA (p < 0.1).
This study showed that both black currant oil based shampoo and chlorhexidine 4% shampoo have a similar in vitro bactericidal activity.
This review was conducted for the objective of assessing causes of COVID-19 pandemic impacts on life animals and dairy product processing industry of the world. Since its outbreak in Wuhan town of China, the newly emerged strains of corona virus COVID-19 causes incredible crisis both on life animal and its product especially dairy industry of the globe. During the outbreak of the virus, majority of the world people were stayed home to prevent the spread of the diseases. At that time, the wildlife found in the zoo were exposed to diseases and missed human attention, global wildlife trade was spotlighted and wildlife was running… wild. For the reason of COVID-19 pandemic, many schools and restaurants which received dairy product from dairy producers and cooperatives were shutdown. Due to schools and restaurant shutter, milk supply chain was disrupted. For this moment milk demand and supply was decreased, huge volume of milk was dumped, mode of milk trade was changed, market and farm prices was fluctuated, import- export route was interrupted and Farm workforce absenteeism were some of the challenges cases dairy industry crisis. Trade law modification, provision of financial assistance for dairy industry and farmers, and expansion of export route were the measures taken by concerned bodies to save dairy industry from corona virus crisis. Therefore, COVID-19 pandemic is the disaster diseases which causes social and economic crisis on dairy producers of the world. So, to save wildlife and dairy industry from corona virus crisis, global solidarity prevention is mandatory.
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