Research Article

The bio-energy transport in the protein molecules and its experimental validations of correctness

Pang Xiao-Feng*

Published: 01/18/2018 | Volume 2 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-048

Abstract

The bio-energy released by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate, which relate to plenty of life activities and is transported in a solution, and its theory of transport are first stated and built in helix protein molecule. In order to confirm and verify the correctness of the transported theory we here systematically summarized and reviewed a great number of experimental investigation and evidences obtained by us and other researchers in past 30 years, involving the real existences of the solution and its features and lifetimes. In this survey we outlined and presented concretely the features of infrared spectra of absorption, Raman spectra and specific heat of the molecular crystal-acetanilide collagen, bivine serum albumin, myoglobin proteins and E.Coli. cell as well as the lifetimes of the solution in acetanilide and myoglobin measured by using pump-probe techniques and free-electron laser experiment, in which we give not only experimental data but also their comparisons with theoretical results. These experimental data and evidences provided here are enough to verify and affirm the true existences of the new solution, which can complete itself functions of bio-energy transport in the lifetime, and the correctness of the new theory of bio-energy transport in the acetanilide and protein molecule. Thus we can affirm the correctness of theory of the bio-energy transport in helix protein molecule, which can greatly promote the development of molecular biology.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apb.1001004 Cite this Article

References

  1. Pang XF. Biophysics, The press of Univ. of Electronic Sci. Techno of China. China. 2007; 186-208.
  2. Schulz GE, Schirmar RH. Principles of protein molecules. Springer. 1979; 123-175.
  3. Davydov AS. Solitons in quasi-one-dimensionl molecular chains. Usp fiz Nauk. 1982; 138: 603-643
  4. Davydov AS. Quantum theory of muscular contraction. Biophys. 1974; 19: 684-691
  5. Davydov AS. The theory of contraction proteins under their excitation. J Theor Biol. 1973; 38: 559-569. Ref.: https://goo.gl/vT7LS3
  6. Davydov AS. Solitons and energy transfer along protein molecules. J Theor Biol. 1977; 66: 379-387. Ref.: https://goo.gl/o6Ujt3
  7. Davydov AS, Ermakov VN. Soliton generation at the boundary of molecular chain. Physica D. 1988; 32: 318-329. Ref.: https://goo.gl/eCE4Nd
  8. Davydov AS. Solitons in molecular systems. Phys Scrip. 1979; 20: 387-394. Ref.: https://goo.gl/QUuV3q
  9. Davydov AS. Biology and quantum mechanics. Pergamon. 1982; 146-169.
  10. Davydov AS. Solitons in molecuar systems. Reidel Publishing Comp. 1991; 24: 133.
  11. Davydov AS. The lifetime of molecular solitons. J Biol Phys. 1991; 18: 111-125. Ref.: https://goo.gl/k5YsVu
  12. Davydov AS. The lifetime of molecular solitons. J Biol Phys. 1991; 18: 111-125. Ref.: https://goo.gl/k5YsVu
  13. Davydov AS. Solitons, bioenergetics and the mechanism of muscle contractions. Int J Quantum Chem. 1979; 16: 5-17. Ref.: https://goo.gl/o4A7dr
  14. Davydov AS. Soliton motion in a one-dimensional molecular lattice with account taken of thermal oscillations. Sov Phys JETP. 1980; 51: 397-400. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Z8MyEH
  15. Scott AC. Dynamics of Davydov’s soliton. Phys Rev A. 1982; 26: 578-595. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zK8fZw
  16. Scott AC. Davydov’s soliton. Phys Rep. 1992; 217: 1-67. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ytBBjV
  17. Scott AC. Thevibrational structure of Davydov solitons. Phys Scr. 1982; 25: 651-658. Ref.: https://goo.gl/KMeDc2
  18. Scott AC. Launching a Davydov Soliton: I. Soliton Analysis. Phys Scr. 1984; 29: 279-283. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RM93bE
  19. Scott AC. The laser-Raman spectrum of a Davydov soliton. Phys Lett A. 1981; 86: 60-62. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nvbwbM
  20. Scott AC. A nonresonant discrete self-trapping equation. Phys Scr. 1990; 42: 14-18. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nGbNXe
  21. Brown DW. Balancing the Schrodinger equation with Davydov ansatze. Phys Rev A. 1988; 37: 5010-5011. Ref.: https://goo.gl/HgGCQP
  22. Brown DW, West BJ, Lindenberg K. On the applicability of Hamilton’s equation in the quantum soliton problem. Phys Rev BA. 1986; 33: 4104-4109. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zNXC8z
  23. Brown DW, West BJ, Lindenberg K. Nonlinear density-matrix equation for the study of finite-temperature soliton dynamics. Phys Rev B. 1987; 35: 6169-6181. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qE1AHm
  24. Brown DW, West BJ, Lindenberg K. Davydov solitos:new results at variance with standard derivations. Phys Rev A. 1986; 33: 4110-4115. Ref.: https://goo.gl/y79sM2
  25. Brown DW, Ivic Z. Unifrication of polaron and soliton theories of electron transport. Phys Rev B. 1989; 40: 9876-9887. Ref.: https://goo.gl/5Ak1ac
  26. Bernstein LJ. Nonlinear self-trapping in a quantum dimer. Physica D. 1991; 51: 240-243. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Av13ks
  27. Bernstein LJ, Eilber JC, Scott AC. The quantum theory of local modes in a coupled system of nonlinear oscillators. Nonlinearity. 1990; 3: 293-323. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7omHyt
  28. Brizhik LS, Davydov As. Soliton excitations in one-dimensional molecular systems. Phys Stat Sol (b). 1983; 115: 615-630. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ey7Mm5
  29. Skrinjar MJ, Kapor DW, Stojanovic SD. Classical and quantum approach to Davydov’s soliton theory. Phys Rev A Gen Phys. 1988; 38: 6402-6408. Ref.: https://goo.gl/D7YS7u
  30. Sahimi M, Hiughes BD, Scriven LE, Davis HT. Critical exponent of percolation conductivity by finite size scaling. J Phys C. 1983; 16: 521-527. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nAezeV
  31. Yanoviskii OE, Kryachko ES. Model for orientational defects in quasi-one-dimensional ice crystals. Phys Stat Sol (b). 1988; 140: 69-81. Ref.: https://goo.gl/WUYneh
  32. Yomosa S. Solitary waves in one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded system. J Phys Soc Jpn. 1983; 51: 1866-1873. Ref.: https://goo.gl/eK4vkY
  33. Pang XF. Soliton motions in organic protein molecules, Chin. J Biochem Biophys. 1986; 18: 1-6.
  34. Pang XF. The analyses of solution of revised Davydov equations. J Appl Math. 1987; 10: 228-233.
  35. Pang XF. The features of Davydov soliton excited in protein molecules. Chin J Atom Mol Phys. 1986; 6: 275-284.
  36. Christiansen PL, Scott AC. Davydov’s soliton revisited. Physica D. 1991; 51: 333-342. Ref.: https://goo.gl/kTYs4G
  37. Brizhik LS, Davydov AS. The lectrosoliton pairing in soft molecular chains. Fiz Nizk Temp. 1983; 10: 745-753.
  38. Davydov AS, Kislukha NI. Solitary excitations in one-dimensional molecular chains, Phys Stat Sol (b). 1973; 59: 465-470. Ref.: https://goo.gl/dd5okP
  39. Cruzeiro L, Halding J, Christiansen PL, Skovgard O, Scott AC. Temperature effects on the Davydov soliton. Phys Rev A. 1988; 37: 880-887. Ref.: https://goo.gl/izR6nA
  40. Cruzeio-Hansson L. Mechanism of thermal destabilization of the Davydov soliton. Phys Rev A. 1992; 45: 4111-4115. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CVJ4BP
  41. Cruzeiro-Hansson L. Finite temperature simulations of the semiclassical Davydov model. Physica D. 1993; 68: 65-67. Ref.: https://goo.gl/A7zJ9q
  42. Cruzeiro-Hansson L. Two reasons why the Davydov soliton may be thermally stable after all. Phys Rev Lett. 1994; 73: 2927-2930. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RsAf76
  43. Cruzeiro L. The Davydov/Scott model for energy storage and transport in proteins. J Bio Physics. 2009; 35: 43-55. Ref.: https://goo.gl/8PNBJc
  44. Cruzeiro L. Why are proteins with glutamine- and asparagine-rich regions associated with protein misfolding diseases? J Phys Condens Matter. 2005; 17: 7833-7844. Ref.: https://goo.gl/99frEX
  45. Cruzeiro L. Influence of the nonlinearity and dipole strength on the amide I band of protein α-helices. J Chem Phys. 2005; 123: 4909-4917. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2zgGXF
  46. Cruzeiro-Hansson L, Takeno S. Davydov model: the quantum, mixed quantum- classical and full classical systems. Phys Rev E. 1997; 56: 894-906. Ref.: https://goo.gl/9ZdDJK
  47. Cruzeiro-Hansson L. Dynamics of a mixed quantum-classical system at finite temperature. Europhys Lett. 1996; 33: 655-659. Ref.: https://goo.gl/mWHmEz
  48. Cruzeiro-Hansson L, Kenkre VM. Localized versus delocalized ground states of the semiclassical Holstein Hamiltonian. Phys Lett A. 1994; 190: 59-64. Ref.: https://goo.gl/DV3KK5
  49. Brizhik L, Cruzeiro-Hansson L, Eremko A. Influence of electromagnetic radiation on molecular solitons. J Biol Phys. 1998; 24: 19-39. Ref.: https://goo.gl/rTwg2m
  50. Förner W. Quantum and disorder effects in Davydov soliton theory. Phys Rev A. 1991; 44: 2694-2708. Ref.: https://goo.gl/djuogM
  51. Förner W. Quantum and temperature effects on Davydov soliton dynamics: Averaged Hamiltonian method. J Phys Condens Matter. 1992; 4: 1915-1923. Ref.: https://goo.gl/uHpo7n
  52. Förner W. Davydov soliton dynamics: temperature effect. J Phys Condens Matter. 1991; 3: 4333-4348. Ref.: https://goo.gl/wy5kfP
  53. Förner W. Effects of temperature and interchain coupling on Davydov solitons. Physica D. 1993; 68: 68-82. Ref.: https://goo.gl/SBJmfw
  54. Motschman H, Förner W, Ladik J. Influences of heat bath and disorder in the sequence of amino acid masses on Davydov soliton. J Phys Condensed Matter. 1989; 1: 5083. Ref.: https://goo.gl/vvF197
  55. Förner W. Multiquanta statea derived from Davydov’s D1 ansatz: I. Equations of motion for the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian. J Phys Condensed Matter. 1994; 6: 9089-9151. Ref.: https://goo.gl/juHyUw
  56. Förner W. Davydov soliton dynamics in proteins: II. The general case. J Mol Model. 1996; 2: 103-135. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Rc5p7P
  57. Förner W. Davydov soliton dynamics in proteins: I. Initial states and exactly solvable special cases. J Mol Model. 1996; 2: 70-135. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xsfcc2
  58. Förner W. Quantum and temperature effects on Davydov soliton dynamics: II.The partial dressing state and comparisons between different methods. J Phys Condens Matter. 1993; 5: 805-821. Ref.: https://goo.gl/wGhKgL
  59. Förner W. Quantum and temperature effects on Davydov soliton dynamics: III. Interchain couping. J Phys Condens Matter. 1993; 5: 823-839. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Xo2ay8
  60. D Hofmann, J Ladik, W Forner, P Otto. Possibility of solitary waves in the base stacks of DNA. J Phys Condensed Matter. 1992; 4: 3883-3903. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ZYrsCh
  61. Brizhik L, Cruzeiro-Hansson L, Eremko A. Electromagnetic radiation influence on nonlinear charge and energy transfer in biosystems. J Biol Phys. 1999; 24: 223-232. Ref.: https://goo.gl/4zNuoS
  62. Lomdahl PS, Kerr WC. Do Davydov Solitons Exist at 300 K? Phys Rev Lett. 1985; 55: 1235- 1238. Ref.: https://goo.gl/hhLFC5
  63. Kerr WC, Lomdahl, PS. Quantum-mechanical derivation of the equations of motion for Davydov solitons. Phys Rev B. 1987; 35: 3629-3632. Ref.: https://goo.gl/WLpHmv
  64. Wang X, Brown DW, Lindenberg K. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of Davydov model. Phys Rev Lett. 1989; 62: 1796-1799. Ref.: https://goo.gl/raSU7N
  65. Wang X, Brown DW, Lindenberg K. Alternative formulation of Davydov theory of energy transport in biomolecules systems. Phys Rev A. 1988; 37: 3557-3566. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bbtJ4X
  66. Cottingham JP, Schweitzer JW. Calculation of the lifetime of a Davydov soliton at finite temperature. Physical Review Lettes. 1989; 62: 1792-1795. Ref.: https://goo.gl/iSoJkC
  67. Schweitzer JW. Lifetime of the Davydov soliton. Phys Rev A. 1992; 45: 8914-8922. Ref.: https://goo.gl/LJz7Yf
  68. Hyman JM, Mclaughlin DW, Scott AC. On Davydov’s alpha-helix solitons. Physica D. 1981; 3: 23-44. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CAALAz
  69. Lawrence AF, McDaniel JC, Chang DB, Pierce BM, Brirge RR. Dynamics of the Davydov model in alpha-helix protein effects of the coupling parameter and temperature. Phys Rev A. 1986; 33: 1188-2302.
  70. Mechtly B, Shaw PB. Evolution of a molecular exciton on a Davydov lattice at T=0. Phys Rev B. 1988; 38: 3075-3087. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RT86bi
  71. Macneil L, Scott AC. Lauchinga Davydov soliton. II. Numerical analysis. Phys Scr. 1984; 29: 284-287. Ref.: https://goo.gl/oL1wJ8
  72. Bolterauer H, Opper M. The quantum lifetime of the Davydov soliton. Z Phys B. 1991; 82: 95-103. Ref.: https://goo.gl/3JqDp6
  73. Eibeck JC, Lomdahl PS, Scott AC. Soliton structure in crystalline acetanide. Phys Rev B. 1984; 30: 4703-4712. Ref.: https://goo.gl/QAhLYX
  74. Förner W. Davydov soliton dynamics: two-quantum states and diagonal disorder. J Phys Condens Matter. 1991; 3: 3235-3252. Ref.: https://goo.gl/tT4XAh
  75. Takeno S. Vibron soliton in one-dimensional molecular crystal. Prog Theor Phys. 1984; 71: 395-398. Ref.: https://goo.gl/unKi8T
  76. Takeno S. Vibronsolitons and coherent polarization in an exactly tractable oscillator-lattice systerm. Prog Theor Phys. 1985; 73: 853-873. Ref.: https://goo.gl/1npmqk
  77. Takeno S. Quantum theory of vibronsoliton-coherent states of a vibron-phonon system and self-localized modes. J Phys Soc Jpn. 1990; 59: 3127-3141. Ref.: https://goo.gl/cPV5mg
  78. Pang XF. The properties of collective excitation in organic protein molecular system. J Phys Condens Matter. 1990; 2: 9541-9556. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JrKzgH
  79. Pang XF. The dynamic properties for the protein molecular systems. Acta Math Phys. 1993; 13: 437-446. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qva1XE
  80. Pang XF. Mossbauer effect arising from supersonic soliton motion in organic crystal. Acta Phys Sinica. 1993; 42: 1841-1852.
  81. Pang XF. Properties of soliton in protein molecules with nonlinear nearest neighbour interaction. Chin Sci Bulletin. 1993; 38: 1572-1583. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FXoXX8
  82. Pang XF. The thermodynamic properties of the solitons excited in the protein molecules. Chin Sci Bulletin. 1993; 38: 1665-1673. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JnKxte
  83. Pang XF. Quantum-mechamical method for the soliton transported bio-energy in protein. Chin Phys Lett. 1993; 10: 437-440. Ref.: https://goo.gl/51xSQs
  84. Pang XF. The specific heat cause by solitons in the protein molecular. Chin Phys Lett. 1993; 10: 381-384. Ref.: https://goo.gl/L13S55
  85. Pang XF. Stability of the soliton excited in protein in the biological temperature range. Chin Phys Lett. 1993; 10: 573-580. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JtQYbw
  86. Pang XF. Influences of temperature on features of soliton excited in the biomacromolecules. Chin J Biophys. 1993; 9: 631-641.
  87. Pang XF. Quantum features of the soliton excited in protein molecules. Chin J Biophys. 1994; 10: 133-142.
  88. Pang XF. Nonlinear quantum mechanical theory. 1st, Chinese Chongqing Press. 1994; 233-279.
  89. Pang XF. Comment “the thermodynamic properties of α-helix protein: A soliton approach”. Phys Rev E. 1994; 49: 4747-4752. Ref.: https://goo.gl/HwHZMX
  90. Pang XF. A molecular dynamic theory of ultraweak bio-photon emission in the living systems and its properties. Chin J Atom Mol. 1995; 12: 411-421.
  91. Pang XF. A statistical theory for the bio-photon emission of the living systems. Chin J Atom Mol. 1997; 16: 288-296.
  92. Pang XF. The properties of Raman Scattering resulting from solitons excited in the organic protein molecule. Acta Physical Slovaca. 1998; 48: 99-107. Ref.: https://goo.gl/UuyiMy
  93. Pang XF. Influence of the soliton in anharmonic molecular crystals with temperature on Mossbauer effect. Euro Phys J B. 1999; 10: 415-425. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qPMGoy
  94. Pang XF, Chen XR. Nonlinear vibrational energy-spectra of molecular crystals. Chin Phys. 2000; 9: 106-110.
  95. Pang XF. An improvement of the Davydov theory of bio-energy transport in the protein molecular systems. Phys Rev E. 2000; 62: 6989-6998.
  96. Pang XF. The lifetime of the soliton in the improved Davydov model at the biological temperature 300K for protein molecules. Euro Phys J B. 2001; 19: 297-308. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Qk9dcV
  97. Pang XF. The effect of Raman scattering accompanied by the soliton excitation occurred in the molecular crystals. Physica D. 2001; 154: 138-149. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Dg2gmp
  98. Pang X, Chen XR. Distribution of vibrational energy-levels of protein molecular chains. Commun Theor Phys. 2001; 35: 323-326. Ref.: https://goo.gl/su2Lbo
  99. Pang XF. The features of infrared absorption of protein molecules in living systems. Commun Theor Phys. 2001; 35: 763-768.
  100. Pang XF, Chen XR. Calculation of vibrational energy-spectra of α-Helical protein molecules and its properties. Commun Theor Phys. 2002; 37: 715-722. Ref.: https://goo.gl/TPdLzJ
  101. Pang XF, Luo YH. Stabilization of the soliton transported bio-energy in protein molecules in the Improved Model. Commun Theor Phys. 2004; 41: 470-476. Ref.: https://goo.gl/W5WYBd
  102. Pang XF, Zhang AY. Mechanism and Properties of Non-thermally Biological Effect of the Millimeter Waves. Int J Infrared Millimeter Waves. 2004; 25: 533-552. Ref.: https://goo.gl/33Gbfy
  103. Pang XF, Yu JF, Luo YH. Influences of quantum and disorder effects on solitons exited in protein molecules in improved model. Commun Theor Phys. 2005; 43: 367-376. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JvK2vu
  104. Pang XF, Zhang HW, Yu JF, Feng YP. States and properties of the soliton transported bio-energy in nonuniform protein molecules at physiological temperature. Phys Lett A. 2005; 335: 408-415. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Ja3wSy
  105. Pang XF. Thermal stability of the new soliton transported bio-energy under influence of fluctuations of characteristic parameters at biological temperature in the protein molecules. Int J Modern Phys B. 2005; 19: 4677-4699. Ref.: https://goo.gl/hM4oq9
  106. Pang XF, Feng YP. Quantum mechanics in nonlinear systems. Singapore. 1st. ed. World Scientific Publishing Co. Singapore. 2005; 471-551.
  107. Pang XF, Yu JF, Luo YH. Influences of quantum and disorder effects on solitons exited in protein molecules in improved model. Commun Theor Physics. 2005; 43: 367-376. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bEhx7x
  108. Pang XF, Zhang HW, Yu JF, Luo YH. Thermal stability of the new soliton transported bio-energy under influence of fluctuations of characteristic parameters at biological temperature in the protein molecules. Int J Modern Physics B. 2005; 19: 4677-4699. Ref.: https://goo.gl/g85P6q
  109. Pang XF, Zhang HW, Yu JF, Luo YH. Influences of variations of characteristic parameters arising from the structure nonuniformity of the protein molecules on states of the soliton transported bio-energy in the improved model. Int J Mod Phys B. 2006; 20: 3027-3035.
  110. Pang XF, Zhang HW, Luo YH. Influences of heat bath and structure disorder in protein molecules on the soliton transported bio-energy in the improved model. J Phys Condens Matter. 2006; 18: 613-627. Ref.: https://goo.gl/3S1Cyx
  111. Pang XF, Zhang HW, Lui MJ, Yu.JF. Influences of heat bath and structure disorder in protein molecules on the soliton transported bio-energy in the improved model. J Phys condensed matter. 2006; 18: 613-627.
  112. Pang XF, Zhang HW, Yu JF, Luo YH. Influences of variations of characteristic parameters arising from the structure nonuniformity of the protein molecules on swtates of the soliton transported bio-energy in the improved model. Int J Mod Phys B. 2006; 20: 3027-3036.
  113. Pang XF, Yu JY, Lao YH. Combination effects of structure nonuniformity of proteins on the soliton transported bio-energy. Inter J Mod Phys B. 2007; 21: 13-42. Ref.: https://goo.gl/M8CVed
  114. Pang XF, Liu MU. Properties of soliton-transported bgio-energy in alpha-helix protein molecules with three channels. Commun Theory Physics. 2007; 48: 369-376. Ref.: https://goo.gl/fsSQVK
  115. Pang XF. Influence of structure disorders and temperatures of systems on the bio-energy transport in protein molecules. Frontier of Phys in China. 2008; 3: 457-488. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JWacbL
  116. Pang XF, Liu MJ. Features of motion of soliton transported bio-energy in aperiodic α-helix protein molecules with three channels. Commun Theor Phys. 2009; 51: 170-180. Ref.: https://goo.gl/QdBc1L
  117. Pang XF. The effects of damping and temperature of medium on the soliton excited in α -Helix protein molecules with three channels. Mod Phys Lett B. 2009; 23: 71-88. Ref.: https://goo.gl/uK9kJz
  118. Pang XF, Lui MJ. The Influences of temperature and chain-chain interaction on features of solitons excited in α -helix protein molecules with three channels. Int J Mod Phys B. 2009; 23: 2303-2322. Ref.: https://goo.gl/myiFj1
  119. Pang XF, Yu JF, Liu MJ. Changes of properties of the soliton with temperature under influences of structure disorder in the α-helix protein molecules with three channels. Mol Phys. 2010; 108: 1297-1315. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6yfkMt
  120. Pang XF. The theory of bio-energy transport in the protein molecules and its properties. Phys Life Rev. 2011; 8: 264-286. Ref.: https://goo.gl/E9Cz5i
  121. Pang XF. Correctness and completeness of the theory of bio-energy transport. Phys Life Rev. 2011; 8: 302-306. Ref.: https://goo.gl/sqc9Z9
  122. Pang XF. The investigation of properties and theory of bio-energy transport in protein molecules. Appl Phys. 2011; 1: 47-59
  123. Pang XF. The properties of bio-energy transport and Influence of structure nonuniformity and temperature of systems on energy transport along polypeptide chains. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2012; 108: 1-46. Ref.: https://goo.gl/8EhJAc
  124. Pang XF. The features of nonlinear excitation and energy transport in the protein Molecules. Res Rev in Bio Sci. 2012; 6: 160-186
  125. Pang XF. The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in protein molecules in living systems. J Appl Phys. 2012; 111: 935191-935204. Ref.: https://goo.gl/hrYyXe
  126. Fohlich H. Interaction of electrons withlattice vibrations. Proc R Soc London Ser A. 1952; 215: 291-298. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CgsQMy
  127. Spatschek KH, Mertens FG. Nonlinear coherent structures in physics and Biology. Plenum Press, New York, USA. 1994; 56-126.
  128. Popp FA, Li KH, Gu Q. Recent advances in biophoton research and its application. World Scientific Publishing Co. Singapore. 1993; 141-178.
  129. Ho MW, Popp FA, Warnke U. Bioelectrodynamics and Biocommunication. Would Scientific Publishing Co. Singapore. 1994; 87-148.
  130. Pang XF. Soliton physics. Sichuan Sci Techn Press. 2003. 2-180.
  131. Guo BL, Pang XF. Solitons. Chin Sci Press Beijing China. 1987; 4-140.
  132. Bullough PK, Caudrey PJ. Soliton. Springer, New York, USA. 1982; 80-160.
  133. Young E, Shaw PB, Whitfield GA. Asymptotic spectrum of momentum eigestates of one-dimensional polarons. Phys Rev B. 1979; 19: 1225-1229. Ref.: https://goo.gl/oNjVxP
  134. Venzl G, Fischer SF. Excitonic and solitonic states in one-dimensional exciton-phonon systems. J Phys Chem. 1984; 81: 6090-6095. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Xf9GHE
  135. Nagle JF, Mille M, Morowitz HJ. Theory of hydrogen-bonded chains in bioenergetics. Chem J Phys. 1980; 72: 3959-3971. Ref.: https://goo.gl/sRgktu
  136. Wanger M, Kongeter A. A Fulton-Gouterman approach to exciton localization and excitonic solitons. Chem J Phys. 1989; 91: 3036-3044. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FY7JEz
  137. Eremko AA. Photodissociation of Davydov solitons. Dokl Akad Nauk Ukr SSR A. 3: 52-57. Ref.: https://goo.gl/TDXJNB
  138. Careri GA, Gransanti A, Ruple JA. Critical exponents of photonic percolation in hydrated lysozyme, powders. Phys Rev A. 1988; 37: 2703-2705. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7abF7E
  139. Careri G, Gratton E, Shyamsunder E. Fine structure of the amide-I band in acetanilide. Phys Rev A. 1988; 37: 4048-4051. Ref.: https://goo.gl/wEzUqt
  140. Careri G, Buontempo U, Galluzzi F, Scott AC, Gratton E, et al. Spectroscopic evidence for Davydov-like solitons in acetanilide. Phys Rev B. 1984; 30: 4689-4702. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bJs3mJ
  141. Careri G, Buontempo U, Caeta F, Gratton E, Scott AC. Infrared absorption in acetanilide by solitons. Phys Rev Lett. 1983; 51: 304-307. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ZgLeRJ
  142. Careri G, Giansanti A. Deuerium effect in the dielectric losses of wheat seeds. Lett Nuovo Cimento. 1984; 40: 193-196. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xoSerq
  143. Eilbeck JC, Lomdahl PS, Scott AC. Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide. Phys Rev B. 1984; 30: 4703-4712. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ZppMLi
  144. Scott AC, Gratton E, Shyamsunder E, Careri G. I Rovertone spectrum of the vibrational soliton in crystalline acetanilide. Phys Rev B. 1985; 32: 5551-5553. Ref.: https://goo.gl/MkAd6E
  145. Scott AC, Bigio IJ, Johnston CT. Polarons in acetanilide. Phys Rev B. 1989; 39: 517-521. Ref.: https://goo.gl/9MoxFi
  146. Careri G, Eilbeck JC. Stability of stationary solutions of the discrete self-trapping equation. Phys lett A. 1985; 109: 201-204. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7X5Q9p
  147. Pang XF, Chen XR. Properties of vibration energy spectra of the molecular crystal- acetanilide. Phys Stat Sol (B). 2002; 229: 1397-1404. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Y7PuYr
  148. Pang XF, Chen XR. The properties of nonlinear energy-spectra of acetanilide. Int J Model Phys. 2006; 20: 2505-2510.
  149. Pang XF, Chen XR. Vibrational energy-spectra and infrared absorption of α-helical protein molecules. Chin Phys Lett. 2002; 19: 1096-1099. Ref.: https://goo.gl/hME9to
  150. Pang XF, Zhang HW. The properties of energy-spectra of molecular crystals investigated by nonlinear theory. Model Phys Lett B. 2006; 20: 1923-1932. Ref.: https://goo.gl/x4h2p2
  151. Pang XF, Chen XR. Quantum vibrational energy-spectra of organic molecular crystalline chains crystalline acetanilide. J Phys Chem Solids. 2001; 62: 793-796. Ref.: https://goo.gl/V1PHPW
  152. Alexander DM, Krumbansl JA. Localized excitations in hydrogen-bonded molecular crystals. Phys Rev B. 1986; 33: 7172-7185. Ref.: https://goo.gl/AZkjEN
  153. Alexander DM. Analog of small Holstein polaron in hydrogen-bonded amide systems. Phys Rev Lett. 1985; 60: 138-141. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RrjreX
  154. SAuvajol JL, Almarirac R, Moret J, Barthes M, Ribet JL. Temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum of fully deureratede acetanilide. J Raman Spectrosc. 1989; 20: 517-521. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6Xy8F7
  155. Pang XF. The features of infrared absorption arising from the solutions excited in the organic protein molecules. Chin J Inf Mill Wav. 1993; 12: 377-382.
  156. Pang XF. The Mossbauer effects arising from the solution excitation in organic protein molecules at biological temperature. Chin J Infra Mill Wave. 16: 288-299.
  157. Pang XF, Nie ZL. The effects of infrared absorption of protein molecules. Chin J Atom Mol. 1997; 14: 232-241.
  158. Hamm P. Femtosecond IR pump-probe spectroscopy of energy localization in protein models andmodel proteins. J Biol Phys. 2009; 35: 17-30.
  159. Edler J, Hamm P. Self-trapping of the amide I band in a peptide model crystal. J Chem Phys. 2002; 117: 2415-2424. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nL4S9o
  160. Edler J, Hamm P. Two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy of the amide I band of crystalline acetanilide: Fermi resonance, conformational substates, or vibrational self-trapping? J Chem Phys. 2003; 119: 2709-2715. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2KRyCo
  161. Edler J, Hamm P, Scott AC. Femtosecond study of self-trapped vibrational excitons in crystalline acetanilide. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2002; 88: 067403.1-067403.4. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Yn57z1
  162. Edler J, Hamm P. Spectral response of crystalline acetanilide and N-methylacetamide: vibrational self-trapping in hydrogen-bonded crystals. Phys Rev B. 2004; 69: 214301-214307. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Vf8n28
  163. Edler J, Pfister R, Pouthier V, Falvo C, Hamm P. Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices. Phy Rev Lett. 2004; 93: 106405. Ref.: https://goo.gl/LUiZG6
  164. Barthes M. Optical anomalies in acetanilide-Davydov solutions, localized modes, or Fermi resonance? J Mol Liq. 1989; 41: 143-150. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zf3NSH
  165. Woutersen S, Mu Y, Stock G, Hamm P. Hydrogen-bond lifetime measured by time- resolved 2D-IR spectroscopy: N-methylacetamide in methanol. Chem Phys. 2001; 266: 137-147. Ref.: https://goo.gl/AubvJ2
  166. Blanchet GB, Fincher CR. Defects in a nonlinear pseudo one-dimensional solid. Phys Rev Lett. 1985; 54: 1310-1313. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xvLfG8
  167. Johnston CT, Swanson BI. Temperature dependence of the vibrational spectrum of acetanilide: Davydov solution or Fermi couping. Chem Phys Lett. 1985; 114: 547-552. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6yV35t
  168. Johnston CT, Agnew SF, Eckert J, Jones LH, Swanson BI, et al. Low-frequency single-crystal raman, far-infrared, and inelastic neutron- scattering studies of acetanilide at low-temperature. J Chem Phys. 1991; 95: 5281-5286. Ref.: https://goo.gl/azQXGy
  169. Pang XF, Xiao HL, Cue GP, Zhang HW, Dong B. Experiment studies of properties of infrared absorption of biological tissues. Int J Infr Mill Wave. 2010; 31: 521-532.
  170. Pang XF, Zhang HW. Theoretical investigation of properties of infrared absorption of α- helix protein molecules. Int J Infr Mill Wave. 2006; 27: 735-744.
  171. Xiao HL, Cai GP, Sun SQ, Pang XF. The Properties of two-dimensional infrared spectrum of collage. Chin Atom Mol Phys. 2003; 20: 211-217.
  172. Cai GP, Chen LL, Yang QN. The properties of spectrum of collagen and fiber feature of silicosis. Chin J Sickness of Labour-health. 1992; 10:129-132.
  173. Xie A, van der Meer L, Hoff W, Austin RH. Long-lived amide I vibratrional modes in Myoglobin. Phys Rev Lett. 2000; 84: 5435-5438. Ref.: https://goo.gl/iEHXCb
  174. Xie A, van der Meer A FG, Austin RH. Excited-state lifetimes of far-infrared collective modes in proteins. Phys Rev Lett. 2002; 28: 147-154. Ref.: https://goo.gl/9v8HU4
  175. Austin RH, Xie A, van derMeer L, Shinn M, Neil G. Self-trapped states in proteins. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res. 2003; 507: 561-563. Ref.: https://goo.gl/sUUEDZ
  176. Fang C, Senes A, Cristian L, DeGrado WF, Hochstrasser RM. 2006. Amide vibrations are delocalized across the hydrophobic interface of a transmembrane helix dimer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 103: 16740-16745. Ref.: https://goo.gl/L7nNK1
  177. Hamm P, Tsironis GP. Semiclassical and quantum polarons in crystalline acetanilide. Eur Phys J Special Topics. 2007; 147: 303-331. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JW8y8y
  178. Austin RH, Xie A, van der Meer L, Shinn M, Neil G. Self-trapping states in proteins? J Phys Condens matter. 2003; 15: 1693-1698.
  179. Austin RH, Xie A, Fu D, Warren WW, Redlich B, et al. Tilting after dutch windmills: probably no long-lived Davydov solutions in proteins. J Biol Phys. 2009; 35: 91-101. Ref.: https://goo.gl/G7JqhD
  180. Webb SJ. Laser-Raman spectroscopy of living cells. Phys Rep. 1980; 60: 201-224. Ref.: https://goo.gl/G7JqhD
  181. Webb SJ, Dobbs DD. Inhibition of bacterial cell growth by 136gc microwaves. Nature. 1968; 218: 374-375. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qos9qW
  182. Pang XF. Physical foundations of formation of bio-self-organization and the bio-photon emission in the living systems. Int J infrared and millimeter waves. 2002; 23: 365-374. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Y8yrYQ
  183. Pang XF. Thermally biological effects and its medical functions of the infrared rays absorbed by living systems. Int J infrared and millimeter waves. 2002; 23: 375-391. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RGWM5V
  184. Pang XF. Theory of bio-energy transport in protein molecules and its experimental evidences as well as applications (I). Frontiers of Physics in China. 2007; 2: 469-493. Ref.: https://goo.gl/eX77j8
  185. McClare CWF. Resonance in bioenergetics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1974; 227: 740-97. Ref.: https://goo.gl/4sVs1j
  186. Fann W, Rothberg L, Roberso M, Benson S, Madey J, et al. Dynamical test of Davydov-type solutions in acetanilideusing a picosecondfree-electron laser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1990; 64: 607-610.
  187. Doty P, Bradbury JH, Holtzer AM. 1956. Polypeptides. iv. The molecular weight, configuration and association of poly-γ-benzyl-l-glutamate in various solvents. J Am Chem Soc. 1956; 78: 947-954. Ref.: https://goo.gl/PsVLqr
  188. Knox RS, Maiti S, Wu P. Search for remote transfer of vibrational energy in proteins, in Davydov’s Solution Revisited, eds. Christiansen PL, Scott, AC. Plenum, New York. USA. 1990; 401-412.
  189. Backus EHG, Nguyen PH, Botan V, Pfister R, Moretto A, et al. Energy transport in peptide helices: a comparison between high- and low- energy excitation. J Phys Chem B. 2008; 112: 9091-9099. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7SSZTU
  190. Backus EHG, Nguyen PH, Botan V, Pfister R, Moretto A, et al. Structural flexibility of a helical peptide regulates heat transport properties. J Phys Chem B. 2008; 112: 15487-15492. Ref.: https://goo.gl/arWy5Z
  191. Botan V, Backus EHG, Pfister R, Moretto A, Crisma M, et al. Energy transport in peptide helices. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104: 12749-12751. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ZGQQs4
  192. Shen YR. IEEE. J Quantum Electron. 1986; 22: 1196-201.
  193. Milonni PW, Eberley JH. Lasers. Wiley, New York, USA. 1988; 198-215.
  194. Austin RH, Beeson K, Eisenstein L, Frauenfelder H, Gunsalus I, et al. Biochemistry. 1975; 14: 5355-5373.
  195. Austin RH, Xie A. Picosecond IR dynamics: lessons learned. Free Electron Lasers. 1998; 407: 504-508. Ref.: https://goo.gl/NCFxAA
  196. Pang XF. Nonlinear quantum mechanics.1st ed., LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Deutschland, Germany. 2012; 272-359.
  197. Mrevlishvil GM. Sov. Phys-Usp. 1979; 22: 433-439.
  198. Mrevlishvil GM, Metreveli NQ, Razmadze GZ. Thermochim. Acta. 1998; 308: 41-46. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qU8pu9
  199. Katok AB, Stepin AM. Approximation of Ergodic dynamic systems by periodic transformations. Dokl Akad Nauk (SSSR). 1966; 272: 978-982. Ref.: https://goo.gl/TFNhKi
  200. Pang XF. Proton transfer in hydrogen bonded systems and its applications. 1st ed., LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Deutschland, Germany. 2003; 116-154. Ref.: https://goo.gl/VmDKc8