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2020-07-06 Research Article

Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia: Factors predicting upstaging to carcinoma

Abstract

Aim: Percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) is considered the gold standard technique for initial histological diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions seen on screening mammogram, but it is less reliable for diagnosing atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) due to significant rates of diagnosis upstaging to malignant disease after excision biopsy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict diagnosis upstage to carcinoma in patients diagnosed with ADH on core biopsy.

Methods: A retrospective database search identified 52 consecutive CNB of suspicious breast lesions revealing pure ADH. Inclusion criteria included asymptomatic women presenting for screening mammogram, who subsequently underwent surgical excision. Logistic regression analysis evaluated clinical, radiological, and histological factors.

Results: A total of 52 patients with ADH on CNB were identified who met our criteria. Twenty-six of 52 patients (50%) were upstaged to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma, based on histological interpretation of the surgically excised specimen. Lesion size was showed to be a statistically significant predictor on univariable logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed Asian ethnicity and lesion size as independent predictors of malignancy (p = 0.050 and 0.011, respectively). Conversely, women of Middle Eastern and European origin and lesions < 15 mm on mammography were negative predictors of malignancy.

Conclusion: Lesion size ≥ 15 mm on mammography and Asian ethnicity are independent risk factors for breast carcinoma in asymptomatic patients diagnosed with ADH on CNB.

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