Maxillofacial defects are very common and can be due to congenital defect, trauma, infections and neoplasms of facial region. These defects can be restored using different materials and retention methods to give a life like appearance. Rehabilitation of facial defect is a very challenging task. Every good prosthesis needs a skillful hand and it all starts with making a good impression of that defect and to proceed with the same. The aim of present paper was to present a simplified approach for the fabrication of custom tray to take facial impression of the patient with maxillofacial defect.
Introduction: With the availability of different post systems and various studies on the strength of teeth restored with posts, the controversy as to which post systems provide better stress distribution of post and longevity of tooth has not been resolved. The purpose of this study was to compare the stress distribution of three different post materials using finite element analysis.
Materials and nethod: Three dimensional finite element models of central incisor, three posts with crown were constructed on computer with software. Posts of three different materials (Ni-Cr post, Glass fiber post, and Zirconia post)with zirconia crown were virtually generated and a force of 100 N was applied at an angle of 450 on the palatal surface of the crown. Von Mises stresses were evaluated on the cervical, middle and apical third of the root.
Results: The maximum stresses were seen on the cervical one-third in each post material indicating that this region is more prone to fracture in tooth restored with posts. Among the three materials tested, Ni-Cr post showed maximum stress generation followed by Zirconia post and glass fiber post. The maximum stresses generated by the posts were 11.4 MPa, 10.58 MPa and 4.11 MPa respectively.
Conclusion: The less rigid post material like glass fiber post can be used in an endodontically treated anterior teeth.
Cement-retained implant-supported restorations has been preferred by many clinicians due to its ease of production, low cost and similarity to dental supported restorations . In the literature, many complications caused by residual cement, ranging from acute severe bone resorption to implant loss, have been published as a case report/ series [2-7]. In another study , residual cement was seen in 81% of implant cases that are clinically identified as peri- implantitis. Hence it has been indicated that a strong relationship has been determined between residual cement and development of chronic peri-implant infection .
018Calcium is the most common element in the tooth’s structure. In addition, calcium is one of the elements that are effective in maintaining dental health. As a result of calcium deficiency, the tooth becomes brittle and begins to rot. Calcium deficiency usually occurs in acidic beverage consumption and during canal treatment.
Behavioral dentistry is an interdisciplinary science, which needs to be learned, practiced and reinforced in the context of clinical care and within the community oral health care system. The objective of this science is to develop in a dental practitioner an understanding of the interpersonal, intrapersonal, social forces that influence the patients’ behavior. The clinician must acquire knowledge to develop appropriate behavioral skills with an improved quality of communication and management of patients. Behavior dentistry also teaches to develop a recognition and understanding that the body and mind are not separate entities and focuses on patients’ social, emotional and physiological dental experiences.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate if there is a link between salivary pepsin levels and tooth erosion. Also, to determine if gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is responsible for much of the tooth erosion seen by dentists.
Background: Pepsin is only produced within the stomach. If found within other parts of the body [for example within saliva or sputum samples], the only mechanism by which that would be possible is via the reflux of gastric contents. One of the causes of dental erosion is thought to be due to direct contact between tooth surfaces and acidic substances and digestive enzymes present in gastric refluxate. GERD is a common condition, with its prevalence seemingly trending higher in recent decades. It is reportedly a known cause of tooth erosions. From the hypothesis, there was an expectation to see patients with dental erosions to have pepsin detected [and perhaps at high levels] and to see patients without dental erosions to have no or low levels of pepsin.
Method: Three saliva samples were collected [on waking and 2 post-prandial] from 50 anonymous participating patients (26 females, 24 males) from a single dental practice. Extra information was collected related to lifestyle, Reflux Symptom Index (RSI – reflux questionnaire) and tooth erosions. These samples were analyzed for the stomach enzyme pepsin using the validated medical device Peptest.
Results: There was no correlation between positive pepsin levels and the presence of tooth erosion during this study. There was a statistical difference between the on waking pH vs. positive pepsin levels and post prandial pH vs. positive pepsin levels. The average pH was lower for on waking and post-prandial samples with positive pepsin, suggesting that the saliva was acidic and gastric reflux had occurred. Conversely, the average pH was higher for on waking and post-prandial samples with negative pepsin. There was no statistical difference between pH vs. tooth erosion in the on waking and post- prandial.
Conclusion: Patients identified as having tooth erosion did not have higher levels of pepsin detected, suggesting that pepsin was not associated with dental erosion in these patients.
The presence of bifid mandibu¬lar canals is an unusual but not rare occurrence. The mandibular canal containing the inferior alveolar artery, vein, and nerve, originates from the mandibular foramen and terminates at mental foramen [1-4]. In radiology, mandibular canal’s appearance has been described as “a radiolucent dark ribbon between two white lines”. White and Pharoah defined it as “dark linear shadow with thin radiopaque superior and inferior borders cast by the lamella of bone that bounds the canal” . Understanding of its anatomic variations is very important due to its clinical implications in various oral and maxillofacial treatments like removal of wisdom teeth , mandibular implant placement , in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedures and during fixation of mandibular fractures. Presence of bifid or multiple mandibular canals forces the clinician to change the treatment plan. Ignoring this variation can cause several complications intra or postoperatively or even result in failure of treatment. For instance a bifid canal if ignored during surgical removal of third molar or dental implant placement can cause prolonged pain even after administering local anesthesia and also severe bleeding if the accessory canal is encroached .
Socioeconomic barriers appears to be the greatest threat to dental care apart from considering the geographic location of the population. Access to need of care becomes primary consideration and through teleconsultation it is possible to overcome these barriers. As oral cavity being gateway to entry of health problems, dental treatment becomes a pivotal in health care system. Tele medicine and Tele dentistry becomes effective in treatment of health problems, reducing the chances of late stage detection of the abnormalities. It allows us to utilize our time better and screen more patients. This article aims to provide amazing technology of Tele dentistry involving all the dental specialties to reach all the populations of the society.
Statement of problem: Provisional restorations play a critical role in the success of restorative treatment so they must maintain their integrity in the oral environment throughout the diagnostic and restorative phases.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the hardness of four different materials used fabrication of interim restoration.
Material and methods: Ten samples with dimensions of 10mmx10mmx2mm were fabricated from four interim materials (DPI, Tempron, Protemp 4 and Transcan). Hardness of samples was measured using Fischer scope hardness tester.
Result: The highest mean hardness was found in Heat polymerizing acrylic resin group. ANOVA test indicated F value to be 2201.01 which was highly significant (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Heat polymerizing resin and bisacrylics may be considered in a long term provisional fixed prosthesis.
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