Functional appliances used in correction of class II malocclusions are shown to modify the neuromuscular environment of dentition & associated bones. There are many studies related to the skeletal, dental and neuromuscular changes which are evaluated cephalometrically, clinically as well as with the recent diagnostic aids like MRI. The aim of this short communication was to highlight and discuss the different aspects of condylar modifications and its role in its growth.
Successful implant restoration is depending on an adequate surgical and prosthetic protocol. In the last few years an increase in Peri-Implantitis has been attributed, in part, to the excess cement left around the implant collar and threads, leading in many cases to bone loss and even the complete failure of the implant treatment [1-5].
This article will attempt: 1. To describe a proper cementation protocol for cement-retained implant restorations to reduce cement induced implant failures, and 2. To review the alternative implant restorative options to cement-retained crowns such as screw-retained restorations, screwless and cementless implant restorations, screw-retained-cemented implant crown, angulated screw channel restorations, the lingual locking screw-retained restorations and the multi-unit abutment restorations.
Objectives: To evaluate the colour stability of 3 recently developed resin based materials continuously exposed to various staining agents.
Methods: 144 disc-shaped specimens were made of each of the 3 tested composites (Essentia, Brillant, Inspiro). Half of them were of 1mm thickness, the other half 1.2mm thickness. The thicker group was than polished up to 4000 grit and reduced to 1mm thickness, too. All specimens after 24 h dry storage in an incubator (INP-500, Memmert), received an initial colour measurement by means of a calibrated reflectance spectrophotometer (SpectroShade, MHT, Niederhasli, Switzerland). Specimens were then divided into 6 groups (n=6) and immersed in 5 staining solutions or artificial saliva (control). All specimens were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 28 days. Staining solutions (red wine, curry mixed water, curry mixed oil, tea and coffee) were changed every 7th day to avoid bacteria or yeast contamination. After 28 days of storage spectrophotometric measurements were repeated and L*a*b* scores once more recorded to determine the colour (ΔE00) changes.
Results: All tested materials showed significant color changes after 28 days staining immersion.
When considered over a black background ΔE00 of polished samples varied from 1.7 (Brillant/distilled water) to 24.1 (Brillant/wine).
When considered over a white background ΔE00 of polished samples varied from 1.1 (Essentia/distilled water) to 32.5 (Inspiro/wine).
When considered over a black background ΔE00 of unpolished samples varied from 1.1 (Essentia, Inspiro/distilled water) to 25.8 (Essentia/wine).
When considered over a white background ΔE00 of unpolished samples varied from 1.4(Inspiro/distilled water) to 33.1 (Inspiro/wine).
Conclusions: Staining of restorative materials seems to be dependent on the composition of the product itself. Unpolished samples demonstrated to be more prone to staining than the polished ones
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