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Recent Articles

2020-01-30 Research Article

Low sensitivity of the careHPV™ Assay for detection of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus in cervical samples from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Kenyan women

Abstract

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer (CC), a common malignancy among Kenyan women. New CC screening methods rely on oncogenic HPV (“high-risk”, or HR-HPV) detection, but most have not been evaluated in swabs from Kenyan women.

Methods: HPV typing was performed on 155 cervical swabs from Kenyan women using the Roche Linear Array® (LA) and careHPV™ (careHPV) assays. Detection of 14 oncogenic HPV types in careHPV assay was compared to LA results.

Results: Compared to LA, sensitivity and specificity of careHPV assay was 53.0% and 80.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from women with cervical dysplasia was 74.1% and 65.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from HIV-infected women was 55.9% and of 96.4%, respectively. Overall agreements of careHPV assay with LA was substantial.

Conclusion: The results for careHPV assay are promising for oncogenic HPV detection in Kenyan women. The low sensitivity of careHPV for detection of HR-HPV could limit it’s benefit as a screening tool. Thus, a full clinical validation study is highly desirable before the careHPV assay can be accepted for cervical cancer screening.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001006 Cite this Article

2020-02-04 Review Article

Rubella infection: Advances and challenges in the diagnosis and prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome

Abstract

Rubella remains an important pathogen worldwide, with many cases of congenital rubella syndrome per year. Rubella vaccination is included in the vaccination program of many countries. WHO has set goals for the elimination of measles and rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome by 2020. Worldwide, the rubella vaccine is highly effective and safe, and as a result, endemic rubella transmission has been halted in the Americas since 2009. Incomplete rubella vaccination programs result in continuous disease transmission, as evidenced by major recent outbreaks in some countries around the world. In this review, we present the rubella control, elimination and eradication policies and a brief review of the rubella laboratory diagnosis.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001007 Cite this Article

2020-02-28 Research Article

Pseudoephedrine protects mice from infection of H1N1 virus

Abstract

Ephedra, an ancient herb, is applied to treat common cold and influenza for such a long time in China. Pseudoephedrine is a main active ingredient from Ephedra which is used for relieving nasal congestion clinically. We previously reported that pseudoephedrine showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect other than sympathomimetic effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether pseudoephedrine could protect mice from the H1N1 virus infection. The mice were infected with a 20% LD50 influenza A virus (IAV) suspension via intranasal administration to establish a virus infection model. Further, the mice were orally administered pseudoephedrine or oseltamivir for 4 days from one day after infection. Our results showed that pseudoephedrine improved lung pathological damage during the IVA infection period, and it dramatically increased the survival rate and attenuated loss of body weight compared with the virus-infected control group. In addition, pseudoephedrine inhibited the cytokine storms and mRNAs expression of the TLR7 signaling pathway. Surprisingly, pseudoephedrine showed an inhibitory effect on the replication of IAV. These results give clear evidence that pseudoephedrine is a potential anti-influenza drug by blunting cytokine storms and inhibition of replication of IAV, and following these results, we speculate that it should be tested in the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19, a severe epidemic in China currently) in which the cytokine storms play a key role to damage bronchi and lung in the early stage.

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