In this brief essay, Harald Koeck offers an introduction to Professor Jakob Erdheim, an eminent pathologist of Vienna. Koeck is an independent researcher at different Pathology Departments (Department of Pathology St. Poelten with Prof. Hans Bank MD, Department of Pathology MSMC N.Y. with Prof. Alan L. Schiller MD, Department of Pathology Minsik with Prof. Jurij Bandaschewski MD and since 2008 at the Jakob Erdheim Institute Vienna Hospital Hietzing, Chair Univ. Prof. Walter Ulrich MD.
Priapism is currently defined as a prolonged painful erection without sexual stimuli, if priapism persists > 36 hours, conservative treatment does not lead to detumescence.
The most common etiologies are: medications into corpora cavernosa, anti-psychotics, anti-hypertensives, hematological disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia).
The Penile prosthesis is the choice treatment for restoring the erectile function after the failure of the conservative treatment.
But the corporal fibrosis makes it very difficult, with high risk of complications .
Lung cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metastasis can be seen in many organs in advanced-stage disease. Acral metastasis rate in cancer is quite low. However, because of the direct opening of the arterial circulation, the risk of acral metastasis stem from lung cancer is higher than any other cancers. Although the mechanism is not known exactly, acral metastases occur in dominant extremities. Here, we present a case with lung adenocarcinoma metastasis of the left hand in the second phalanx. We presented this case which is rarely seen in the literature to emphasize acral metastases.
Zoon’s vulvitis or plasma cell vulvitis (PCV) is a rare, benign inflammatory condition of the vulvar mucosa . PCV can present with an asymptomatic lesion, or can cause discomfort, dyspareunia and pruritus . In this way, PCV can mimic other lesions of the vulval mucosa, such as lichen planus.
Dopamine agonists should usually be the first treatment for patients with prolactinomas of all sizes, because these drugs decrease serum prolactin concentrations and decrease the size of most lactotroph adenomas. Cabergoline is preferred first. When cabergoline develops side effects bromokriptin is switched. Cabergoline is more efficient than bromocriptine. Its side effect profile more favorable than bromocriptine. Cabergoline is an ergot dopamine agonist that is administered once or twice a week. Cabergoline can have rarely serious psychiatric adverse effects, including psychosis, impulse control disorders, dyskinesia, pulmonery fibrosis and valvular heart disease.
Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors, 93%-95% of the cases are microadenomas. Macroprolactinomas larger than 40 mm, known as giant prolactinomas, are exceptionally rare, accounting for 0.5%–4% of all prolactin-hypersecreting adenomas.
In our case, after the 7 x 6 cm giant macroprolactinoma operated we report the manic episode occuring during the second week of cabergoline treatment. In the treatment of patients with prolactinoma, cabergoline is a first choice drug because it has a better tolerance profile and is more effective, however, bromocriptine can be switched to when drug resistance or side effects develop to cabergoline.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis -the most serious variant of Steven Johnson Syndrome -arises as the result of cell-mediated cytotoxic reaction against keratinocytes. Most common inciting factors include drugs, and infections. On the other hand, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a syndrome characterized by enormous immune response in the absence of down-regulation of activated immune cells resulting in cytokine storm causing severe tissue damage.
Up to date, several cases of concomitance of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) and Hemophagocytic Lympohystiocytosis (HLH) in pediatric patients have been reported. Both situations can be fatal and pediatricians should be aware that these two clinical entities are not mutually exclusive, to the contrary they may coexist.
We herein describe a case of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis with Central Nervous System involvement due to EBV infection.
Symptomatic vasospasm represents an uncommon complication of perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) which is a benign form of SAH without any recognizable source of bleeding accounting for about 15% of non-traumatic SAH [1,2].
Introduction: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a major cause of disability in the pediatric patient. Herein we describe the MRI/DWI findings in a case with DAI. We also discuss the current role of CT and MRI with DWI in the evaluation of DAI.
Aim of the study: To stress the role of diffusion-weighted imaging in diffuse axonal injury.
Methods: A pediatric patient, who was hospitalized in the ICU, was submitted to MRI with DWI for the evaluation of brain lesions. The patient was scanned with T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, FLAIR, T2*-weighted images and diffusion weighted images.
Result: Brain lesions caused by DAI were more conspicuous on diffusion-weighted images compared to FLAIR images. T2*-weighted images were a helpful adjunct in showing micro-hemorrhages.
Conclusion: T2*-weighted images and FLAIR images alone underestimate the true extent brain lesions in DAI compared to DWI.
On January 19, 2020, a 28-year-old male presented to the hospital with a 2-day history of fever, occasional cough and headache. He disclosed that he worked in Wuhan , China (the center of novel coronavirus outbreak) and flew to Yinchuan on the day of admission.
The sequelae of deep and extensive burns to the abdomen can lead to serious complications during pregnancy. Studies and publications covering this subject are scarce and outdated. The complications described arise during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, and surgical treatments to address these complications can initiate premature labor with a risk of fetal demise. We felt it would be of interest to prevent these complications through surgical treatments performed before the pregnancy. The need to reconstruct large regions of abdominal scar tissue prompted us to turn to the Integra® dermal equivalent for preventative surgical treatments.
Introduction: Arachnoid cyst (AC) is a congenital, benign, extra-axial lesion often found incidentally on intracranial imaging and makes up almost 1% of all intracranial masses. It arises from the splitting of arachnoid membranes with components similar to the cerebrospinal fluid. It’s reported that AC can be complicated by chronic subdural haematoma in athletes with repeated head injuries.
Case report: We describe a case of a soccer player with an AC that underwent surgery for a chronic subdural haematoma with full recovery.
Material and method: From a PubMed research, we found 14 relevant studies reporting a total of 15 patients who met the inclusion criteria: playing soccer, subdural hematoma and arachnoid cyst.
Results: Patients underwent different surgical treatment. In the case of hygroma with no midline shift, a conservative treatment was performed. In all cases the reported follow up was a full recovery.
Discussion: Soccer is not usually considered a contact sport related to a high risk of head trauma or shaking head. From our review we can postulate that a soccer player with AC has an augmented risk to have a subdural haemorrhage, more rarely intracerebral haemorrhage.
Conclusion: ACs are common meningeal abnormalities. They may bleed after minor head trauma, although it is rare. Asymptomatic patients with known AC should be monitored by a neurosurgeon and decision to engage this patient in soccer sport participation is still controversial.
Sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) is a benign tumor which originates from the sinonasal Schneiderian mucosa and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal and sinus neoplasm . Pathologically, SIP epithelium inverts into submucosal stroma, which is different from other types of nasal papilloma. Unlike other benign tumors, SIP exhibits remarkable aggressive behaviors, including invasiveness, recurrence and malignant transformation .
Ependymomas, which account for 10% of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors, arise from the ependymal cells that line the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. Extraneural metastasis to lung is rare for ependymomas primary tumors. Repeated surgeries that disrupt the blood-brain barrier may contribute to haematogenous spread, but the mechanism remains unclear. We present a case of ependymoma with extraneural metastasis to lung in a child and discuss reported cases of extracranial metastatic ependymoma with this presentation.
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