Volume 3 Issue 1

2019-12-02 Review Article

Microchimerism may be the cause of psychiatric disorders


Microchimerism is a bidirectional exchange of fetal and maternal cells during pregnancy (Figure 1). Pregnancy is the most common and natural cause of chimerism, and bi-directional trafficking of hematopoietic cells occurs through the placenta. Therefore, we are all born as microchimera [1,2]. Although there are many unanswered questions it is thought that chimerism has an important role in human health. For many years, the clinical effects of maternal microchimeric cells (MMcCs) in organ repair and cancer therapy have just begun to be understood. While the mission of chimerism is straight forward, the subject is profound. Chimerism carries the potential for disease as well as for health benefits. Recent studies have shown that maternal stress and infections in pregnancy affect fetal neuro development and increased the risk of neurological or psychiatric disorders in the future life of the fetus. This article describes the role of Mc in the etiology of psychotic disorders.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apmh.1001009 Cite this Article

2019-08-08 Review Article

A Belgian program to fight child maltreatment: The “SOS children” teams


Child abuse remains a complex issue affecting individuals, families, groups and society, and one which WHO prevalence figures show as a significant ongoing problem. The nature of the abuse, be it physical, sexual, psychological, or neglect, places the child at high risk of experiencing the multiple sequelae of the trauma. Depending on the child’s country, the disclosure of abuse by the child or a third party will either be moved into criminal justice system or directed to the medico-psycho-social sector.

In 1985, in Belgium, specialist teams were established to evaluate and support situations involving child abuse. More than thirty years later, we considered it opportune to update the parameters that our team has developed based on four reflexive themes. The first discusses the transformation of our society, families and individuals, exploring how each influences the others. The second theme describes the diagnostic process, holding in mind the complexity of any situation. The third theme describes the reasoning behind these teams, considering this as a de-judicialisation of such situations. Finally, we describe the different treatments available. This paper describes the evolution of clinical practice including developments in several aspects that have arisen through handling situations of abuse.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apmh.1001008 Cite this Article

2019-08-06 Research Article

Effectiveness of ethinyl oestradiol /cyproterone acetate and ethinyl oestradiol/ desogestrel with or without low-dose metformin on perceived health-related quality of life in hirsute women with polycystic ovary disease: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study


Background: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) is an endocrine disorder. It leads to menstrual disturbances, infertility, obesity and dermatological manifestations such as hirsutism and acne which leads to impaired health-related quality of life (QOL).

Aims: To evaluate the perceived health related QOL in patients with PCOD treated with ethinyl oestradiol (35µg)/cyproterone acetate (2 mg) (EE/CPA) and ethinyl oestradiol (20 µg)/ desogestrel (0.15mg) (EE/DES) alone and in combination with low-dose metformin.

Methods: A total of 117 patients with PCOD diagnosed according to Rotterdam Consensus Criteria 2003 with a hirsutism score of 8 or more according to modified Ferriman-Gallway Score (mFGS) were randomised to receive one of four drug combinations (arm A – EE/CPA, arm B- EE/DES, arm C- EE/CPA plus metformin, arm D- EE/DES plus metformin). The outcomes assessed were body mass index (BMI), hirsutism (using mFGS) and health-related QOL (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health- Related quality of life Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score) at baseline and 12 months after treatment.

Results: PCOSQ score in relation to the hirsutism, emotions, menstruation, obesity, infertility and VAS score in relation to hirsutism and obesity had improved at the end of 12 months (p< 0.001) in all treatment arms. There was no difference between treatment arms in all measured outcomes at baseline and at the end of 12 months.

Conclusion: Treatment with EE/CPA and EE/DES is associated with an improvement in perceived QOL in patients with PCOD. The addition of low-dose metformin did not have a significant benefit.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apmh.1001007 Cite this Article

2019-07-17 Research Article

Cognition and Memory Impairment among Patients of Depression in Pakistan-The Role of Conventional and Newer Anti-Depressants


Background: Antidepressant therapy is the most adopted treatment option for depression. The evaluation of cognitive effects related to antidepressant drug use is important for better selection of antidepressant drugs that leads to improved cognitive performance and patient health related quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antidepressant drugs on cognition and memory among patients of depression in Pakistan. 

Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A pre-validated data collection tool Mini Mental State Examination was used. The sample size was calculated to be 382 with 95% confidence interval and 5% level of error. The data was cleaned, coded and analyzed statistically using spss 21. Chi-Square test (p ≥ 0.05) was used to find association among different variables.

Results: The results showed that out of 382 respondents, 7.3% (n=28) were being prescribed amytryptyline and among them 46% (n=13) had questionably significant cognitive impairment and 53% (n=15) had mild cognitive impairment. On the other hand out of 23% (n=89) patients on escitalopram monotherapy, 85% (n=76) had impairment of questionably significant impairment and only 13.4% (n=12) had mild impairment. Area of residence and medication therapy were significant variables (p<0.05) that can affect cognition and memory among patients of depression. 

Conclusion: The results of present study concluded cognitive impairment of questionably significant nature among patients of depression in Pakistan. For the better management of depression, it is recommended that anti-depressant drug therapy should be tailored according to individual patient requirements.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apmh.1001006 Cite this Article

2019-07-09 Research Article

Diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission


Introduction: The problem of protecting and strengthening the mental health of the population is the most important task of ensuring the socio-economic well-being of the Komi Republic (RK) as an integral part of the Russian Federation (RF), since it is a key resource for the development of a subarctic region.

The aim of the work: was to characterize diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission at the 1State Autonomous Health Agency of the Republic of Komi “Consultative and Diagnostic Center of the Republic of Komi” (SAHA RK “CDC”) of the subarctic territory.

Materials and methods: The analysis of a continuous sample of 6255 patients of the psychiatrist of the consultative department in 2015-2017 was carried out. on the basis of medical records. Analysis methods included: analytical and statistical. The control group consisted of a continuous sample of 5,356 psychiatric patients in 2010–2012. The depth of the study was 8 years

Discussion: Trends in changes in demographic indicators, including gender and age, in the structure of patients of a psychiatrist in an outpatient consultative procedure are considered. Indicators of the identified pathology of the mental sphere, including the first identified and pathology in patients suffering from epilepsy in comparison with the control group are given. Attention is paid to the organizational and methodological work of an outpatient counseling psychiatrist on the targeted identification by internists of signs of mental pathology in patients referred to a diagnostic center with somatic diseases. Priorities for the improvement of specialized advisory (including psychiatric) assistance to the population of the RK and ensuring its quality were identified.

Conclusions: 1. The psychiatrist of the advisory department in 2015-2017. 6255 people were accepted (889 more than in the control group of 2010-2012). The increase was 16.78%. Primary patients account for 64.38% of the total number of people who applied to a psychiatrist (4027 people)

2. In the structure of the psychiatric pathology of the outpatient psychiatric appointment, the proportion of organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00-F09) is 47.9±0.6%; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-F49) - 39.6±0.6%; mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances (F10-F19) - 3.5±0.2%; mood disorders (affective disorders) (F30-F39) - 2.8±0.2%.

3. The most frequently detected pathologies in patients with epilepsy are: 1) Mild cognitive impairment; 2) Personality disorders; 3) Organic emotionally labile (asthenic) disorders. Their share annually accounts for 71.5%-75.8% of all types of nosological forms. The fourth and fifth ranking places are taken by: 4) Organic anxiety disorders; 5) Non-psychotic depressive disorders. Rarely diagnoses are established: “Organic Amnesia Syndrome” and “Dementia”.

4. Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders prevail in the structure of newly discovered mental disorders; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (up to 87.7%). Mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances and mood disorders (affective disorders) do not exceed 8.4%.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apmh.1001005 Cite this Article

2019-01-29 Review Article

Mental health promotion program in the workplace with focus on transport


Five key sectors of transport have been selected as the target groups: seafarers, truck drivers, dockworkers, rail workers and airline workers. Transport workers often operate under stressful working conditions, long-work hours, lack of good sleep, healthy diet and physical exercises that contribute to fatigue, impaired well-being, mental ill-health, stress and chronic diseases. The hypothesis is that good mental health workplace culture depends on good education, staffing and management.

Objectives: To create, implement and evaluate a research based mental health culture promotion program

Determinate existing researches and training programs, 

To study the knowledge, skills and needs for specific training in diferent age-groups

Create and implement effective and relevant training,

Produce training materials and scientific evidence available for ship owners, students and workers and to develop proposals for new mental health policies, legislations and regulations

Methods: Multidisciplinary training and research methodology with quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used. Validated mental health culture promotion methods with new programs for the specific sectors.

Expected impact 

• Significant less sickness absence and suicides

• Benefit for the workers’ health including benefit for the company economy.

• Policies developed for improved mental health culture based on the research.

• Policies developed for improved mental health culture based on the research.

Expected impact

• Significant less sickness absence and suicides

• Benefit for the workers’ health including benefit for the company economy.

• Policies developed for improved mental health culture based on the research.

• The training programs are ready to be continued at the end of the project.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apmh.1001004 Cite this Article

Recent Articles

2020-07-27 Research Article

Health professional stress during COVID-19 pandemic

Fatiha Bennaoui*, Nadia Ei Idrissi Slitine and Fadl Mrabih Rabou Maoulainine

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.apmh.1001023 Citation