Research Article

Overview on liquid chromatography and its greener chemistry application

Adel E Ibrahim, Magda Elhenawee, Hanaa Saleh and Mahmoud M Sebaiy*

Published: 04/07/2021 | Volume 5 - Issue 1 | Pages: 004-012


This literature review is concerning with liquid chromatography specifically high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), chromatography theory, chromatographic parameters, monolithic columns, principles of green chemistry and its application ingreen chromatography.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.aac.1001023 Cite this Article


  1. Snyder LR, Kirkland JJ, Dolan JW. Introduction to modern liquid chromatography. 2011: John Wiley & Sons.
  2. Cazes J, Scott RP. Chromatography theory. CRC Press. 2002; 88.
  3. Van Deemter JJ, Zuiderweg F, Klinkenberg AV. Longitudinal diffusion and resistance to mass transfer as causes of nonideality in chromatography. Chem Engi Sci. 1956; 5: 271-289.
  4. Majors RE. Historical developments in HPLC and UHPLC column technology: the past 25 years. 2015.
  5. Kirkland J, Truszkowski F, Ricker R. Atypical silica-based column packings for high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2002; 965: 25-34. PubMed:  
  6. Kirkland J, Truszkowski F, Dilks Jr C, Engel G. Superficially porous silica microspheres for fast high-performance liquid chromatography of macromolecules. J Chromatogr A. 2000; 890: 3-13. PubMed:  
  7. Kirkland J. Superficially porous silica microspheres for the fast high-performance liquid chromatography of macromolecules. Analytical Chem. 1992; 64: 1239-1245.
  8. Nakanishi K, Soga N. Phase separation in gelling silica–organic polymer solution: systems containing poly (sodium styrenesulfonate). J Am Ceramic Soc. 1991; 74: 2518-2530.
  9. website SA.
  10. Horvath CG, Preiss B, Lipsky SR. Fast liquid chromatography. Investigation of operating parameters and the separation of nucleotides on pellicular ion exchangers. Analytical Chem. 1967; 39: 1422-1428. PubMed:  
  11. Horvath C, Lipsky S. Column design in high pressure liquid chromatography. J Chromatogrp Sci. 1969; 7: 109-116.
  12. De Stefano JJ, Schuster SA, Lawhorn JM, Kirkland JJ. Performance characteristics of new superficially porous particles. J Chromatogr A. 2012; 1258: 76-83. PubMed:  
  13. Mould D, Synge R. Electrokinetic ultrafiltration analysis of polysaccharides. A new approach to the chromatography of large molecules. Analyst. 1952; 77: 964-969.
  14. Svec F, Fréchet JM. Continuous rods of macroporous polymer as high-performance liquid chromatography separation media. Analytical Chem. 1992; 64: 820-822.
  15. Tennikova T, Svec F, Belenkii B. High-performance membrane chromatography. A novel method of protein separation. J Liquid Chromatogr. 1990; 13: 63-70.
  16. Minakuchi H, Nakanishi K, Soga N, Ishizuka N, Tanaka N. Octadecylsilylated porous silica rods as separation media for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Analytical Chem. 1996; 68: 3498-3501. PubMed:  
  17. Minakuchi H, Nakanishi K, Soga N, Ishizuka N, Tanaka N. Effect of skeleton size on the performance of octadecylsilylated continuous porous silica columns in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.  J Chromatogr A. 1997; 762: 135-146. PubMed:  
  18. Nakanishi K, Shikata H, Ishizuka N, Koheiya N, Soga N. Tailoring mesopores in monolithic macroporous silica for HPLC. J Separat Sci. 2000; 23: 106-110.
  19. Hara T, Kobayashi H, Ikegami T, Nakanishi K, Tanaka N. Performance of monolithic silica capillary columns with increased phase ratios and small-sized domains. Analytical Chem. 2006; 78: 7632-7642. PubMed:   
  20. Tzanavaras PD. Automated Quality Control of Pharmaceuticals using Sequential Injection Chromatography (SIC). Pharmaceut Anal Acta. 2012; 3: e130.
  21. Homepage M. http://  
  22. Kučerová B, Krčmová L, Solichová D, Plíšek J, Solich P. Comparison of a new high resolution monolithic column with core shell and fully porous columns for the analysis of retinol and α tocopherol in human serum and breast milk by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. J Separat Sci. 2013; 36: 2223-2230.
  23. website P.  
  24. website M.   
  25. Neue UD, Mazzeo JR. A theoretical study of the optimization of gradients at elevated temperature. J Separat Sci. 2001; 24; 921-929.
  26. Giddings JC. Unified separation science. 1991: Wiley New York etc.
  27. Halász I, Endele R, Asshauer J. Ultimate limits in high-pressure liquid chromatography.  J Chromatogr A. 1975; 112: 37-60.
  28. Colón LA, Cintrón JM, Anspach JA, Fermier AM, Swinney KA. Very high pressure HPLC with 1 mm id columns. Analyst. 2004; 129: 503-504. PubMed:  
  29. Jerkovich AD, Mellors JS, Jorgenson JW, Majors RE. The use of micrometer-sized particles in ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography. LC GC North America. 2003; 21: 600-611.
  30. Swartz ME. UPLC™: an introduction and review. J Liquid Chromatogra Related Technol. 2005; 28: 1253-1263.
  31. Taleuzzaman M, Ali S, Gilani SJ, Imam SS, Hafeez A. Ultra Performance Liquid chromatography (UPLC) - A review. Austin J Anal Pharm Chem. 2015; 2: 1056-1060.
  32. Anastas PT, Warner JC. Green chemistry: theory and practice. 2000: Oxford university press.
  33. Anastas PT. Green chemistry and the role of analytical methodology development. Critical reviews in Analytical Chem. 1999; 29: 167-175.
  34. Lu CY. Green Chromatography. Handbook of Green Analytical Chem. 2012; 175-198.
  35. Xiaohua X, Liang Z, Xia L, Shengxiang J. Ionic liquids as additives in high performance liquid chromatography: Analysis of amines and the interaction mechanism of ionic liquids. Analytica Chim Acta. 2004; 519: 207-211.
  36. Han D, Tian M, Park DW, Choi DK, Row KH. Application of ionic liquids as mobile phase additives and surface-bonded stationary phase in liquid chromatography. Korean J Chem Engi. 2009; 26: 1353-1358.
  37. Marszałł MP, Bączek T, Kaliszan R. Reduction of silanophilic interactions in liquid chromatography with the use of ionic liquids. Analytica Chim Acta. 2005; 547: 172-178.
  38. El-Shaheny RN, El-Maghrabey MH, Belal FF. Micellar liquid chromatography from green analysis perspective. Open Chemistry. 2015; 13; 877–892.
  39. Ruiz-Angel M, Carda-Broch S, Torres-Lapasió J R, García-Álvarez-Coque M. Retention mechanisms in micellar liquid chromatography.  J Chromatogr A. 2009; 1216: 1798-1814. PubMed:  
  40. Memon N, Bhanger MI, Khuhawer M. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics and food samples by micellar liquid chromatography. J Separat Sci. 2005; 28: 635-638. PubMed:  
  41. Nishi H. Pharmaceutical applications of micelles in chromatography and electrophoresis.  J Chromatogr A. 1997; 780: 243-264. PubMed:  
  42. Youngvises N, Chaida T, Khonyoung S, Kuppithayanant N, Tiyapongpattana W, et al. Greener liquid chromatography using a guard column with micellar mobile phase for separation of some pharmaceuticals and determination ofparabens. Talanta. 2013; 106: 350-359. PubMed:  
  43. Alfonsi K, Colberg J, Dunn PJ, Fevig T, Jennings S, et al. Green chemistry tools to influence a medicinal chemistry and research chemistry based organisation. Green Chemistry. 2008; 10: 31-36.
  44. Armenta S, Garrigues S, De la Guardia M. Green Analytical Chem. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chem. 2008; 27: 497-511.
  45. Sandra P, Vanhoenacker G, David F, Sandra K, Pereira A. Green chromatography (part 1): introduction and liquid chromatography. 2010.