Research Article

Chromium Isotopes Detection in their Ores with Minimal Errors

Loai Aljerf* and Nuha AlMasri

Published: 09/04/2018 | Volume 2 - Issue 1 | Pages: 045-054

Abstract

The industrial production and use of chromium have grown considerably during the past five decades. Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial samples are identical to 0.01%. Among the dominant species of chromium, the trivalent form widely occurs in nature in chromite ores which is extremely immobilized especially in water bodies. Samples were mixtures of separated chromium isotopes and the calibration was made with the same species as those used in the measurements. The method had simplified the conversion of the ores to chromyl fluoride since the element could be readily separated as lead chromate from the leaching of chromite-sodium peroxide fusions. Isotope assay of chromyl fluoride under certain conditions was measured and the measurements of chromium isotopic anomalies ratios and isotope abundance of the chromite ores have been assessed. These provided sufficient quantitative mass spectrometric data, which were analyzed to calculate the abundance and the mean atomic mass of the questioned isotopes. Based on the high mass spectroscopy stability and the correction factors, the results were of good precision (incl. negligible systematic errors normally associated to inter-laboratory discrepancies) and the Cr isotopes availability (52Cr > 53Cr > 50Cr > 54Cr) was in conjunction with other classical tools such as oxygen isotopes. This paper is important for paleoecological, environmental, archeological, forensic, and nuclear researchers.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.aac.1001013 Cite this Article

References

  1. Aljerf L. Advanced highly polluted rainwater treatment process. J Urban Environ Eng. 2018; 12. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RKCzy2
  2. Aljerf L. High-efficiency extraction of bromocresol purple dye and heavy metals as chromium from industrial effluent by adsorption onto a modified surface of zeolite: kinetics and equilibrium study. J Environ Manage. 2018; 225: 120-132. Ref.: https://goo.gl/DehY8Y
  3. Nowak R, Konstantinov L, Hess P. Licvd of Cr(C,O) films from Cr(CO)6 at 248 NM: gas-phase and surface processes. Mater. Res Soc Symp Proc. 1988; 129: 85.  Ref.: https://goo.gl/Q4rhA8
  4. Nier AO. A redetermination of the relative abundances of the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and potassium. Phys Rev. 1950; 77: 789-793. Ref.:  https://goo.gl/rMbXpt
  5. Plies V. Mass Spectrometric investigations of the vapor phase over CrCl3 and CrCl3/Cl2. Cheminform. 1988; 19.
  6. Hibbs RG. Electron Microscopy of human apocrine sweat glands. J Investig Dermatol. 1962; 38: 77-84. Ref.: https://goo.gl/HKkoHH
  7. Bacuta GC, Kay RW, Rossman DL. High chromium and high aluminum deposits in the Zambales ophiolite complex, Luzon, Philippines: Origin and tectonic significance. Chem Geol. 1988; 70: 132. Ref.: https://goo.gl/XQo1KX
  8. Xibin W, Peisheng B. Genesis of Podiform Chromite deposits--evidence from the Luobosa Chromite deposits, Tibet. Acta Geol Sin-Engl. 2009; 61: 77-94. Ref.: https://goo.gl/LBCEzV
  9. Moutte J. Chromite deposits of the Tiebaghi ultramafic massif, New Caledonia. Econ Geol 1982; 77: 576-591. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xNJRpH
  10. Bacuta GC, Kay RW, Gibbs AK, Lipin BR. Platinum-group element abundance and distribution in chromite deposits of the Acoje Block, Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines. J Geochem Explor. 1990; 37: 113-145. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ywyLUY
  11. Verryn S. X-Ray powder diffraction data for Chromite from the UG-2 of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. S Afr J Geol. 2008; 111: 225-Ref.: https://goo.gl/SQ8Cyh
  12. Prendergast MD. Archean Komatiitic sill-hosted chromite deposits in the Zimbabwe Craton. Econ Geol. 2008; 103: 981-1004. Ref.: https://goo.gl/KKU91k
  13. Page NJ, Engin T, Singer DA, Haffty J. Distribution of platinum-group elements in the Bati Kef chromite deposit, Guleman-Elazig area, eastern Turkey. Econ Geol. 1984; 79: 177-184. Ref.: https://goo.gl/m4UV2L
  14. Simonov VA, Ivanov KS, Smirnov VN, Kovyazin SV. Physicochemical parameters of the melts participating in the formation of chromite orehosted in the Klyuchevsky ultramafic massif, the Central Urals, Russia. Geol Ore Dep. 2009; 51: 109-122. Ref.: https://goo.gl/RzUx93
  15. Gazaleeva GI, Shikhov NV, Vlasov IА, Shigaeva VN. The Donskoy Ore Mining and Processing Industrial Complex chromite tailings retreatment technology development. Obogashch Rud. 2017; 1: 16-20. Ref.: https://goo.gl/WLv6y8
  16. Hammer S, Nettleton LL, Hastings WK. Gravimeter prospecting for chromite in Cuba. Geophys. 1945; 10: 34-49. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qLTPDX
  17. Guild PW. Petrology and structure of the Moa Chromite district, Oriente Province, Cuba. Trans. Amer Geophys Union. 1947; 28: 218. Ref.: https://goo.gl/G19iKP
  18. Mackowiak K, Pickles CA. Microwave reduction of Black Thor chromite ore. Can Metall Q. 2018; 57: 341-349. Ref.: https://goo.gl/9r15HB
  19. Agarwal S, Pal J, Ghosh D. Development of chromite sinter from ultra-fine chromite ore by direct sintering. Int Sci Int J. 2014; 54: 559-566. Ref.: https://goo.gl/3tSPNm
  20. Mondal SK, Mukherjee R. Chromite: Petrogenetic indicator to ore deposits. Ore. Geol Rev. 2017; 90: 63-64. Ref.: https://goo.gl/xRu2n4
  21. Jones VE. Chromite deposits near Sheridan, Montana. Econ Geol. 1931; 26: 625-629. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zEdfCf
  22. Stobbe H. Chromite and other Minerals near Red Lodge, Montana. Rock Miner. 1962; 37: 117-124. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FqcsBx
  23. Flesch GD, Svec HJ. New preparation for chromyl fluoride and chromyl chloride. J Am Chem Soc. 1958; 80: 3189-3191. Ref.: https://goo.gl/esJTjf
  24. Flesch GD, White RM, Svec HJ. The positive and negative ion mass spectra of chromyl chloride and chromyl fluoride. Int J Mass Spectrom Ion Phys. 1969; 3: 339-363. Ref.: https://goo.gl/5tPj2i
  25. Duval C. Applied inorganic analysis (zéme edition). Anal Chim Acta. 1953; 9: 390.
  26. Green PJ, Gard GL. Chemistry of chromyl fluoride. 5. New preparative routes to chromyl fluoride. Inorg Chem. 1977; 16: 1243-1245. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CFgi3a
  27. Sheft I, Martin AF, Katz JJ. High temperature fluorination reactions of inorganic substances with bromine trifluoride addition compounds1a,1b. J Amer Chem Soc. 1956; 78: 1557-1559. Ref.: https://goo.gl/E5Qe7F
  28. Young ED, Rumble D, Freedman P, Mills M. A large-radius high-mass-resolution multiple-collector isotope ratio mass spectrometer for analysis of rare isotopologues of O2, N2, CH4 and other gases. Int J Mass Spectrom. 2016; 401: 1-10. Ref.: https://goo.gl/MBh5m6
  29. Brodskii AI, Dontsova EI. Exchange between oxygen isotopes in inorganic solvents. Chem Abstr. 1940; 37: 4947.
  30. Mills GA. Oxygen exchange between water and inorganic oxy-anions. J Amer Chem Soc. 1940; 62: 2833-2838. Ref.: https://goo.gl/cejopN
  31. Lindau CW, Delaune RD, Patrick WH, Lambremont EN. Assessment of stable nitrogen isotopes in fingerprinting surface water inorganic nitrogen sources. Water Air Soil Pollut. 1989; 48: 489-496. Ref.: https://goo.gl/bwBvmR
  32. Russe K, Valkiers S, Taylor PDP. Synthetic isotope mixtures for the calibration of isotope amount ratio measurements of carbon. Int J Mass Spectrom. 2004; 235: 255-262. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nKM7sf
  33. Junk G, Svec HJ. The absolute abundance of the nitrogen isotopes in the atmosphere and compressed gas from various sources. Geochim Cosmochim Act. 1958; 14: 234-243. Ref.: https://goo.gl/5eB2Ct
  34. Holden NE, Martin RL. Atomic weights of the elements 1981. Pure Appl Chem. 1983; 55: 1101-1118. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JEcm28
  35. Un A, Demir F. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron numbers for heavy-weight and normal-weight concretes. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013; 80: 73-77. Ref.: https://goo.gl/G9ZMYS