Research Article

Fungi present in home and their impact on human health-A short review

Mariusz Dylag*

Published: 06/06/2017 | Volume 1 - Issue 1 | Pages: 016-025

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that even up to 30% of buildings worldwide may be the subject of complaints connected with the quality of indoor air. Potential sources of air pollution can be both organic and inorganic particles. This article focuses on biological air pollutants from living and dead biological sources, especially those connected with fungi. Fungi found in the indoor air of domestic dwellings in a large extent are similar in their species composition to those found on the outside of the building. Microorganisms enters into the buildings during the airing of rooms or through the different slots and can develop on the surfaces of various materials. Intensively develops in a poorly ventilated, damp and dusty environments. For this reason the exposure to the indoor air pollution might be stranger for inhabitants than the expose to the impurities of the outdoor air. Presence of fungi in domestic dwellings can be very danger because of most often is associated with allergic reactions, mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds or even with fungal infections.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.hjbm.1001003 Cite this Article

REFERENCES

  1. Nelson WC, Ott WR, Robinson JP. The national human activity pattern survey (NHAPS): use of nationwide activity data for human exposure assessment. Paper number 94-WA75A.01 presented at the A&WMA 87th Annual Meeting: Cincinnati, OH, 1994; and EPA Report, 600/A -94/147, AREAL: Research Triangle Park, 0-67, 1994.
  2. Wu F, Jacobs D, Mitchell C, Miller D, Karol MH. Improving Indoor Environmental Quality for Public Health: Impediments and Policy Recommendations. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007; 115: 953-957. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Sh5Q6y
  3. World Health Organization. Indoor air pollutants: exposure and health effects. Report on WHO meeting. WHO Regional Office for Europe: EURO Reports and Studies. 1983; 78: 1-48.
  4. Marmot AF, Eley J, Stafford M. Building health: an epidemiological study of “sick building syndrome” in the Whitehall II study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2006; 63: 283-289. Ref.: https://goo.gl/wVzvmU
  5. US Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Facts No. 4 Sick Building Syndrome, Last updated on September 6, 2016, available at: https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/indoor-air-facts-no-4-sick-building-syndrome.
  6. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: dampness and mould. Edited by: Heseltine E and Rosen J, WHO Regional Office for Europe Scherfigsvej 8 DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark 2009. ISBN 9789289041683
  7. Daisey JM, Angell WJ, Apte MG. Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information. Indoor Air. 2003; 13: 53-64. Ref.: https://goo.gl/3dbOUs
  8. Laumbach RJ, Kipen HM. Bioaerosols and sick building syndrome: particles, inflammation, and allergy. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2005; 5: 135-139. Ref.: https://goo.gl/MQTRkT
  9. Joshi SM. The sick building syndrome. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2008; 12: 61-64. Ref.: https://goo.gl/W9kL1I
  10. Bholah R, Subratty AH. Indoor biological contaminants and symptoms. International Journal ofEnvironmental Health Research. 2002; 12: 93-98. Ref.: https://goo.gl/GMwYnW
  11. Bloom E, Nyman E, Must A. Molds and mycotoxins in indoor environments-A survey in water-damaged buildings. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2009; 6: 671-678. Ref.: https://goo.gl/8pKiV8
  12. Korpi A, Pasanen AL, Pasanen P. Microbial growth and metabolism in house dust”, w: International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 1997; 40: 19-27. Ref.: https://goo.gl/3uBSJO
  13. Adams RI, Tian Y, Taylor JW. Passive dust collectors for assessing airborne microbial material. Microbiome. 2015; 3: 46. Ref.: https://goo.gl/qkxwP9
  14. Takuma T, Okada K, Yamagata A. Mold colonization of fiberglass insulation of the air distribution system: effects on patients with hematological malignancies. Medical Mycology. 2011; 49: 150-156. Ref.: https://goo.gl/D6e0HO
  15. Zyska B. Fungi isolated from library materials: a review of the literature. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 1997; 40: 43-51. Ref.: https://goo.gl/VQnjDc
  16. Levy JI, Clougherty JE, Baxter LK, Houseman EA, Paciorek CJ, et al. Research report health effects institute2010; 152: 5-91. Ref.: https://goo.gl/o0LU98
  17. Sudakin DL. Toxigenic fungi in a water-damaged building: an intervention study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1998; 34: 183-190. Ref.: https://goo.gl/uTYhQG
  18. Kuhn DM, Ghannoum MA. Indoor Mold, Toxigenic Fungi, and Stachybotrys chartarum: Infectious Disease Perspective. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2003; 16: 144-172. Ref.: https://goo.gl/jytLpj
  19. Tischer C, Chen CH, Heinrich J. Association between domestic mould and mould components and asthma and allergy in children: a systematic review. The European Respiratory Journal. 2011; 38: 812-824. Ref.: https://goo.gl/PafxZF
  20. Institute of Medicine (US) Vaccine Safety Committee; Stratton KR, Howe CJ, Johnston RB Jr, (editors) Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1994; 4: Immunologic Reactions. Ref.: https://goo.gl/SX5x8D
  21. Marinkovich VA. Fungal hypersensitivity: pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy. Advances in applied microbiology. 2004; 55: 289-307. Ref.: https://goo.gl/lDn6cM
  22. Horner WE, Helbling A, Salvaggio JE. Fungal allergens. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1995; 8: 161-179. Ref.: https://goo.gl/u9tk92
  23. Dick G. Immunological Aspects of Infectious Disease. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012; 245-249. ISBN 9401161917.
  24. Gupta M, Roshan R, Chhabra SK. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis without asthma complicating pulmonary tuberculosis. Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society. 2012; 29: 286-288. Ref.: https://goo.gl/MQu6rl
  25. Botterel F, Gross K, Ibrahim-Granet O. Phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by primary nasal epithelial cells in vitro. BMC Microbiology. 2008; 8: 97. Ref.: https://goo.gl/5FV4xU
  26. Shah A, Panjabi C. Allergic aspergillosis of the respiratory tract. European Respiratory Review. 2014; 23: 8-29. Ref.: https://goo.gl/aGDb3t
  27. Bernatchez E, Gold MJ, Langlois A. Methanosphaera stadtmanae induces a type IV hypersensitivity response in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Physiological Reports. 2017; 5: e13163. Ref.: https://goo.gl/764QGk
  28. De Azevedo MI, Ferreiro L, Da Silva AS.Cholinesterase of rats experimentally infected by Cryptococcus neoformans: Relationship between inflammatory response and pathological findings. Pathology-Research and Practice. 2015; 211: 851-857. Ref.: https://goo.gl/NQPLSC
  29. Hardin BD, Kelman BJ, Saxon A. Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2003; 45: 470-478. Ref.: https://goo.gl/cdnLWf
  30. Bryant DH, Rogers P. Allergic alveolitis due to wood-rot fungi. Allergy Proceedings. 1991; 12: 89-94. Ref.: https://goo.gl/QB71jI
  31. Pottier D. Airborne molds and mycotoxins in Serpula lacrymans-damaged homes. Atmospheric Pollution Research. 2014; 5: 325-334. Ref.: https://goo.gl/soiHa1
  32. Denning DW, Pashley C, Hartl D. Fungal allergy in asthma–state of the art and research needs. Clinical and Translational Allergy. 2014; 4: 14. Ref.: https://goo.gl/WPhzRZ
  33. Ansari S, Lotfi N, Hedayati MT. A review on the relationship between fungal allergens with allergy and respiratory diseases. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2016; 25: 159-183. Ref.: https://goo.gl/d103YZ
  34. Morath SU, Hung R, Bennett JW. Fungal volatile organic compounds: A review with emphasis on their biotechnological potential. Fungal biology reviews. 2012; 26: 73-83. Ref.: https://goo.gl/SN8cvC
  35. Bennett JW, Inamdar AA. Are some fungal Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mycotoxins? Toxins. 2015; 7: 3785-3804. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FUXgta
  36. Seppänen O, Kurnitski J. Moisture control and ventilation. In: WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mould. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. Ref.: https://goo.gl/95yQah
  37. Fischer G, Dott W. Relevance of airborne fungi and their secondary metabolites for environmental, occupational and indoor hygiene. Archives of Microbiology. 2003; 179: 75-82. Ref.: https://goo.gl/JEKKur
  38. Terr AI. Sick Building Syndrome: is mould the cause? Medical Mycology. 2009; 47: 217-222. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FguAf9
  39. Borchers AT, Chang C, Gershwin EM. Mold and human health: a reality check. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology. 2017; 52: 305-322. Ref.: https://goo.gl/vYFQFd
  40. Watson JG, Chow EM, Fujita EM. Review of volatile organic compound source apportionment by chemical mass balance. Atmospheric Environment. 2001; 35: 1567-1584.
  41. Pestka JJ, Yike I, Dearborn DG. Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp building-related illness: new insights into a public health enigma. Toxicological Sciences 2008; 104: 4-26. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CUYgB9
  42. Nurmatov UB, Tagiyeva N, Semple S, Devereux G, Sheikh A. Volatile organic compounds and risk of asthma and allergy: a systematic review. European Respiratory Review. 2015; 24: 92-101. Ref.: https://goo.gl/FWSKCL
  43. Tola M, Kebede B. Occurrence, importance and control of mycotoxins: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2016; 2: 1191103. Ref.: https://goo.gl/2SUGK3
  44. D’Mello JPF, Macdonald AMC, Postel D. Pesticide use and mycotoxin production in fusarium and aspergillus phytopathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 1998; 104: 741-751. Ref.: https://goo.gl/R3nuHN
  45. Rosenzweig WD, Stotzky G. Influence of environmental factors on antagonism of fungi by bacteria in soil: clay minerals and pH. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1979; 38: 1120-1126. Ref.: https://goo.gl/NSv8wX
  46. Prasad S, Manasa P, Buddhi S, Singh SM, Shivaji S. Antagonistic interaction networks among bacteria from a cold soil environment. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 2011; 78: 376-385. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ezp44o
  47. Zapién-Campos R, Olmedo-Álvarez G, Santillán M. Antagonistic interactions are sufficient to explain self-assemblage of bacterial communities in a homogeneous environment: a computational modeling approach. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2015; 6: 489. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6XAdmi
  48. Bennett JW, Klich M. Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2003; 16: 497-516. Ref.: https://goo.gl/1Tq8wg
  49. Hussein HS, Brasel JM. Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology. 2001; 167: 101-134. Ref.: https://goo.gl/x3U4pB
  50. Wicklow DT, Shotwell OL. Intrafungal distribution of aflatoxins among conidia and sclerotia of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 1983; 29: 1-5. Ref.: https://goo.gl/nqrhjO
  51. Pitt JI. Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. British Medical Bulletin. 2000; 56: 184-192. Ref.: https://goo.gl/QbMSqM
  52. Nesic K, Ivanovic S, Nesic V. Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of fusarium fungi. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2014; 228: 101-120. Ref.: https://goo.gl/4gUA3r
  53. Mao J, He B, Zhang L. A structure identification and toxicity assessment of the degradation products of aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil under UV irradiation. Toxins(Basel). 2016; 8: 332. Ref.: https://goo.gl/O08yqh
  54. Krikstaponis A, Lugauskas A, Krysinska-Traczyk E, Prazmo Z, Dutkiewicz J. Enzymatic activities of aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from the air at waste landfills. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 2001; 8: 227-234. Ref.: https://goo.gl/hEFTSG
  55. Rogerio-Candelera MS (eds.). Science, Technology and Cultural Heritage. 2014; 190-199, CRC Press, ISBN 1315712423.
  56. Khan HAA, Karuppayil MS. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2012; 19: 405-426. Ref.: https://goo.gl/a98mYo
  57. Milani JM. Ecological conditions affecting mycotoxin production in cereals: A review. Veterinarni Medicina. 2013; 58: 405-411. Ref.: https://goo.gl/WDvOUG
  58. Fink-Gremmels J, Malekinejad H. Review: Clinical effects and biochemical mechanisms associated with exposure to the mycoestrogen zearalenone. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2007; 137: 326-341. Ref.: https://goo.gl/5e6WiI
  59. Wild CP, Gong YY. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue. Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31: 71-82. Ref.: https://goo.gl/eCdBcA
  60. Koszegi T, Poor M. Ochratoxin A: Molecular interactions, mechanisms of toxicity and prevention at the molecular level. Toxins. 2016; 8: 111. Ref.: https://goo.gl/s2B0pk
  61. Enoch DA, Ludlam HA, Brown NM. Invasive fungal infections: a review of epidemiology and management options. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2006; 55: 809-818. Ref.: https://goo.gl/LKs6gV
  62. Segal BH. Aspergillosis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009; 360: 1870-1884. Ref.: https://goo.gl/CPAapj
  63. Ho K, Cheng T. Common superficial fungal infections-a short review. Medical Bulletin. 2010; 15: 23-27. Ref.: https://goo.gl/rEytqu  
  64. Brakhage AA. Systemic fungal infections caused by aspergillus species: epidemiology, infection process and virulence determinants. Current Drug Targets. 2005; 6: 875-886. Ref.: https://goo.gl/82R0x5
  65. Ĺšpiewak R, Szostak W. Zoophilic and geophilic dermatophytoses among farmers and non-farmers in eastern Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 2000; 7: 125-129. Ref.: https://goo.gl/TtKYpk
  66. Horvath EP, Anderson Jr H, Pierce WE, Hanrahan L, Wendlick JD. Effects of formaldehyde on the mucous membrane and lungs. A study of an industrial population. JAMA. 1988; 259: 701-707. Ref.: https://goo.gl/3OdLJj
  67. Keeney EL. Hypersensitivity to pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1950; 33: 418-430. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ImaKbS