Poultry industry is a domineering section of agriculture sector in the world as it provides meat, income and employment. Of the poultry industry, broiler chicken is dominating, as US export was more than 41 billion pounds of chicken (about 16.5 percent of production) in 2017 . In Pakistan, the poultry industry contributes around 1.4 percent to the GDP and 31 percent to total meat production . The global demand for this meat is rising in developing world including Pakistan. To meet the needs, rearing of poultry at both domestic and commercial levels is imperative . However, the industry faces a lot of constraints, preventing it from reaching its maximal potential. Poor welfare, insufficient quality nutrition and devastating diseases are some of these problems. Amongst the myriad of diseases, Infectious Bursal Disease (also known as Gumboro disease, infectious avian nephrosis and infectious bursitis) is an acute, contagious viral disease of chicken [4-6]. It not only affects domesticated but also wild poultry throughout the world by targeting the immune system. [7-9].
Gumboro disease is caused by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), which is a member of genus Avibirnavirus of the Birnaviridae family. IBDV is a non-enveloped virus having a capsid that contains a double stranded RNA genome, split into two segments A and B . Segment A of the genome encodes four proteins (VP2, VP3, VP4 and VP5) while segment B encodes VP1. Based on Pathogenicity the IBDV strains can be grouped into three pathotypes; classical virulent, antigenic variant and very virulent . Though the first outbreak of very virulent IBD virus was reported in Europe in early 1990s , recent pandemics across Asia, Africa and South America  have heavily damaged commercial and wild poultry. Contamination of a rearing site with the IBDV leads to a horizontal transmission of disease across the flocks through contaminated feed and water. However, vertical transmission is not reported yet . Classical virulent strains flaunt a mortality rate as high as 20-30%, mostly due to the widespread bursal damage in infected poultry . Classical virulent strains are the source of commercially available vaccines against IBD viral infections. In early 1980s, new antigenic variants emerged, causing more than 50 percent mortality in birds by rapid bursal damage . Current vaccines prepared from classical strains have failed to control the disease caused by these antigenically variant strains. In the late 1980s, very virulent IBD virus strains were reported that induced IBD with a more pronounced bursal lesion and higher mortality (up to 90 percent) when compared to other IBDV strains . In addition, vaccination against the very virulent strains encounters many challenges as very virulent IBD virus can breakthrough protective antibodies, and therefore requires more efficient vaccination approaches.
Background: Proteases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of peptide bonds in proteins found in nature. Microbial protease constitutes one of the most important for industrial aplications. Proteases play a crucial role in numerous pathologic processes as well. KCl is an unnatural salt. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of this salt on protease production under different agitation and heat conditions.
Methods: The effects of KCl (rpm/heat) on the production of a protease, of E. coli, P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis strain, were investigated. The decrease in protease production at 37 °C was also observed in this work that proved that heat plays a major role in enzyme production.
Results: The presence of KCl also caused a decrease in protease production in three bacterial species. The use of KCl appears to be a viable alternative when it is necessary to reduce protease activity outside of industrial applications (such as health care). This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in health industries. In the future we think that it will contribute to clarification of the matter in this way.
Vitamin K was discovered as nutrient of blood clotting. There are two main types of vitamin K, vitamin K1, and vitamin K2. Although the structure of vitamin k is stable but also, there are differences between them. Vitamin k1 is mainly present in dark green leafy plant; while vitamin k2 present in animal and fermented plant. There are different sources of vitamin k. The normal human body is required about 200µg/day from vitamin k in both forms. Vitamin k1 can easily converted into vitamin k2.There is big difference between work of types of vitamin k, where each one responsible for special job. Vitamin k play important role in various metabolic process; vitamin k especially k2 play important role in protect the body from heart attack , in addition to reduce the development of osteoporosis and bone disease in combination with vitamin D and calcium. Vitamin k responsible for increase the secretion of male sex hormone and infertility. Vitamin k is consider one of the most important vitamin, it can save human from death as result of precipitation of calcium on arteries. Due to the importance of vitamin k, this article will discuss vitamin k, its presence, and role in different diseases.
Fungi cause a variety of diseases and are difficult to treat owing to their eukaryotic nature resulting in dearth of antifungal targets at hand. This problem is further elevated many folds due to the resistance mechanisms of fungi through which they circumvent the antifungal drugs administered for therapeutic purposes. Fungi have a variety of strategies for obtaining these resistances, amongst them pivotal role is played by the ABC and MFS transporters. This article encompasses the important genes and their respective roles of both the classes of the transporters in different species of fungi.
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