Motahar Heidari-Beni1* and Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri2
1Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
*Address for Correspondence: Motahar Heidari-Beni, Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, Tel: +983136687898; Email: Motahar.firstname.lastname@example.org
Dates: Submitted: 03 November 2018; Approved: 17 December 2018; Published: 18 December 2018
How to cite this article: Heidari-Beni M, Derakhshandeh-Rishehri SM. Recent findings related to Nutrition and Diabetes Mellitus. Arch Food Nutr Sci. 2018; 2: 038-040. DOI: 10.29328/journal.afns.1001015
Copyright: © 2018 Heidari-Beni M, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass surgery is superior to medical treatment for short- to medium-term remission of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) . Recent research indicates that the improvements in insulin sensitivity following bariatric surgery are associated with elevated circulating bile acid concentration and remodeling of gut microbiota . Gut microbiome can be considered as a target of dietary interventions or medicines to prevention/treatment of hyperglycemia in T2DM. Since, the glucose-lowering effects of metformin are mediated by changes in the composition and function of gut microbiota [3,4].
Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) might not only elevate insulin resistance but also considered as useful biomarkers for early detection of IR; moreover, genes related to BCAA catabolism might serve as potential targets for the treatment of IR associated metabolic disorders . Kevin et al. in 2016, claimed that dietary protein source is correlated with glucoregulatory markers and type 2 diabetes. For example, plant protein foods (with fibers and numerous phytochemicals) are beneficial, while processed meats (sodium, nitrites, and heme-iron) are unfavorable, but dairy foods with matrix rich in high quality proteins, calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, low-glycemic-index sugars, and oligosaccharides have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and/or T2DM risk . With this regards, nuts favorably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health through its unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds such as: Unsaturated Fatty Acids, fiber, polyphenols, Arginine and magnesium . Mediate-intake of Oat β-Glucan (OBG) for 3–8 weeks favored the glycemic control of T2DM patients but did not improve their insulin sensitivity . Furthermore, compared with widely consumed common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) spelt with bioactive compounds, fiber, phytochemicals (phytic acid and alkylresorcinols), and antioxidant compounds is beneficial for glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and hyperinsulinemia .
Regarding dietary patterns, vegetarian diet or Mediterranean diet with plant-based (whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish, and olive oil) is inversely associated with diabetes risk; however, the duration of the adherence to these diets, and type of vegetarian needs further research [10,11]. Meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies and interventional studies using hydrogencarbonate and magnesium supplements suggest a probable positive effect of drinking water and mineral water on glycemic parameters especially those substituting diet beverages or caloric beverages with water, bicarbonate/magnesium-rich water .
A recent review highlights the potential protective effects of 4 non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, and astaxanthin) in the development and progression of diabetic micro-vascular complications via scavenging reactive oxygen species, modulating gene expression, and reducing inflammation . A meta-analysis on 14 eligible studies indicated that Co-Q10 supplementation slightly but significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose, but not fasting plasma insulin and HbA1C . Costello et al. concluded that Cinnamon supplements added to standard hypoglycemic medications and other lifestyle therapies had modest effects on FPG and HbA1c via its bioactive ingredients; however, only 4 studies reached the ADA treatment goals of FPG <130 mg/dL/7.2 mmol/L or HbA1c <7.0% . Moreover, he observed that chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in T2DM patients . McNally et al. work highlighted the fact that obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are associated with a decrease in NO bioavailability; besides, dietary inorganic nitrate can be a beneficial agent with both anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects, as well as improving vascular function .
- Yan Y, Sha Y, Yao G, Wang S, Kong F, et al. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Medical Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Medicine. 2016; 95: e3462. Ref.: https://goo.gl/7t9aqX
- Kaska L, Sledzinski T, Chomiczewska A, Dettlaff-Pokora A, Swierczynski J. Improved glucose metabolism following bariatric surgery is associated with increased circulating bile acid concentrations and remodeling of the gut microbiome. World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22: 8698-8719. Ref.: https://goo.gl/i2hehP
- Brunkwall L, Orho-Melander M. The gut microbiome as a target for prevention and treatment of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: from current human evidence to future possibilities. Diabetologia. 2017; 60: 943-951. Ref.: https://goo.gl/V1rXvj
- Houghton D, Hardy T, Stewart C, Errington L, Day CP, et al. Systematic review assessing the effectiveness of dietary intervention on gut microbiota in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2018. Ref.: https://goo.gl/kSSYqS
- Zhao X, Han Q, Liu Y, Sun C, Gang X, et al. The Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acid Related Metabolomic Signature and Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review. J Diabetes Res. 2016; 2016: 2794591. Ref.: https://goo.gl/1NV3DW
- Comerford KB, Pasin G. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods. Nutrients. 2016; 8: E446. Ref.: https://goo.gl/q5B5Cq
- Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions. Nutrients. 2017; 9: Ref.: https://goo.gl/nfyXuQ
- Shen XL, Zhao T, Zhou Y, Shi X, Zou Y, et al. Effect of Oat beta-Glucan Intake on Glycaemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity of Diabetic Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2016; 8: 39. Ref.: https://goo.gl/A7HJGC
- Biskup I, Gajcy M, Fecka I. The potential role of selected bioactive compounds from spelt and common wheat in glycemic control. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017; 26: 1013-1019. Ref.: https://goo.gl/yJt7ah
- Lee Y, Park K. Adherence to a Vegetarian Diet and Diabetes Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2017; 9: 603. Ref.: https://goo.gl/TL9mQk
- Salas-Salvado J, Guasch-Ferre M, Lee CH, Estruch R, Clish CB, et al. Protective Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. J Nutr. 2016; Ref.: https://goo.gl/nK6eZ3
- Naumann J, Biehler D, Luty T, Sadaghiani C. Prevention and Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes-What Is the Potential of Daily Water Intake and Its Mineral Nutrients? Nutrients. 2017; 9: 914. Ref.: https://goo.gl/k1qSr6
- Murillo AG, Fernandez ML. Potential of Dietary Non-Provitamin A Carotenoids in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Microvascular Complications. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md). 2016; 7: 14-24. Ref.: https://goo.gl/obWcWM
- Moradi M, Haghighatdoost F, Feizi A, Larijani B, Azadbakht L. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Diabetes Biomarkers: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. Arch Iran Med. 2016; 19: 588-596. Ref.: https://goo.gl/KswSu9
- Costello RB, Dwyer JT, Saldanha L, Bailey RL, Merkel J, et al. Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116: 1794-1802. Ref.: https://goo.gl/c3aY8V
- Costello RB, Dwyer JT, Bailey RL. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness. Nutr Rev. 2016; 74: 455-468. Ref.: https://goo.gl/cYrqVV
- McNally B, Griffin JL, Roberts LD. Dietary inorganic nitrate: From villain to hero in metabolic disease? Molecular nutrition & food research. 2016; 60: 67-78. Ref.: https://goo.gl/vCLneY