Ogori AF1*, Makinde JO2 and Ogori J3
1Department of Home Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University, Gashua, Nigeria
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University, Gashua, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Education Federal College of Education Kontagora, Nigeria
*Address for Correspondence: Ogori AF, Department of Home Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University, Gashua, Nigeria, Email: email@example.com
Sugasini Dhavamani, University of Illinois, USA, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dates: Submitted: 24 September 2018; Approved: 09 October 2018; Published: 10 October 2018
How to cite this article: Ogori AF, Makinde JO, Ogori J. Effects of Balanites Aegyptiaca (del) Seed Cake on Growth and Carcass Performance of Growing Rabbit. Arch Food Nutr Sci. 2018; 2: 010-015. DOI: 10.29328/journal.afns.1001012
Copyright: © 2018 Ogori AF, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Rabbit; Growth; Carcass; Balanites aegyptiaca seed cake; Groundnutcake; Evaluation
A study on growth and carcass performance was conducted to evaluate the effect of Balanites aegyptiaca seed cake meal (BASCM) as a substitute for groundnut cake in the diet of growing rabbit. Five experimental diets were formulated representing the following treatments: T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. T1 (0% BASCM) was served as the control diet, while T2, T3, T4 and T5 contained 25%, 50% 75% and 100% BASCM respectively. A total of 100 weaner rabbits of mixed breeds were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Zaria, Nigeria. The rabbits were fed the control diet during the one week of adjustment period. They were given vitalyte as anti-stress and were dewormed using ivermectin, at the end of one week of adjustment; the rabbits were housed in different hutches and fed their respective experimental diet for one month. Each treatment contained 20 rabbits and these treatments’ (T1-T5) each were replicated in four portions and each portion had five rabbits each. Results showed that all the parameters were significantly different (P<0.05) among the treatment groups. Balanites aegyptiaca seed cake meal can replace groundnut cake at 25% level inclusion without adverse effect on the rabbit physiology.
Rabbit production in developing countries as a means of alleviating world’s animal protein shortage is on the rise. This is attributed to several advantages of rabbit over other livestock in the tropics Taiwo AA, Adejuyigbe AO, Adebowale AE, Oshatan JS and David OO . It has been reported by Ayinde and Aromolaran  that feed accounted for 65.75% of the total cost of rabbit production and therefore recommended research into alternative and cheaper feeds for rabbits in Nigeria. Balanites aegyptiaca is widely grown in Nigeria. Early studies Locket CT, Calvert CC and Grivettic IE  showed that Balanites offers the most rapid and lowest means of providing adequate supplies of nutrients to the tropical people and their animals. Works on the chemical and nutritional composition of Balanites however, showed that Balanites tree contains chemical compounds namely saponins, tannins, nitrites, coumarines which could elicit deleterious effects in animals when consumed in large quantities (Hardman and Sofowora, 1972). Balanites aegyptiaca have been reported to have anti-inflamatory and analgesic, anthelmintic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antinoceptic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and larvicidal activities in animals (Dubey et al. 2011). The presence of the phytotoxins in Balanites may limit its intensive utilization in diets for man or livestock. Research on process treatments of balanites seed cake have been reported to have less of these deleterious material , when roasting soaking pretreatment are employed. Balanite saegyptiaca being a browse plant have been reported to improve the feeding potential of ruminant animals in the semi-arid . Therefore, the objectives of this Research is to evaluate Growth and Carcass Performance of Growing Rabbit using balanites aeqyptiaca roasted seed cake as a replacement for ground nut cake.
Materials and Methods
The rabbits were allocated to four lots with five rabbits each. Each treatment contained 20 rabbits and these treatments’ (T1-T5) each were replicated in four portions and each portion had five rabbit. Each treatment (T1-T5) were replicated four times in a completely randomized design (CRD).
Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively. T1 (control) contain Groundnut cake as its protein source while T2, T3 and T4 contain,25%, 50% 75% and 100% Balanites seed cake replacing GNC in the diets. The gross composition of the experimental diets is shown in the table 1.
Growth performance study
Rabbits were weighed individually at the beginning of the experiment and, thereafter, weekly for one month duration of the experiment using weighing scale. Weighing was done before the morning feeding. The parameters determined for the evaluation of growth performance were initial weight (g), average weekly feed intake (g), average weekly weight gain (g) and feed conversion ratio. Weight gain for each animal was calculated by subtracting the initial weight (g) from the final weight (g), while the feed conversion ratio was calculated by dividing the average feed intake (g) by the average weight gain (g) per week.
At the end of the feeding trial, two rabbits per treatment were randomly selected for carcass evaluation. The rabbits were fasted overnight but allowed access to water thus emptying the gut and allow excretion of the undigested feed residue. They were weighed, slaughtered, defurred using flame (singering) and then eviscerated. Individual internal organ (heart, liver, kidneys, lungs, viscera and spleen) were weighed and expressed as percentage of the carcass weight. The dressed carcasses were weighed and dressing percentage was calculated as a percentage of the live weight using the formula.
Dressing percentage (%) = Carcass weight x 100 Live weight
The carcass was subsequently cut into different portions viz: head, tail, feet, shoulder, rack/ribs, loin and hind legs, weighed on sensitive weighing scale and expressed as percentage of the carcass following the standard procedures described by Njidda and Isidahomen .
Results and Discussion
The proximate compositions of the raw, roasted cake from Balanites aeqyptiaca before the diet experimentation diets are presented in table 2. Proximate analysis of raw, roasted balanites aegyptica seed cake revealed the presence of dry matter(93%), crude protein(17.7%) crude fiber (5.95%), ash (9.10%), nitrogen free extract (49.71%) and energy (4.31%) for raw balanites seed cake flour while roasted cake had dry matter(92.83%), crude protein(19.26%) crude fiber (5.20%), ash (10.25%), nitrogen free extract (49.57%) and energy (4.12%). The crude protein and ash values of the roasted cakes values were high and more favorably than the control (raw) seed cake flour.
Table 2 revealed phytochemicals in cake from raw (A1) and roasted Balanites seed cakes (A). Alkaloid from roasted (4.20 %), raw cake (29 %) samples shows reduced value however revealing reduce anti –microbial potency for feed use. The saponin content in the A1 and A samples showed a drastic reduction in saponin values. This revealed that in feed formulation, bitter associated compound from Balanites aeqyptiaca may be reduced in roasted cake seeds formulated meals. Cake from roasted Balanites aeqyptiaca seed cake may not cause haemolytic problem, precipitating and coagulation of red blood cells in animal when use as feed ration.The flavonoid values were low for roasted cake (2.03%)compare with the raw or control sample (13.40%). This confers that cake from Balanites aeqyptiaca seed oil may be natural anti-oxidants and also keep feed products longer. Phenolic values were low for roasted (10.40%) than the raw sample (108.05) phenolic content. Roasting drastically reduced phenolic contents of Balanites seed cake hence reducing its anti- nutritional efficacy. The ability of this cake to inhibits microbial growths or activities may be due to alkaloids content in the cake which have traceable microbial and toxicological inhibition on feed.
The result of the Growth performance of rabbits fed with roasted balaintes seed cake replaced with groundnut cake is presented in table 3. The results showed that all parameters measured were not significantly (p<0.05) different at level of inclusions except feed conversion ration.
Weight is gained as percentage substitution increased significantly. Treatment T2 (25%) is significantly higher (p>0.05) compared to the control and the other treated samples. However T5 (100%) was significantly similar with other treatments and treatment T0 (0%).The observed increase in weight with increased of inclusion of seed cake may be due to high energy in the cake treated compared to the control sample treatment (T0).
Treatment (T2, 25%) Balanites inclusion gave significant value at p>0.05 for daily weight gain. Treatment (T5, 100%) showed a greater values in weight gain on a daily basis which is significantly higher than the treatment T1, T3 and T4 respectively. The low value observed in Treatments T1,T3 and T4 revealed fiber interaction with the meal formulation [7-9].
The total and daily Feed intake of treatment (T3, 50%) had the highest value and this was followed significantly by treatment (T2, 25%). Treatment T4 and T5 showed the lowest total feed intake and daily feed intake ratios respectively. This variation may be due to traces of phytotoxins or other anti-nutritional factors in the cake.
The feed conversion ration depict that treatment (T4,75%) is significantly (p>0.05)greater than treatment T1. This increase was followed by treatment T5 and T3 percentage treatment respectively. The energy conversion in Treatment T4 is higher than the other treatments. This conversion and utilization of bio-meal from balanites may be due to low ant- nutritional factor from process approach on the cake as well as inability to obtain enough energy from the percentage inclusion (Smith, 2001).
There was no mortality during the growth evaluations period, this maybe because of the bioactive and anti-microbial ingredient inherent in the cake at the process stage.
The result of the carcass characteristics of rabbit fed with Balanites cake as a replacement with groundnut cake is presented in table 4. There were no significant (P<0.05) differences in the parameters measured except treatment T1, T2. Rabbit live weight showed a significant increase in (T5, 100%) BASM inclusion. This significant increase was followed by treatment T2m and T1. Treatment T4 revealed low live weight. The low live weight observed may be due to inclusion level and conversion synergy at inclusion and inherent fibre blend utilization . After slaughtering, the carcass weight on treatment T5, T1 and T2 revealed a significant slaughter weight (p>0.05) compare to treatment T2 and T3. The dressed weight revealed that there were no significant difference for treatment T1, T2 and T5 carcass treatments respectively. This trend was also revealed in carcass weight at (p>0.05) significant level. The dressing percentage further revealed that T5, T2 were not significant at (p>0.05) compared to treatments T0, T1, T3 and T4 respectively. The chest percentage carcass dressed, thigh, lion and hind leg were significantly different (p>0.05) fromT5 treatment. This was followed by treatment T3, T2 and T1 percentage inclusion treatments. The organ weight from carcass evaluation showed that rabbit fed with treatment T5 inclusion as well as treatment T2 and T1 were significantly different.
The kidney weight of carcass further revealed that there were no significant difference in kidney weight between T5 and T2. The treatments T5, T2 were significantly different from treatment T1, T3 and T4 balanites included samples. This observation may be because of the absorbable nature of protein moieties from the ration treatment compare to treatment T1
The liver weight showed a high value in treatment T5 and T2. The treatment on T3 and T2 are significantly different from other samples. The spleen and heart also revealed similar trend in weight except on treatment T5 and T2 which revealed no significant difference. There exit significant difference in spleen and heart for treatment T1, T2 and T4 spleen and heart carcass weight compared to T0 and T3 and T5 respectively. This may be due to traces of saponin and alkaloid that may not have been deactivated during Balanites cake roasting, improper roasting.
From the study, Balanites aegyptiaca, seed cake showed potentials to replace ground nut cake at 25% inclusion with no negative implication or effect on rabbit growth and carcass performance for growing Rabbit.
The authors acknowledged the grant received from the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TetFund) through the Federal University, Gashua, Nigeria that made it possible to carry out the research work.
- Taiwo AA, Adejuyigbe AO, Adebowale AE, Oshatan JS, David OO. Performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned rabbits fed forage supplemented with concentrate. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 2005; 32: 74–78. Ref.: https://goo.gl/ZbT5C9
- Ayinde IA, Aromolaran AB. Economic of Rabbit Production in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 1998; 1: 100–105. Ref.: https://goo.gl/6rmkz2
- Lockett CT, Calvert CC, Grivetti LE. Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of Rural Fulani North east of Nigeria. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2002; 51: 195-208. Ref.: https://goo.gl/rfdyh4
- Makinde OJ, Enyigwe PC, Babajide SE, Atsumbe JA, Ibe EA, et al. Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finisher Broilers Fed Rice Offal Based Diets Supplemented with Exogenous Enzyme. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2014; 4: 144-149. Ref.: https://goo.gl/kEjgYT
- Njidda AA, Ikhimioya I, Muhhamad IR. Chemical Composition and its Relationship to in vitro dry matter degradability of leaves of semi- arid browse species forages. Proc. 35th Conf., Nig. Soc. For Anim. Prod. 14th-17th March. Univ of Ibadan, Nigeria. 2010;
- Njidda AA, Isidahomen CE. Hematological parameters and carcass characteristics of weanling rabbits fed sesame seed meal (Sesamumindicum) in a semi-arid region. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 2011; 31: 35-39. Ref.: https://goo.gl/S1PZkC
- Makinde OJ, Sekoni AA, Babajide S, Samuel I, Ibe E. Comparative response of japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed palm kernel meal and brewer’s dried grain based diets. Inter J Agri Biosci. 2013;2: 217-220. Ref.: https://goo.gl/Qtknwp
- Akomka AJ, Aminu N, Ayuba D, Rose YN. Effect of graded levels of browse forage (balanites aegyptiaca) leaves inclusion in the diets of growing rabbits. Journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2017; 2 : 38-42; Ref.: https://goo.gl/m3wRUZ
- Madrigal SA, Watkins SE, Adams MH, Waldroup PW. Defatted rice bran to restrict growth rate inbroiler chicken. J Appl Poultry Res.1995; 4: 170-181. Ref.: https://goo.gl/zkPMLd
- Attia YA. Performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and plasma constituents of meat type drakesfed diets containing different levels of lysine with or without a microbial phytase. Archiv of Animal Nutrition. 2003; 66: 39-48. Ref.: https://goo.gl/oQURCs