Volume 4 Issue 1

2020-10-15 Mini Review

Hormones and depression in women

It is well known that depression is more common in women than in men with more prescriptions for antidepressants, hospital admissions for depression and suicide attempts. However another aspect to be considered is that depression is different in women than men because women have depressive episodes at times of hormonal shift which is a physiological phenomenon not encountered in men. This is why hormone therapy is so important.


Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001022 Cite this Article

2020-09-28 Research Article

Prevalence and measurement of anxiety and depression in nurses during COVID pandemic in Nepal


Background: Anxiety and depression are under reported, underdiagnosed mental illness in health worker in Nepal especially during COVID pandemic. The study was carried out as an observational study on nurses in Nepal. In this study we attempted to assess the incidence and impact of depression and anxiety in nurses who are working upfront in different hospitals during this crisis.

Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among nurses in Nepal during COVID pandemic who are working in various hospitals.

Method: A cross-sectional non-probability purposive sampling with observational analysis was carried out and the sample was collected from nurses working in different hospitals. Prevalence of anxiety and depression was assessed using a structured and validated questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaires (GAD) with a cut-off score for various levels of anxiety while Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was used to assess depression.

Result: The analysis of these different scales revealed that disabling anxiety prevailed at highest (43.6%) in nursing staff according to HAM-A scale. Moderate anxiety also seemed to be higher (> 20%) in GAD questionnaire.

Conclusion: This is the first study carried out in Nepal that investigates the mental health of nurses who are working in the frontline in this COVID pandemic situation. The study revealed that our nurses who have given their life in the line are suffering from serious mental health problems.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001021 Cite this Article

2020-08-26 Review Article

The relationship of cell phone use and aggression among young adults with moderating roles of gender and marital status


The use of cell phones has remarkably increased in the last two decades with several pros and cons. The negative consequences of cell phones on mental health have not been studied widely. Aggression, in this regard was a completely neglected area. The present study, therefore, was carried out to investigate the relationship between cell phone use and aggression and to further identify the moderating roles of gender and marital status between cell phone use and aggression. The inquiry included 500 young adults from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire was administered. It was hypothesized that there would be a strong positive relationship between cell phone use and aggression. It was further hypothesized that gender and marital status would be significant moderators between cell phone use and aggression. The results supported the hypotheses on significant differences and made a significant contribution in the existing scientific literature.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001020 Cite this Article

2020-08-25 Research Article

Psychological studies of stress experienced by seamen during a long-distance sea voyage#


The issues investigated in the current study pertain to selected psychological aspects of human functioning in long-term stress conditions. Results of the analyses performed in this study have submitted evidence to confirm the hypothesis in which it is stated that staying on the sea for a long time is a difficult situation which contributes - to a greater or smaller extent - to starting the stress process in sailors. The role of interpersonal competencies that has been found most distinct; high level of this variable contributed to reducing both anxiety and the feeling of loneliness. It has been evidenced in the research that the skill of good functioning in varied social groups, which results from high level of development of several traits including: openness, spontaneity, responsibility, and sensitivity, becomes particularly important in long-term difficult situations in which there is little possibility of eliminating the real menace.

Another conclusion to be inferred from the research is the one confirming the theoretical suggestion in which the importance of ‘ego strength’ in modifying the course of stress process is emphasised. This personality dimension has turned out to constitute the factor capable of protecting an individual against increase in both anxiety states and the feeling of loneliness during sea isolation.

Another issue considered in the current study pertains to defining the role of ‘family variable’ in mediating the course of stress process under conditions of long-term task isolation. The analyses have confirmed the hypothesis in which it was assumed that sailors functioning in family systems characterised by high level of integration and quality, experience lower emotional costs during a voyage. Generally, it may be claimed that - according to the research results of the study - ‘family variables’ may constitute a significant predictor of both the ‘quality’ of a man’s functioning and personal costs he experiences in long-term stress conditions.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001019 Cite this Article

2020-05-14 Research Article

Socio-demographic characteristics and other factors associated with depressive illness among medical students at the University of Port Harcourt


Background: The burden of depression as a mental disorder has continued to increase and constituting an enormous public health concern among all age groups. A number of socio-demographic, and other factors including a stressful and rigorous academic programme or curriculum such as the one run in most medical schools could contribute to the occurrence of depression among medical students.

AIM: To determine the socio-demographic and other factors associated with depression among medical students in the University of Port Harcourt.

Methodology: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Appropriate sample size was calculated and the stratified random sampling method was used to select the subjects. A well-structured open ended self-administered socio-demographic questionnaire was administered to the students. The Zung Self-Rated Depression Scale was used to assess the depression status of each respondent. The data were analyzed via descriptive and analytical methods.

Results: The prevalence of depression among the medical students was 5.3%. Fourteen students (4.6%) were mildly depressed while only two respondents had moderate depression. Year 3 had the highest prevalence with 10.5% followed by final year with 5.3%, while the only 2 cases of moderate depression were found among students in year 2 of their medical programme. Two hundred and seventy-one respondents (88.8%) were found to have good knowledge of depression, 32 (10.5%) were found to have average knowledge of depression and 2(0.7%) had poor knowledge of depression.

Conclusion: Depression does occur among medical students at the University of Port Harcourt albeit low, and was associated with a number of socio-demographic and other factors. The present medical curriculum and programme should be sustained and more efforts at making it less stressful and academically friendly, be made to further reduce the current rate of psychological stress and depression among the students.


Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001018 Cite this Article

2020-04-27 Short Communication

Problems shared in psychiatry helpline of a teaching hospital in eastern Nepal during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown


COVID-19 pandemic soon apparently proved to be havoc and a great stressor. During such a stressful time, mental health is in threat. Here, we intend to review the presenting problems/ symptoms as shared in psychiatry helpline of a Teaching Hospital in eastern Nepal during the second week of lockdown and to reflect on to emotional, including mood problems.

It is an institute based period observation noted for all psychiatry helpline calls during 1 week of lockdown days of COVID-19. Their concerns and problems were listened and symptoms clarified by a consultant psychiatrist to help them as far as possible through the telephonic conversation. Maintaining the confidentiality, basic information were noted down in a semi-structured proforma to record certain socio-demographic and clinical information (including mood and other emotional symptoms).

We received 102 helpline calls of 60 clients for psychiatry in 1 week, from 14 districts. More patients being discussed were males (35/60), average age being 34.15 (15 - 70) years. More patients were regular follow-up cases with some new issues (24/60) and 18/60 each were new clients and regular follow-up cases. Majority had exacerbated symptoms in the wake of COVID-19 as: emotional (47/60; mood 24/60, anxiety/worry 23/60) symptoms along with disturbed sleep (32/60); treatment/service issues (31/60) and changed routines. Most common mental problems were Bipolar affective disorder, Psychosis, Anxiety and Depression and advices included Antipsychotics, Benzodiazepines, Antidepressants, along with some Psycho-education. Most common concerns were about OPD service, worsening symptoms and local unavailability of medicines. Many had mood and emotional symptoms in this stressful time, both simple amenable to telephonic advices and severe requiring to be called to emergency service.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001017 Cite this Article

2020-03-10 Research Article

Therapeutic application of herbal essential oil and its bioactive compounds as complementary and alternative medicine in cardiovascular-associated diseases


Background: Herbal essential oil contains pharmacological benefits for intervention treatment of various diseases. Studies have demonstrated its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect involving in vitro cell culture and preclinical animal models. It has been also traditionally used to reduce anxiety and hypertension in human. However, scientific studies elucidating its mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, as well as its effectiveness and safety as phytotherapeutic compounds are still progressing. Recent studies showed its promising effect in depression-cardiovascular disease intervention. However, comprehensive evaluations to enlighten latest advancement and potential of herbal essential oil are still lacking.

Objective: In this systematic review, the depression-cardiovascular effects of herbal essential oil on lipid profile, biochemical and physiological parameters (e.g haemodynamic) are presented. The route of delivery and mechanism of action as well as main bioactive compounds present in respective essential oil are discussed.

Methods: Article searches are made using NCBI PubMed, PubMed Health, SCOPUS, Wiley Online, tandfonline, ScienceDirect and Espacenet for relevant studies and intellectual properties related to essential oil, depression and cardiovascular disease.

Results: In experimentation involving in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials, herbal essential oil showed its effectiveness in reducing coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries), heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, heart failure, heart valve disease, congenital heart disease, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), pericardial disease, aorta disease, Marfan syndrome and vascular (blood vessel) disease.

Conclusion: This review gives a valuable insight on the potential of essential oil in the intervention of depression associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies showed that herbal essential oil could act as vasodepressor, calcium channel blocker, antihyperlipidemia, anticoagulant, antiatherogenesis and antithrombotic. It can be proposed as an interventional therapy for depression-cardiovascular disease to reduce doses and long-term side-effect of current pharmacological approach.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001016 Cite this Article

2020-03-09 Research Article

Impact of Christian meditation and biofeedback on the mental health of graduate students in seminary: A pilot study


With increasing awareness of the mental health issues among the clergy and seminary students, it is important to explore possible interventions to help address their mental health concerns. This pilot study examined the impact of Christian meditation and biofeedback on levels of stress, anxiety, and depression of seminary students. Participants of this study included 20 theology students from two seminary campuses. Participants were of various ethnic backgrounds and had an average age of 31. At the beginning of the study, participants were randomly assigned to practice either Christian meditation or biofeedback for 4 weeks, three times per day, and to keep a log of their practice times. The results from the paired samples t-tests indicated that both Christian meditation and biofeedback significantly reduced the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by the participants. ANCOVA indicated that neither intervention was more effective than the other. Seminaries, churches, and pastoral care groups should look into these interventions as a good source to help their clergy cope with stress, anxiety and depression.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001015 Cite this Article

2020-03-05 Research Article

The different levels of depression and anxiety among Pakistani professionals


The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between work-stress, depression and anxiety among six major professionals (doctors, engineers, bankers, nurses, teachers, and lawyers). The inquiry included 260 professionals from different private and governmental sector organizations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Job Stress Scale and the subscales of Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale for depression and anxiety were administered. Based on the hypotheses, a strong positive correlation was found between work stress and depression & anxiety. The current study revealed that stress at work not only prevailed among different Pakistani professionals on severely alarming levels but significantly contributed in developing depression and anxiety.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001014 Cite this Article

2020-03-02 Mini Review

Depression as a civilization-deformed adaptation and defence mechanism


Depression is currently one of the main barriers to further civilizational development. Despite intensive efforts, it is a growing health, social and economic problem. We still lack clarity regarding the ethology of depression and treatment is still mainly symptomatic. The authors postulate that depression has similarities with anxiety and from an evolutionary perspective is an archaic defence mechanism. Formerly, through the agency of complex psychological, biological and social mechanisms, healing was facilitated in conditions of an intense, short-term nature. Adverse civilizational and environmental changes have caused pathological changes in both the mechanism of depression and corresponding defence mechanisms such as the induction of an anxiety state. Related to depression is the mechanism of thanatosis, concerning chronic biological and psychosocial dysfunctions. It is a mechanism for activating self-eliminating processes to free the community from the burden of a dysfunctional individual.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001013 Cite this Article

2020-02-27 Case Report

Symptomatic cluster-like headache in Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) and possible arteritis: Case report and an overview of the literature on secondary cluster-like headaches


Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache belonging to the group of trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias, characterized by short attacks of very severe headache, always involving the same side of the head, more frequently localized to the periorbital and temporal area, associated with homolateral tearing, red eye, nose obstruction or rhinorrhea, ptosis, miosis, and restlessness. These attacks generally last 15-180 minutes and can occur from once every day to 8 times a day.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001012 Cite this Article

2020-02-25 Research Article

Translation, adaptation and validation of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in Urdu


The current study was carried out to translate, adapt and validate Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in Urdu language and in Pakistani culture. The current translation was aimed to produce a more user friendly and clinically applied version of DASS. The systematic procedure involved in translation focused on maximizing levels of semantic and conceptual equivalence. A test re-test pilot study was conducted on 30 participants to analyze the translated version initially, the results of which determined a significant positive correlation between original and translated versions. The main study involved 300 conveniently selected Pakistanis. The findings revealed that the translated version titled U-DASS-42 was highly reliable and valid in Pakistani culture. The newly developed U-DASS-42 is attached with this paper for the convenience of Pakistani researchers.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001011 Cite this Article

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