The main purpose of the present study was to find out the differences on suicidal ideation, hostility, hopelessness and negative self-evaluation among heroin addicts with comorbid depression. After reviewing the literature, it was hypothesized that heroin addicts with high depression may have high scores on variable of suicidal ideation, hostility, hopelessness, and negative self-evaluation as compared to those with low depression. The sample was consisted of 60 males from Low-socioeconomic status (SES) (34 of them were screened as having high scores on the variable of depression and 26 were screened as low scorers). Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (Siddiqui & Shah, 1997) and Urdu version of Suicide Probability Scale (Cull & Gill, 1982) was administered. To compare heroin addicts with high and low depression on various variables, t - test was applied. The research findings showed that heroin addicts with mean age of 30 years (range 20 to 40) having the mean duration of heroin dependence of 10 years with high depression were significantly high on the variable of suicidal ideation, hostility and hopelessness (p < .05) as compared to those with low depression. And there was no significant difference on the variable of negative self-evaluation for both groups (p > .05). So it was concluded that services for patients with Heroin addiction should include periodic screening for suicidal behavior along with psychiatric treatment and psychosocial support
This paper focuses on the mental health burden on medical and healthcare residents during the 1st wave of COVID-19 pandemic crisis in 2020 describing the activities of a mental health service for residents (NAPREME) in a public university, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil; and a preliminary study showing an increasing of depressive symptoms and depression among residents. Data is related to the screening interviews of medical residents and healthcare multi-professional residents who sought the mental health service from March to December 2020. A comparison was conducted with the same period in 2019 (covering a period when Covid-19 was not affecting the Brazilian population). There was a 22% demand increase in 2020. Of the total amount who sought treatment: 23% were medical residents, 22% nursing residents, and the remaining distributed among other professions; and 58% were first year residents and 34% second year. Data from the BDI questionnaire showed some variance between the two years: the mean score for 2020 was 24.67 (± 7.86) which is in the depression range, higher than the mean score of 19.91 points in the previous year (± 10.15) which is only in the depressive symptoms range (p < 0.005). In the pandemic period there was an increase in residents with depression from 49% to 70%. Depression, anxiety, stress and burnout syndrome were observed, demanding psychological and psychiatric care for this population. Assessment of residents’ mental health will continue during 2021, during the 2nd wave of COVID-19 and an additional analysis will be conducted along the year.
Background/aim: Amitriptyline belongs to class of known as tricycline antidepresant (TCA) that is being used to treat anxiety and depressive states. It may help improve mood and feelings of well-being, relieve anxiety and tension, help to improve sleep and increase energy level. The study investigated the effect of amitriptyline on learning and memory using eighteen (18) healthy Swiss mice of both sexes weighing 16 – 25 g.
Method: The animals were divided into three (3) groups consisting of six (6) animals each. Group 1 served as the control group, Group 2 was administered with amitriptyline at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 3 mls of distilled water, and used to test for learning, while Group three was also given similar administration like Group 2, but used to test for memory. All the animals were tested for learning and memory performance using Novel object recognition task and Morris water maze test.
Results: The results obtained from the Novel object recognition task showed that there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total object approach in acquisition trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the acquisition trial of the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in retention trial of amitriptyline group when compared to retention trial in the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total duration exploring objects in acquisition trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the acquisition trial of the control group. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total duration exploring objects in retention trial of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the retention trial of the control group. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the index of habituation of amitriptyline treated group when compared to the control group. The index of discrimination showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in amitriptyline treated group when compared to the control group and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in amitriptyline group when compared to the control group. In the Morris water maze test, Day 1 – 3 were for acquisition training, day 4 – 6 reversal training, day 7 the probe trial day and day 8 the visible platform day. During acquisition training in the Morris water maze test, there was no significant difference in Swim latencies in day 1 and 2. However in day 3, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in swim latency of group compared to control group and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in swim latency of amitriptyline treated group compared to the control group. During reversal training in day 1, 2 and 3, there was no significant difference in swim latency among the three groups. Results for the retention quadrant in the probe trials showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in amitriptyline group when compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Results suggest that amitriptyline impairs learning and memory functions.
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