The current study was carried out to translate, adapt and validate Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in Urdu language and in Pakistani culture. The current translation was aimed to produce a more user friendly and clinically applied version of DASS. The systematic procedure involved in translation focused on maximizing levels of semantic and conceptual equivalence. A test re-test pilot study was conducted on 30 participants to analyze the translated version initially, the results of which determined a significant positive correlation between original and translated versions. The main study involved 300 conveniently selected Pakistanis. The findings revealed that the translated version titled U-DASS-42 was highly reliable and valid in Pakistani culture. The newly developed U-DASS-42 is attached with this paper for the convenience of Pakistani researchers.
Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache belonging to the group of trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias, characterized by short attacks of very severe headache, always involving the same side of the head, more frequently localized to the periorbital and temporal area, associated with homolateral tearing, red eye, nose obstruction or rhinorrhea, ptosis, miosis, and restlessness. These attacks generally last 15-180 minutes and can occur from once every day to 8 times a day.
Depression is currently one of the main barriers to further civilizational development. Despite intensive efforts, it is a growing health, social and economic problem. We still lack clarity regarding the ethology of depression and treatment is still mainly symptomatic. The authors postulate that depression has similarities with anxiety and from an evolutionary perspective is an archaic defence mechanism. Formerly, through the agency of complex psychological, biological and social mechanisms, healing was facilitated in conditions of an intense, short-term nature. Adverse civilizational and environmental changes have caused pathological changes in both the mechanism of depression and corresponding defence mechanisms such as the induction of an anxiety state. Related to depression is the mechanism of thanatosis, concerning chronic biological and psychosocial dysfunctions. It is a mechanism for activating self-eliminating processes to free the community from the burden of a dysfunctional individual.
The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between work-stress, depression and anxiety among six major professionals (doctors, engineers, bankers, nurses, teachers, and lawyers). The inquiry included 260 professionals from different private and governmental sector organizations of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Job Stress Scale and the subscales of Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale for depression and anxiety were administered. Based on the hypotheses, a strong positive correlation was found between work stress and depression & anxiety. The current study revealed that stress at work not only prevailed among different Pakistani professionals on severely alarming levels but significantly contributed in developing depression and anxiety.
With increasing awareness of the mental health issues among the clergy and seminary students, it is important to explore possible interventions to help address their mental health concerns. This pilot study examined the impact of Christian meditation and biofeedback on levels of stress, anxiety, and depression of seminary students. Participants of this study included 20 theology students from two seminary campuses. Participants were of various ethnic backgrounds and had an average age of 31. At the beginning of the study, participants were randomly assigned to practice either Christian meditation or biofeedback for 4 weeks, three times per day, and to keep a log of their practice times. The results from the paired samples t-tests indicated that both Christian meditation and biofeedback significantly reduced the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by the participants. ANCOVA indicated that neither intervention was more effective than the other. Seminaries, churches, and pastoral care groups should look into these interventions as a good source to help their clergy cope with stress, anxiety and depression.
Background: Herbal essential oil contains pharmacological benefits for intervention treatment of various diseases. Studies have demonstrated its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect involving in vitro cell culture and preclinical animal models. It has been also traditionally used to reduce anxiety and hypertension in human. However, scientific studies elucidating its mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, as well as its effectiveness and safety as phytotherapeutic compounds are still progressing. Recent studies showed its promising effect in depression-cardiovascular disease intervention. However, comprehensive evaluations to enlighten latest advancement and potential of herbal essential oil are still lacking.
Objective: In this systematic review, the depression-cardiovascular effects of herbal essential oil on lipid profile, biochemical and physiological parameters (e.g haemodynamic) are presented. The route of delivery and mechanism of action as well as main bioactive compounds present in respective essential oil are discussed.
Methods: Article searches are made using NCBI PubMed, PubMed Health, SCOPUS, Wiley Online, tandfonline, ScienceDirect and Espacenet for relevant studies and intellectual properties related to essential oil, depression and cardiovascular disease.
Results: In experimentation involving in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials, herbal essential oil showed its effectiveness in reducing coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries), heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, heart failure, heart valve disease, congenital heart disease, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), pericardial disease, aorta disease, Marfan syndrome and vascular (blood vessel) disease.
Conclusion: This review gives a valuable insight on the potential of essential oil in the intervention of depression associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies showed that herbal essential oil could act as vasodepressor, calcium channel blocker, antihyperlipidemia, anticoagulant, antiatherogenesis and antithrombotic. It can be proposed as an interventional therapy for depression-cardiovascular disease to reduce doses and long-term side-effect of current pharmacological approach.
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