Research Article

Prevalence and measurement of anxiety and depression in nurses during COVID pandemic in Nepal

Ayush Chandra*, Avinash Chandra and Nabina Sharma

Published: 09/28/2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 059-063

Abstract

Background: Anxiety and depression are under reported, underdiagnosed mental illness in health worker in Nepal especially during COVID pandemic. The study was carried out as an observational study on nurses in Nepal. In this study we attempted to assess the incidence and impact of depression and anxiety in nurses who are working upfront in different hospitals during this crisis.

Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among nurses in Nepal during COVID pandemic who are working in various hospitals.

Method: A cross-sectional non-probability purposive sampling with observational analysis was carried out and the sample was collected from nurses working in different hospitals. Prevalence of anxiety and depression was assessed using a structured and validated questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaires (GAD) with a cut-off score for various levels of anxiety while Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was used to assess depression.

Result: The analysis of these different scales revealed that disabling anxiety prevailed at highest (43.6%) in nursing staff according to HAM-A scale. Moderate anxiety also seemed to be higher (> 20%) in GAD questionnaire.

Conclusion: This is the first study carried out in Nepal that investigates the mental health of nurses who are working in the frontline in this COVID pandemic situation. The study revealed that our nurses who have given their life in the line are suffering from serious mental health problems.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001021 Cite this Article

References

  1. McGinty EE, Presskreischer R, Han H, Barry CL. Psychological Distress and Loneliness Reported by US Adults in 2018 and April 2020. JAMA. 2020; 324: 93-94. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32492088/
  2. Moir F, Yielder J, Sanson J, Chen Y. Depression in medical students: current insights. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2018; 9: 323-333. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29765261/
  3. Poudel C, Ramjan L, Everett B, Salamonson Y. Exploring migration intention of nursing students in Nepal: A mixed-methods study. Nurse Educ Pract. 2018; 29: 95-102. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29227907/
  4. Puthran R, Zhang MW, Tam WW, Ho RC. Prevalence of depression amongst medical students: a meta-analysis. Med Educ. 2016; 50: 456-468. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26995484/
  5. Rotenstein LS, Ramos MA, Torre M, Segal JB, Peluso MJ, et al. Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA. 2016; 316: 2214-2236. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27923088/
  6. Tam W, Lo K, Pacheco J. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students: overview of systematic reviews. Med Educ. 2019; 53: 345-354. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30474128/
  7. Letvak S, Ruhm CJ, McCoy T. Depression in hospital-employed nurses. Clin Nurse Spec. 2012; 26: 177-182. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22504476/
  8. Ardekani ZZ, Kakooei H, Ayattollahi SM, Choobineh A, Seraji GN. Prevalence of mental disorders among shift work hospital nurses in Shiraz, Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 2008; 11: 1605-1609. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18819649/
  9. Cheung T, Yip PS. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015; 12: 11072-1100. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26371020/
  10. Maharaj S, Lees T, Lal S. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in a Cohort of Australian Nurses. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 16: 61. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30591627/
  11. Nguyen DT, Dedding C, Pham TT, Wright P, Bunders J. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Vietnamese secondary school students and proposed solutions: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 1195. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24341792/
  12. Vuong DA, Van Ginneken E, Morris J, Ha ST, Busse R. Mental health in Vietnam: Burden of disease and availability of services. Asian J Psychiatr. 2011; 4: 65-70. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23050918/
  13. Pappa S, Ntella V, Giannakas T, Giannakoulis VG, Papoutsi E, et al. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun. 2020; 88: 901-907. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32437915/
  14. Schreiber MA, Differding J, Esposito TJ. Research: questions and answers from academic trauma surgeons. J Trauma. 2008; 64: 1113-1117. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18404083/
  15. Wang J, Schmitz N, Smailes E, Sareen J, Patten S. Workplace characteristics, depression, and health-related presenteeism in a general population sample. J Occup Environ Med. 2010; 52: 836-842. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20657301/
  16. Matza LS, Morlock R, Sexton C, Malley K, Feltner D. Identifying HAM-A cutoffs for mild, moderate, and severe generalized anxiety disorder. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2010; 19: 223-232. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20718076/  
  17. Plummer F, Manea L, Trepel D, McMillan D. Screening for anxiety disorders with the GAD-7 and GAD-2: a systematic review and diagnostic metaanalysis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2016; 39: 24-31. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26719105/
  18. Hu D, Kong Y, Li W, Han Q, Zhang X, et al. Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses and their associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A large-scale cross-sectional study. E Clin Med. 2020; 24: 100424.
  19. Stein DJ, Lim CCW, Roest AM, de Jonge P, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, et al. The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. BMC Med. 2017; 15: 143. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28756776/
  20. Tuckett A, Winters-Chang P, Bogossian F, Wood M. ‘Why nurses are leaving the profession ... lack of support from managers’: What nurses from an e-cohort study said. Int J Nurs Pract. 2015; 21: 359-366. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24571860/
  21. Schulz M, Damkroger A, Voltmer E, Lowe B, Driessen M, et al. Work-related behaviour and experience pattern in nurses: impact on physical and mental health. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2011; 18: 411-417. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21539686/
  22. Marazziti D, Consoli G, Picchetti M, Carlini M, Faravelli L. Cognitive impairment in major depression. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010; 626: 83-86. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19835870/