Research Article

Therapeutic application of herbal essential oil and its bioactive compounds as complementary and alternative medicine in cardiovascular-associated diseases

Ahmad Firdaus B Lajis* and Noor Hanis Ismail

Published: 03/10/2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 025-036


Background: Herbal essential oil contains pharmacological benefits for intervention treatment of various diseases. Studies have demonstrated its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect involving in vitro cell culture and preclinical animal models. It has been also traditionally used to reduce anxiety and hypertension in human. However, scientific studies elucidating its mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, as well as its effectiveness and safety as phytotherapeutic compounds are still progressing. Recent studies showed its promising effect in depression-cardiovascular disease intervention. However, comprehensive evaluations to enlighten latest advancement and potential of herbal essential oil are still lacking.

Objective: In this systematic review, the depression-cardiovascular effects of herbal essential oil on lipid profile, biochemical and physiological parameters (e.g haemodynamic) are presented. The route of delivery and mechanism of action as well as main bioactive compounds present in respective essential oil are discussed.

Methods: Article searches are made using NCBI PubMed, PubMed Health, SCOPUS, Wiley Online, tandfonline, ScienceDirect and Espacenet for relevant studies and intellectual properties related to essential oil, depression and cardiovascular disease.

Results: In experimentation involving in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials, herbal essential oil showed its effectiveness in reducing coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries), heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias, heart failure, heart valve disease, congenital heart disease, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), pericardial disease, aorta disease, Marfan syndrome and vascular (blood vessel) disease.

Conclusion: This review gives a valuable insight on the potential of essential oil in the intervention of depression associated with cardiovascular diseases. Studies showed that herbal essential oil could act as vasodepressor, calcium channel blocker, antihyperlipidemia, anticoagulant, antiatherogenesis and antithrombotic. It can be proposed as an interventional therapy for depression-cardiovascular disease to reduce doses and long-term side-effect of current pharmacological approach.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ida.1001016 Cite this Article


  1. Whayne TF. Ischemic Heart Disease and the Mediterranean Diet. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2014; 16: 491. PubMed:
  2. Minihane AM. Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and cardio-metabolic health, alone or with statins. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013; 67: 536–540. PubMed: PubMed:
  3. Medina-Remón A, Tresserra-Rimbau A, Pons A, Tur JA, Martorell M, et al. Effects of total dietary polyphenols on plasma nitric oxide and blood pressure in a high cardiovascular risk cohort. The PREDIMED randomized trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015; 25: 60– 67. PubMed:
  4. Devarajan S, Singh R, Chatterjee B, Zhang B, Ali A. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. J Clin Lipidol. 2016; 10: 339–349. PubMed:
  5. World Health Organization - Noncommunicable Diseases (NCD) Country Profiles. 2018.
  6. Chicco AJ, Sparagna GC, McCune SA, Johnson CA, Murphy RC, et al. Linoleate-Rich High-Fat Diet Decreases Mortality in Hypertensive Heart Failure Rats Compared With Lard and Low-Fat Diets. Hypertension. 2008; 52: 549–555. PubMed:
  7. Ram H, Jatwa R, Purohit A. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits. Biochem Res Int. 2014; 2014. 436848. PubMed:
  8. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Robbins Basic Pathology. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2013.
  9. Qadir MI, Manzoor A, Akash MSH. Potential role of medicinal plants for antiatherosclerosis activity. Bangladesh J Pharmacology. 2018; 13: 59.
  10. Dai L, Lu A, Zhong LL, Zheng G, Bian Z. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Hyperlipidaemia: A Review Based on Data Mining from 1990 to 2016. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017; 15: 520-531. PubMed:
  11. Istvan ES, Deisenhofer J. Structural Mechanism for Statin Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase. Science. 2001; 292: 1160–1164. PubMed:
  12. Ali SI, Gopalakrishnan B, Venkatesalu V. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Achillea millefolium L.: A Review: Achillea millefolium L.: A review. Phytother Res. 2017; 31: 1140–1161. PubMed:
  13. Rajput SB, Tonge MB, Karuppayil SM. An overview on traditional uses and pharmacological profile of Acorus calamus Linn. (Sweet flag) and other Acorus species. Phytomedicine. 2014; 21: 268–276. PubMed:
  14. Yu X, Sun S, Guo Y, Liu Y, Yang D, et al. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Chenpi): Botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018; 220: 265–282. PubMed:
  15. Lajis AFB. Realm of Thermoalkaline Lipases in Bioprocess Commodities. J Lipids. 2018; 2018: 22. PubMed:
  16. Bagheri S, Ahmadvand H, Khosrowbeygi A, Ghazanfari F, Jafari N, et al. Antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of Satureja khozestanica essential oil on LDL oxidation induced–CuSO4 in vitro. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013; 3: 22–27. PubMed:
  17. Shen X, Tao L, Li W, Zhang Y, Luo H, et al. Evidence-based antioxidant activity of the essential oil from Fructus A. zerumbet on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells’ injury induced by ox-LDL. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012; 12: 174. PubMed:
  18. Adefegha SA, Olasehinde TA, Oboh G. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Properties of Two Afromomum Species. J Oleo Sci. 2017; 66: 51–63. PubMed:
  19. Suanarunsawat T, Devakul Na Ayutthaya W, Songsak T, Thirawarapan S, Poungshompoo S. Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010; 46: 52–59. PubMed:
  20. Verma SK, Jain V, Singh DP. Effect of Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) on blood lipids, fibrinolysis and total antioxidant status in patients with ischemic heart disease. Asian Pacific J Trop Dis. 2012; 2: S739–S743.
  21. Danesi F, Elementi S, Neri R, Maranesi M, D’Antuono LF, et al. Effect of cultivar on the protection of cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by essential oils and aqueous extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56: 9911–9917. PubMed:
  22. Wu QD, Yuan DJ, Wang QW, Wu XR. Effects of volatile oil of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii on morphology and cell viability in cultured cardiac myocytes. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009; 32: 242-245. PubMed:
  23. Hortigón-Vinagre MP, Blanco J, Ruiz T, Henao F. Thymbra capitata essential oil prevents cell death induced by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Planta Med. 2014; 80: 1284–1290. PubMed:
  24. Yan Y, O W, Zhao X, Ye X, Zhang C, et al. Effect of essential oil of Syringa pinnatifolia Hemsl. var. alashanensis on ischemia of myocardium, hypoxia and platelet aggregation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 131: 248–255. PubMed:
  25. Huang N, Xu Y, Zhou H, Lin D, Zhang B, et al. Essential Oil from Fructus Alpiniae Zerumbet Protects Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells In Vitro from Injury Induced by High Glucose Levels by Suppressing Nuclear Transcription Factor-Kappa B Signaling. Med Sci Monit. 2017; 23: 4760–4767. PubMed:
  26. Zhang MY, Wu HW, Xu LP, Yang HJ. Pharmacological effect of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and relative active components on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2018; 43: 1536–1546. PubMed:
  27. Chang CK, Lin XR, Lin YL, Fang WH, Lin SW, et al. Magnolol-mediated regulation of plasma triglyceride through affecting lipoprotein lipase activity in apolipoprotein A5 knock-in mice. PLoS One. 2018; 13: e0192740. PubMed:
  28.  Santos-Miranda A, Gondim AN, Menezes-Filho JER, Vasconcelos CML, Cruz JS, et al. Pharmacological evaluation of R(+)-pulegone on cardiac excitability: role of potassium current blockage and control of action potential waveform. Phytomedicine. 2014; 21: 1146–1153. PubMed:
  29. Cardoso Lima T, Mota M, Barbosa-Filho J, Viana Dos Santos M, De Sousa D. Structural relationships and vasorelaxant activity of monoterpenes. DARU. 2012; 20: 23. PubMed:
  30. Vallianou I, Peroulis N, Pantazis P, Hadzopoulou-Cladaras M. Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity. PLoS One. 2011; 6: e20516. PubMed:
  31. Chung MJ, Woo Park K, Heon Kim K, Kim CT, Pill Baek J, et al. Asian plantain (Plantago asiatica) essential oils suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase expression in vitro and in vivo and show hypocholesterolaemic properties in mice. Br J Nutr. 2008; 99: 67-75. PubMed:
  32. de Siqueira RJ, Duarte GP, Magalhães PJ, Lahlou S. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats. Nat Prod Commun. 2013; 8: 1167–1170. PubMed:
  33. de Siqueira RJ, Magalhães PJ, Leal-Cardoso JH, Duarte GP, Lahlou S. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves and its main constituents, anethole and estragole, in normotensive conscious rats. Life Sci. 2006; 78: 2365–2372. PubMed:
  34. Lahlou S, Interaminense LF, Leal-Cardoso JH, Duarte GP. Antihypertensive effects of the essential oil of Alpinia zerumbet and its main constituent, terpinen-4-ol, in DOCA-salt hypertensive conscious rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2003; 17: 323–330. PubMed:
  35. Pinto NV, Assreuy AM, Coelho-de-Souza AN, Ceccatto VM, Magalhães PJ, et al. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects of the essential oil from aerial parts of Alpinia zerumbet and its main constituent 1,8-cineole in rats. Phytomedicine. 2009; 16: 1151–1155. PubMed:
  36. Alves-Santos TR, de Siqueira RJ, Duarte GP, Lahlou S. Cardiovascular Effects of the Essential Oil of Croton argyrophylloides in Normotensive Rats: Role of the Autonomic Nervous System. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 2016. PubMed:
  37. Shiva Kumar A, Jeyaprakash K, Chellappan DR, Murugan R. Vasorelaxant and cardiovascular properties of the essential oil of Pogostemon elsholtzioides. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 199: 86–90. PubMed:
  38. de Siqueira RJ, Macedo FI, Interaminense Lde F, Duarte GP, Magalhães PJ, et al. 1Nitro-2-phenylethane, the main constituent of the essential oil of Aniba canelilla, elicits a vago-vagal bradycardiac and depressor reflex in normotensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010; 638: 90–98. PubMed:
  39. Lahlou S, Figueiredo AF, Magalhães PJ, Leal-Cardoso JH. Cardiovascular effects of 1,8-cineole, a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils, in normotensive rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002; 80: 1125–1131. PubMed:
  40. Lahlou S, Leal-Cardoso JH, Magalhães PJ. Essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius decreases blood pressure through an action upon vascular smooth muscle: studies in DOCAsalt hypertensive rats. Planta Med. 2000; 66: 138–143. PubMed:
  41. Lahlou S, Leal-Cardoso JH, Magalhães PJ, Coelho-de-Souza AN, Duarte GP. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius in rats: role of the autonomic nervous system. Planta Med. 1999; 65: 553-557. PubMed:
  42. Lahlou S, Ferreira Lima Carneiro-Leão R, Leal-Cardoso JH. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa in DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats. Phytomedicine. 2002; 9: 715–720. PubMed:
  43. Guedes DN, Silva DF, Barbosa-Filho JM, de Medeiros IA. Endothelium-dependent hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of the essential oil from aerial parts of Mentha x villosa in rats. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11: 490–497. PubMed:
  44. Lahlou S, Carneiro-Leão RF, Leal-Cardoso JH, Toscano CF. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, piperitenone oxide, in normotensive anaesthetised rats: role of the autonomic nervous system. Planta Med. 2001; 67: 638–643. PubMed:
  45. Guedes DN, Silva DF, Barbosa-Filho JM, de Medeiros IA. Endotheliumdependent hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of the essential oil from aerial parts of Mentha x villosa in rats. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11: 490–497. PubMed:
  46. Kang P, Ryu KH, Lee JM, Kim HK, Seol GH. Endothelium- and smooth muscle-dependent vasodilator effects of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara: Focus on Ca2+ modulation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 82: 467–471. PubMed:
  47. Suntar I, Khan H, Patel S, Celano R, Rastrelli L. An Overview on Citrus aurantium L.: Its Functions as Food Ingredient and Therapeutic Agent. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018; 2018: 1–12. PubMed:
  48. Rasheed HM, Khan T, Wahid F, Khan R, Shah AJ. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 1–9.  PubMed:
  49. Costa CA, Bidinotto LT, Takahira RK, Salvadori DM, Barbisan LF, et al. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 49: 2268–2272. PubMed:
  50. Moreira FV, Bastos JFA, Blank AF, Alves PB, Santos MRV. Chemical composition and cardiovascular effects induced by the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus DC. Stapf, Poaceae, in rats. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2010; 20: 904– 909.
  51. de Menezes IA, Moreira IJ, de Paula JW, Blank AF, Antoniolli AR, et al. Cardiovascular effects induced by Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil in rats: involvement of calcium channels and vagal pathway. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010; 62: 215–221. PubMed:
  52. Santos MR, Carvalho AA, Medeiros IA, Alves PB, Marchioro M, et al. Cardiovascular effects of Hyptis fruticosa essential oil in rats. Fitoterapia. 2007; 78: 186–191. PubMed:
  53. Ribeiro-Filho HV, de Souza Silva CM, de Siqueira RJ, Lahlou S, dos Santos AA, et al. Biphasic cardiovascular and respiratory effects induced by β-citronellol. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016; 775: 96–105. PubMed:
  54. Bastos JF, Moreira IJ, Ribeiro TP, Medeiros IA, Antoniolli AR, et al. Hypotensive and Vasorelaxant Effects of Citronellol, a Monoterpene Alcohol, in Rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009; 106: 331–337. PubMed:
  55. Santos BA, Roman-Campos D, Carvalho MS, Miranda FM, Carneiro DC, et al. Cardiodepressive effect elicited by the essential oil of Alpinia speciosa is related to L-type Ca2+ current blockade. Phytomedicine. 2011; 18: 539–543. PubMed:
  56. Abass IS, Al-Ezzi MI, Arif IS, Jasim GA. Determination of Essential Oil Percentage with Evaluation of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Three Natural Gums in Rats. 2010; 4.
  57. Khan SJ, Afroz S, Khan RA. Antihyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Cymbopogon jwarancusa in high-fat high-sugar diet model. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018; 31: 1341–1345. PubMed:
  58. Mehdizadeh R, Parizadeh MR, Khooei AR, Mehri S, Hosseinzadeh H. Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013; 16: 56–63. PubMed:
  59. Imenshahidi M, Razavi BM, Faal A, Gholampoor A, Mousavi SM, et al. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Safranal on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015; 14: 585–590. PubMed:
  60. Lahlou S, Interaminense Lde F, Leal-Cardoso JH, Morais SM, Duarte GP. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves in rats: role of the autonomic nervous system. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004; 31: 219–225. PubMed:
  61. el Tahir KE, Ashour MM, al-Harbi MM. The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen Pharmacol. 1993; 24: 1123–1131. PubMed:
  62. Bigliani MC, Rossetti V, Grondona E, Lo Presti S, Paglini PM, et al. Chemical compositions and properties of Schinus areira L. essential oil on airway inflammation and cardiovascular system of mice and rabbits. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012; 50: 2282–2288. PubMed:
  63. I Menezes IA, Barreto CM, Antoniolli AR, Santos MR, de Sousa DP. Hypotensive Activity of Terpenes Found in Essential Oils. Z Naturforsch C J Biosci. 2010; 65: 562–566.  PubMed:
  64. Kim DS, Goo YM, Cho J, Lee J, Lee DY, et al. Effect of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Chrysanthemum indicum Linné on Blood Pressure and Electroencephalogram. Molecules. 2018; 23: 2063. PubMed:
  65. Bahrami T, Rejeh N, Heravi-Karimooi M, Vaismoradi M, Tadrisi SD, et al. Effect of aromatherapy massage on anxiety, depression, and physiologic parameters in older patients with the acute coronary syndrome: A randomized clinical trial. Int J Nurs Pract. 2017; 2: e12601. PubMed:
  66. Hosseini S, Heydari A, Vakili M, Moghadam S, Tazyky S. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2016; 21: 397–401. PubMed:
  67. Salamati A, Mashouf S, Mojab F. Effect of Inhalation of Lavender Essential Oil on Vital Signs in Open Heart Surgery ICU. Iran J Pharm Res. 2017; 16: 404-409. PubMed:
  68. Iokawa K, Kohzuki M, Sone T, Ebihara S. Effect of olfactory stimulation with essential oils on cardiovascular reactivity during the moving beans task in stroke patients with anxiety. Complement Ther Med. 2018; 36: 20–24. PubMed:
  69. Esmaeili H, Sharifi M, Esmailidehaj M, Rezvani ME, Hafizibarjin Z. Vasodilatory effect of asafoetida essential oil on rat aorta rings: The role of nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and calcium channels. Phytomedicine. 2017; 36: 88–94. PubMed:
  70. Soares MC, Damiani CE, Moreira CM, Stefanon I, Vassallo DV. Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005; 38: 453–461. PubMed:
  71. Bordia A. Effect of garlic on blood lipids in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981; 34: 2100–2103. PubMed:     
  72. Bordia A, Bansal HC, Arora SK, Singh SV. Effect of the essential oils of garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia. Atherosclerosis. 1975; 21: 15–19. PubMed:
  73. Ismail. The Functional Effect of Kaempferia Parviflora on Ischemic Stroke in Rats. Am J Agricultural Biological Sci. 2012; 7: 173–179.
  74. Brook RD, Glazewski L, Rajagopalan S, Bard RL. Hypertension and triglyceride catabolism: implications for the hemodynamic model of the metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003; 22: 290–295. PubMed:
  75. Gilani SN, Khan AU, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Zanthoxylum armatum in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders. Phytother Res. 2010; 24: 553–558. PubMed:
  76. Grassmann J, Hippeli S, Spitzenberger R, Elstner EF. The monoterpene terpinolene from the oil of Pinus mugo L. in concert with alpha-tocopherol and betacarotene effectively prevents oxidation of LDL. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12: 416– 423. PubMed:
  77. Hernández JJ, Ragone MI, Bonazzola P, Bandoni AL, Consolini AE. Antitussive, antispasmodic, bronchodilating and cardiac inotropic effects of the essential oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018; 210: 107–117. PubMed:
  78. Chen HW, Wei BJ, He XH, Liu Y, Wang J. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 1–11. PubMed:
  79. Ziaee M, Khorrami A, Ebrahimi M, Nourafcan H, Amiraslanzadeh M, et al. Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015; 14: 279–289. PubMed:
  80. Maiwulanjiang M, Chen J, Xin G, Gong AG, Miernisha A, et al. The volatile oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma inhibits the oxidative stress-induced cell injury via reactive oxygen species scavenging and Akt activation in H9c2 cardiomyocyte. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 153: 491–498. PubMed:
  81. Occhiuto F, Circosta C. Cardiovascular Properties of the Non-Volatile Total Residue from the Essential Oil of Citrus bergamia. Int J Pharmacognosy. 1996; 34: 128–133.
  82. Lahlou S, Figueiredo AF, Magalhães PJ, Leal-Cardoso JH, Gloria PD. Cardiovascular effects of methyleugenol, a natural constituent of many plant essential oils, in normotensive rats. Life Sci. 2004; 74: 2401–2412. PubMed:
  83. Zhang Q, Fan K, Wang P, Yu J, Liu R, et al. Carvacrol induces the apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under hypoxia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016; 770: 134–146. PubMed:
  84. McCarty MF. Interleukin-6 as a central mediator of cardiovascular risk associated with chronic inflammation, smoking, diabetes, and visceral obesity: down-regulation with essential fatty acids, ethanol and pentoxifylline. Med Hypotheses. 1999; 52: 465–477. PubMed:
  85. Tan W, Li Y, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Wang T, et al. Anti-coagulative and gastrointestinal motility regulative activities of Fructus Aurantii Immaturus and its effective fractions. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 90: 244–252. PubMed:
  86. Durić K, Kovac Besovic EE, Niksic H, Muratovic S, Sofic E. Anticoagulant activity of some Artemisia dracunculus leaf extracts. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2015; 15: 9-14. PubMed:
  87. Occhiuto F, Circosta C. Cardiovascular Properties of the Non-Volatile Total Residue from the Essential Oil of Citrus bergamia. Int J Pharmacognosy. 1996; 34: 128–133.
  88. Kim JH, Lee HJ, Jeong SJ, Lee MH, Kim SH. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase. Phytother Res. 2012; 26: 1314–1319. PubMed:
  89. Lorenzo PS, Rubio MC, Medina JH, Adler-Graschinsky E. Involvement of monoamine oxidase and noradrenaline uptake in the positive chronotropic effects of apigenin in rat atria. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996; 312: 203–207. PubMed:
  90. Whitaker EJ, Pham K, Feik D, Rams TE, Barnett ML, et al. Effect of an essential oil-containing antiseptic mouthrinse on induction of platelet aggregation by oral bacteria in vitro. J Clin Periodontol. 2000; 27: 370–373. PubMed:
  91. Lai L. Orally Administered Essential Oil Composition and Use Thereof. 2017.
  92. Oleszek W. Method for extracting flavonoids from horse chestnuts. 2011.
  93. Jodlbauer HDD. Nutritional supplement with germinated perilla seed. 2005.
  94. Holzer A. Compositions and methods for treating heart disease. 2018.