Research Article

The clinicopathological correlates of Cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent, immunocompromised and HIV-infected/AIDS patients, but neglected in SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 patients?

Chrysanthus Chukwuma, Sr*

Published: 01/20/2021 | Volume 5 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-004

Abstract

Cystoisosporiasis (formerly isosporiasis) is caused by Cystoisospora belli (erstwhile named Isospora belli) is encountered globally, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Cystoisosporiasis is a human intestinal disease whose etiology is the parasite Cystoisospora belli with infection frequent in immunocompromised subjects, principally HIV-infected and AIDS patients. This coccidium parasite infects the epithelial cells and lining of the villi of the small and large intestines. C. belli is the least frequent of the three intestinal coccidia, viz: Cryptosporidium, microsporidium and C. belli which perturb humans. The clinical presentation of cystoisosporiasis gives a semblance of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as other gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, vomiting and diarhoea found in COVID-19, AIDS and HIV-infected patients. Research has not presented comorbid features of COVID-19 and cystoisosporiasis. The oocytes of C. belli are visualizable microscopically on wet mounts via bright-field, differential interference contrast (DIC) and epifluorescence. Trimethoprin sulfamethoxazole constitute the normal treatment of choice. C. belli,HIV-infected/AIDS and COVID-19 patients have clinicopathological correlates necessary to elucidate comorbidities and mechanisms of the diseases.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijcmbt.1001018 Cite this Article

References

  1. Woodcock HM. Notes on protozoan parasites in the excreta. BMJ. 1915; 2: 709.
  2. Minnaganti VR, Talavera F, Kong JW, Bronze MS, Lessnau KD, et al. Cystoisosporiasis:clinical presentation. Medscape. 2018. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/219776-clinical
  3. Pape JW, Johnson WD Jr. Isospora belli infections. Prog Clin Parasitol. 1991; 2: 119-127. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1893117/
  4. Miao YM, Gazzard BG. Management of protozoal diarrhoea in HIV disease. HIV Med. 2000; 1: 194-199. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11737348/
  5. Chukwuma Sr C. Cryptosporidium: Still a public health problem: A review. Niger Med J. 1996; 30: 6-10.
  6. Chukwuma Sr C. Cryptosporidium: Publoc health problems and environmental indicators. Austin Med Sci. 2019; 4: 1036. ams-v4-id1036.pdf  
  7. Chukwuma Sr C. Microsporidium in AIDS patients: A perspective. East Afr Med J. 1996; 73: 72-75. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8625869/
  8. Trier JS, Moxey PC, Schimmel EM, Robles E. Chronic intestinal coccidiosis in maN, intestinal morphology and response to treatment. Gastroenterology. 1974; 66: 923-935. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4826994/
  9. Benator DA, French AL, Beaudet LM, Levy CS, Orenstein JM. Isospora belli infection associated with acalculous cholecystitis in a patient with AIDS. Am Int Med. 1994; 121: 663-664. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7944075/
  10. Velasquez JN, Carnevale S, Mariane M, Kuo LH, Caballero A, et al. Isosporosis and unizoite tissue cysts in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Hum Pathol. 2001: 32: 500-505. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11381368/
  11. Lindsay DS, Dubey JP, Toivio-Kinnucan MA, Michiels JF, Blagburn BL. Examination of extra-intestinal tissue cysts of Isospora belli. J Parasitol. 1997; 83: 620-625. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9267401/
  12. Lindsay DS, Weiss LM. Isospora belli. Antimicrobe. 2017. www.antimicrobe.org/b04rev.asp
  13. Marcos LA, Gotuzzo E. Intestinal protozoan infections in the immune compromised host. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013; 26: 295-301. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23806893/
  14. Wang ZD, Liu Q, Liu HH, Li S, Li Z, et al. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and isospora infection in HIV-infected people: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasites Vectors. 2018; 11: 28. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29316950/
  15. Shimelis T, Tassachew Y, Lambiyo T. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care. Parasit Vectors. 2016; 9: 270. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862162/  
  16. Chukwuma Sr C. Ecological analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic for restoration and sustainability. Research and Advancesin Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2020; 3.
  17. Logan C, Beadsworth MB, Beeching NJ. HIV and diarrhoea. What is new? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2016; 29: 486-494. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27472290/
  18. Taye B, Desta K, Ejigu S, Dori GU. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to human immunodeficiency virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Etiopia. Parasitol Int. 2014; 63: 550-556. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24603288/
  19. Goodgame RW. Understanding intestinal spore-forming protozoa: Cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 124: 429-441. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8554253/
  20. Kizilbash QF, Horvath L. Diarrhea in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis. Gastroenterology. 2016; 151: e12-13. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27591425/
  21. Batista FS, L de Souza Miranda, MB de Oliveira Silva, Lafontaine R, Taborda M, et al. Chronic Cystoisospora belli infection in an HIV/AIDS patient treated at the specialized assistance service in Porto Velho County - Rondonia. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2019; 52: e20180204. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31141043/  
  22. Tiryaki TO, Anil KU, Buyuk M, Yildirim AY, Atasoy A, et al. Prolonged, severe watery diarrhea in long-term myeloma survivor: An unforeseen infection with Isospora belli. Turk J Haematol. 2020; 10: 28. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33112100/
  23. Fazio R, Waintraub D, Rahmani R, Hajdu C, Park JS. 1256 Cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder: More common than you may think. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019; 14: 5698-S700.
  24. Noor M, Katzman PJ, Huber AR, Findeis-Hosey JJ, Whitney-Miller C, et al. Unexpectedly high prevalence of Cystoisospora belli infection in acalculous gallbladders of immunecompetent patients. Am J Clin Pathol. 2019; 151: 100-107. PubMed:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30285068/
  25. Myhre J, Sifris D. Cystoisosporiasis (isosporiasis) symptoms and treatment. 2020. https://www.verywellhealth.com/cystoisosporiasis-isosporiasis-48977
  26. DuPont HL. Persistent diarrhea: A clinical review. JAMA. 2016; 315: 2712-2723. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27357241/
  27. Chukwuma Sr C. Bioinformatics-base and determinants in the spatiotemporal variations pf emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. J Ancient Dis Prevent Remedies. 2018; 06.
  28. Larsen JN, Martin MB, Martin JD, Kuhn P, Hicks JB. Modeling the onset of symptoms of COVID-19. Front Public Health. 2020; 8: 473. PubMed:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32903584/
  29. Chukwuma Sr C. Probing research precincts focused on systematic determination of the biological effects of macromolecular interactions. Int J Applied Sci Engineering Rev. 2020; 1.
  30. Chukwuma Sr C. Metabolic co-regulation of protein and nucleic acid interactions in fungi and bacteria. Mat Journals. J Adv Pharm Practi. 2020; 2: 41-51.