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Recent Articles

2020-01-07 Research Article

Radiofrequency vs. scalpel incision for upper blepharoplasty: A clinicopathologic and photo comparison


Objective: The aim of this study is to compare scar appearance and the histopathological aspects of inflammatory response induced by the use of radiofrequency [RF] incision and a cold-blade scalpel incision in upper blepharoplasty surgery.

Methods: This is a comparative, prospective, double-blind study that recruited 10 Caucasian patients from Oculoplastic Sector of Ophthalmological Center of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil) aged 60–70 years, Fitzpatrick skin types 3 and 4, with upper eyelid dermatochalasis and indication for upper blepharoplasty. These patients underwent upper blepharoplasty using RF incision in one eyelid (10 eyelids in total) and cold-blade incision in the contralateral eyelid (10 eyelids in total). The two techniques were compared for clinical scar appearance and histopathology of the excised tissue materials (i.e., upper eyelid skin). To evaluate clinical scar appearance, we employed two distinct methods: photo-documentation and statistical analysis of the assessment performed by two masked observers (oculoplastic specialists) that examined all patients during all the follow-up based on Vancouver scar scale criteria, which includes attributes related to scar’s vascularization, thickness, pigmentation, and elasticity. Follow-up was performed on days 7 (upon removal of the sutures), 30, 60, and 180 after surgery. After the follow-up period, the collected data were statistically analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: The eyelids incised with a scalpel displayed thicker scars (hypertrophic scars), which differed significantly only in the first month after surgery (p = 0.022). The two surgical techniques did not show statistically significant difference in vascularity, elasticity, or pigmentation of the scar during the follow up period (sixth postoperative month). Regarding the histopathological evaluation, the excised skin fragments exhibited the same patterns, except the cautery effect that was observed at the edges of the skin excised with RF, which showed 0.20–0.30-mm thick thermal damage.

Conclusion: The two techniques did not show statistically significant difference in terms of scar appearance after the sixth postoperative month.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001024 Cite this Article

2020-01-29 Research Article

Demographic pattern of refractive anomalies in Niger Delta presbyopes - Implications for preventive eye care practice


Background/Aim: In spite of global initiatives to provide sight for all by the year 2020, many middle-aged to elderly people in the Niger Delta still have significant visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive errors. The aim of this study is to assess the types of refractive anomalies that occur among presbyopic patients in Port Harcourt and determine the demographic pattern of these anomalies based on age and gender characteristics.

Methodology: This is a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study in which sixty consecutive adult patients for refraction were seen. Every adult patient that came to get glasses during the study period was included in the study except where ocular or systemic contraindications were present. In addition to visual acuity, all patients had a detailed ocular examination and then refraction. The collected data was subsequently analysed using SPSS version 20.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.4 ± 9.4 years with a range of 35 to 80 years. A total of 60 patients were seen, comprising 30 males and 30 females. The commonest refractive error was presbyopia with hyperopic astigmatism and this accounted for 80% of all cases. Hyperopic presbyopia and presbyopia alone were the least common.

Conclusion: There is a high level of cylindrical and spherical errors in Port Harcourt. The full optical correction should always be prescribed to presbyopic patients to fully correct the associated visual impairment and improve the patients’ well-being.

Abstract Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijceo.1001025 Cite this Article