Research Article

Peptide-based antifouling aptasensor for cardiac troponin I detection by surface plasmon resonance applied in medium sized Myocardial Infarction

Jia Xin Che, Yi Wu, Shwu Jen Chang, Ching-Jung Chen* and Jen-Tsai Liu*

Published: 02/14/2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-008


Highly selective and sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a powerful complement to clinical diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this study, a strategy for cTnI detection was developed by constructing a universal biosensing interface composed of zwitterionic peptides and aptamers. The peptides were self-assembled onto gold chips, and some of them were biotinylated. The cTnI-specific binding aptamers were immobilized through the streptavidin-biotin system. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements revealed the preparation process. The developed aptasensor presents a linear detection with cTnI ranging from 20 ng/ml to 600 ng/ml and a detection limit of 20 ng/ml. The high immobilization of the aptamer enhances the sensitivity of the aptasensor and the calculated KD was 6.75 nM. Due to the outstanding antifouling property of the zwitterionic peptide, the developed aptasensor possesses a high resistance towards protein fouling. Moreover, the aptasensor has excellent selectivity and specificity towards cTnI in complex media. Hence, the proposed peptide-based aptasensor shows great potential for practical application in medium sized Myocardial Infarction (MI).

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.abse.1001007 Cite this Article


  1. World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014 [R]. World Health Organization, 2014.
  2. Agewall S, Giannitsis E, Jernberg T, Katus H. Troponin elevation in coronary vs. non-coronary disease. Eur Heart J. 2010; 32: 404-411. PubMed:
  3. Wang J, Wang X, Ren L, Wang Q, Li L, et al. Conjugation of biomolecules with magnetic protein microspheres for the assay of early biomarkers associated with acute myocardial infarction. Anal Chem. 2009; 81: 6210-6217. PubMed:
  4. Bottenus D, Jubery T Z, Ouyang Y, Dong WJ, Dutta P, et al. 10000-fold concentration increase of the biomarker cardiac troponin I in a reducing union microfluidic chip using cationic isotachophoresis. Lab Chip. 2011; 11: 890-898. PubMed:
  5. Leisy PJ, Coeytaux RR, Wagner GS, Chung EH, McBroom AJ, et al. ECG-based signal analysis technologies for evaluating patients with acute coronary syndrome: A systematic review. J Electrocardiol. 2013; 46: 92-97. PubMed:
  6. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, et al. Fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (2018). J American College of Cardiology. 2018; 72: 2231-2264.
  7. Bax J J, Baumgartner H, Ceconi C, Simoons ML, Chaitman BR, et al. Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 60: 1581-1598. PubMed:
  8. Collinson PO, Heung YM, Gaze D, Boa F, Senior R, et al. Influence of population selection on the 99th percentile reference value for cardiac troponin assays. Clin Chem. 2012; 58: 219-225. PubMed:
  9. Thygesen K, Mair J, Giannitsis E, Mueller C, Lindahl B, et al. How to use high-sensitivity cardiac troponins in acute cardiac care. Eur Heart J. 2012; 33: 2252-2257. PubMed:
  10. Jaffe A S, Ordonez-Llanos J. High sensitivity troponin in chest pain and acute coronary syndromes. A step forward?. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2010; 63: 763-769. PubMed:
  11. Bodor GS, Porter S, Landt Y, Ladenson JH. Development of monoclonal antibodies for an assay of cardiac troponin-I and preliminary results in suspected cases of myocardial infarction. Clin Chem. 1992; 38: 2203-2214. PubMed:
  12. Adams 3rd J E, Bodor GS, Davila-Roman VG, Delmez JA, Apple FS, et al. Cardiac troponin I. A marker with high specificity for cardiac injury. Circulation. 1993; 88: 101-106. PubMed:
  13. Bahadır EB, Sezgintürk MK. Applications of electrochemical immunosensors for early clinical diagnostics. Talanta. 2015; 132: 162-174. PubMed:
  14. Mann D L, Zipes D P, Libby P, et al. Braunwald’s heart disease e-book: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014
  15. Reichlin T, Irfan A, Twerenbold R, Reiter M, Hochholzer W, et al. Utility of absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2011; 124: 136-145. PubMed:
  16. Fathil MFM, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB, Hashim U, Adzhri R, et al. Diagnostics on acute myocardial infarction: Cardiac troponin biomarkers. Biosens Bioelectron. 2015; 70: 209-220. PubMed:
  17. Qureshi A, Gurbuz Y, Niazi JH. Biosensors for cardiac biomarkers detection: A review. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2012; 171: 62-76.
  18. Cheng Z, Wang R, Xing YI, Zhao L , Choo J, et al. SERS-based immunoassay using gold-patterned array chips for rapid and sensitive detection of dual cardiac biomarkers. Analyst. 2019; 144: 6533-6540. PubMed:
  19. Dutra RF, Mendes RK, da Silva VL, Kubota LT. Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for human cardiac troponin T based on self-assembled monolayer. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007; 43: 1744-1750. PubMed:
  20. Oh BK, Kim YK, Lee W, Bae YM, Lee WH, et al. Immunosensor for detection of Legionella pneumophila using surface plasmon resonance. Biosens Bioelectron. 2003; 18: 605-611. PubMed:
  21. Wu Q, Li S, Sun Y, et al. Hollow gold nanoparticle-enhanced SPR based sandwich immunoassay for human cardiac troponin I. Microchimica Acta. 2017; 184: 2395-2402.
  22. Yang CT, Wu L, Liu X, Tran NT, Bai P, et al. Exploiting surface-plasmon-enhanced light scattering for the design of ultrasensitive biosensing modality. Anal Chem. 2016; 88: 11924-11930.PubMed:
  23. Guo Z, Gu C, Fan X, Bian Z, Wu H, et al. Fabrication of anti-human cardiac troponin I immunogold nanorods for sensing acute myocardial damage. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2009; 4: 1428-1433. PubMed:
  24. Sun C, Han Q, Wang D, Xu W, Wang W, et al. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2014; 850: 33-40. PubMed:
  25. Dhawan S, Sadanandan S, Haridas V, Voelcker NH, Prieto-Simón B. Novel peptidylated surfaces for interference-free electrochemical detection of cardiac troponin I. Biosens Bioelectron. 2018; 99: 486-492. PubMed:
  26. Ko S, Kim B, Jo SS, Oh SY, Park JK. Electrochemical detection of cardiac troponin I using a microchip with the surface-functionalized poly (dimethylsiloxane) channel. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007; 23: 51-59. PubMed:
  27. Doehrman SR. Psycho-social aspects of recovery from coronary heart disease: a review. Soc Sci Med. 1977; 11: 199-218.
  28. Gesellchen F, Zimmermann B, Herberg FW. Direct optical detection of protein-ligand interactions. Methods Mol Biol. 2005; 305: 17-45.
  29. Hwang SY, Yoon CH, Jeon JY, et al. Quantitative assay of hepatitis B surface antigen by using surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 2005; 10: 309.
  30. Mir M, Cameron PJ, Zhong X, Azzaroni O, Alvarez M, et al. Anti-fouling characteristics of surface-confined oligonucleotide strands bioconjugated on streptavidin platforms in the presence of nanomaterials. Talanta. 2009; 78: 1102-1106. PubMed:
  31. Wang Y, Cui M, Jiao M, Luo X. Antifouling and ultrasensitive biosensing interface based on self-assembled peptide and aptamer on macroporous gold for electrochemical detection of immunoglobulin E in serum. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2018; 410: 5871-5878. PubMed:
  32. Wolf M, Juncker D, Michel B, Hunziker P, Delamarche E. Simultaneous detection of C-reactive protein and other cardiac markers in human plasma using micromosaic immunoassays and self-regulating microfluidic networks. Biosens Bioelectron. 2004; 19: 1193-1202. PubMed:
  33. Bottenus D, Hossan MR, Ouyang Y, Dong WJ, Dutta P, et al. Preconcentration and detection of the phosphorylated forms of cardiac troponin I in a cascade microchip by cationic isotachophoresis. Lab Chip. 2011; 11: 3793-3801. PubMed:
  34. Dorraj GS, Rassaee MJ, Latifi AM, Pishgoo B, Tavallaei M. Selection of DNA aptamers against Human Cardiac Troponin I for colorimetric sensor based dot blot application. J Biotechnol. 2015; 208: 80-86. PubMed:
  35. Negahdary M, Behjati-Ardakani M, Sattarahmady N, Yadegarid H, Helib H. Electrochemical aptasensing of human cardiac troponin I based on an array of gold nanodumbbells-Applied to early detection of myocardial infarction. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2017; 252: 62-71.
  36. Ahirwar R, Nahar P. Development of an aptamer-affinity chromatography for efficient single step purification of Concanavalin A from Canavalia ensiformis. J Chromatogr B. 2015; 997: 105-109. PubMed:
  37. Wegner GJ, Wark AW, Lee HJ, Codner E, Saeki T, et al. Real-time surface plasmon resonance imaging measurements for the multiplexed determination of protein adsorption/desorption kinetics and surface enzymatic reactions on peptide microarrays. Anal Chem. 2004; 76: 5677-5684. PubMed:
  38. Zhang CG, Chang S J, Settu K, Chend CJ, Liue JT. High-sensitivity glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) aptasensor in rapid-prototyping surface plasmon resonance. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2019; 279: 267-273.
  39. Jo H, Gu H, Jeon W, Youn H, Her J, et al. Electrochemical aptasensor of cardiac troponin I for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Anal Chem. 2015; 87: 9869-9875. PubMed:
  40. Zhang CG, Chen CJ, Settu K, Liu JT. Angle-Scanning Surface Plasmon Resonance System with 3D Printed Components for Biorecognition Investigation. Advances in Condensed Matter Physics. 2018; 2018.
  41. Nowinski AK, Sun F, White AD, Keefe AJ, Jiang S. Sequence, structure, and function of peptide self-assembled monolayers. J Am Chem Soc. 2012; 134: 6000-6005. PubMed:
  42. Anker JN, Hall WP, Lyandres O, Shah NC, Zhao J, et al. Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors[M]//Nanoscience and Technology: A Collection of Reviews from Nature Journals. 2010; 308-319.