Department of Biotechnology, Uttaranchal college of Applied and Life Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
*Address for Correspondence: Archna Dhasmana, Department of Biotechnology, Uttaranchal college of Applied and Life Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, Tel: +91-9536885390; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Dates: Submitted: 19 June 2019; Approved: 27 June 2019; Published: 28 June 2019
How to cite this article: Dhasmana A. Nanotherapeutic agent for cancer: Miracle or catastrophe. Ann Biomed Sci Eng. 2019; 3: 010-012. DOI: 10.29328/journal.abse.1001005
Copyright: © 2019 Dhasmana A. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Nanotechnology is a smart technology in the field of biomedical engineering used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nanodrugs provide better encapsulation of drug and efficiency at low dosage to kill the targeted tissue/cells. However, the chances of chronic toxicity and high cost of treatment limits its applicability . To overcome these problems still, the experts of the scientific community have been working on it, to design the best one and cost-effective treatment for the human welfare.
Nanotechnology is the latest field of science based on the designing of nanosize molecules/particles or devices for the wide range applications. In the field of TERM (Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine) nanometer (5 to 500nm) size small nanoparticles are used as nano drugs and nanodevices for the targeted therapeutic agent . In the past, researchers focused on the fabrication of drug molecules incorporated nano-particles for the sustained release of the drug molecule to the targeted tissue or organ [3,4]. Various biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (e.g, gelatin, collagen, cellulose, Polycaprolactone) have been used as delivery or carrier matrix for the drug molecule. The techniques used to integrate the drug molecule are nano-vectors, nanofibers, nanotubes, nano-micelles, liposomes and dendrimers .
These approaches provide a smart technology both for in vitro and in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic system . The efficiency of the nanodrug system is significantly better than the normal drug delivery system . Nanodrugs have a large surface area for better interaction among the cell receptor and ligand molecule [8,9]. Thus, for a better encapsulation efficiency and controlled release profile of the drug, nano-matrixes are the advanced system.
Cancer cells have hyper-proliferative property along with the genetic transformation, dysregulation in cell cycle pathways, uncontrolled proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis . Therefore, it becomes a major public health problem that causes significant death rate and disability. It was reported that the death rate of cancer is more than the combined AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, and worldwide out of eight deaths cases one death is due to cancer. According to the clinical survey data, it is shown that globally new cancer cases by 2050 are expected to grow to 27 million [11,12].
At a clinical level, different aspects and management options are used for the fit against this crucial disease . Majorly treatments are surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and palliative care to kill the cancer cell/tissue . The criteria to choose the best one treatment is totally depends upon the type of cancer- metastatic or benign, location- lymphatic or sarcoma and exaggeration of the cancerous cell as well as the immune system of an individual.
For the treatment of cancer, nanotechnology helps to design innovative methods or techniques for diagnostic and curing of disease [15-17]. Nano-sized drugs have better invasion capacity and easily exude into the targeted cancerous tissue through the vascularized system, by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect . Nano drugs EPR effect improves the delivery of the drugs molecule and its effectively at very less concentration .
Researchers also found that the synergistic effect for the nanosized formulation of chemotherapeutic agents i.e., nanotheranostic formulation with other cancer therapy like photothermal, for better diagnosis and eliminating the tumours [20,21]. These approaches of nanosized drugs act as Carrier-assistant drug delivery systems (DDSs) that are progressively established for cancer diagnosis and treatment [22,23]. It was reported that exogenous and endogenous stimuli applied for the better drug release and activation of drug molecule under in vivo conditions . Although there are many advantages of nanotechnology for cancer treatment- better drug efficiency, low degradation rate and less toxicity to surrounding tissue . Nanotechnology-based drug delivery is new hope for a cancer patient but the higher treatment cost, chances of chronic toxicity and limited clinical testing data and report are the cons that edge the commercial applicability [26,27].
Thus, to overcome these limitations researcher have to work on the fabrication technology―non-toxic, cost-effective, biomimetic interactions between the cellular components and drug or engineered materials, have better EPR effect along with the pre-clinical and clinical study of the designed drug system. Development of active nano-sized drugs without any nanocarriers are the newest approach that has been studied by many scientists, that might be the beneficially to promote nanotechnology therapeutic perspectives .
Conclusively, nanotechnology is booming smart technology in the field of medical science but the proper and intellectual utilization of this technique helps to fight against the world deadliest diseases- Cancer.
- Huang YW, Cambre M, Lee HJ. The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on multiple molecular and physicochemical mechanisms. Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18: 2702. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2X6tA8B
- Kim KY. Nanotechnology platforms and physiological challenges for cancer therapeutics. In Nano medicine in Cancer. 2017; 3: 27-46. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2LlLima
- Wang Y, Yu L, Monopoli MP, Sandin P, Mahon E, et al. Nanomedicine: nanotechnology. Biol Med. 2015; 11: 313-327.
- Pippa N, Demetzos C, Pispas S, editors. Drug Delivery Nanosystems: From Bioinspiration and Biomimetics to Clinical Applications. CRC Press; 2019. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2ZUdbWM
- Wei T, Chen C, Liu J, Liu C, Posocco P, et al. Anticancer drug nanomicelles formed by self-assembling amphiphilic dendrimer to combat cancer drug resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112: 2978-2983. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2xjDt8l
- Karlsson J, Vaughan HJ, Green JJ. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for therapeutic cancer treatments. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng. 2018; 7; 9: 105-127. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2FBHNoc
- Zhang P, Wang J, Chen H, Zhao L, Chen B, et al. Tumor Microenvironment-Responsive Ultrasmall Nanodrug Generators with Enhanced Tumor Delivery and Penetration. J Am Chem Soc. 2018; 140: 14980-14989. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2xkcVDW
- Liu T, Zeng L, Jiang W, Fu Y, Zheng W, et al. Rational design of cancer-targeted selenium nanoparticles to antagonize multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Nanomedicine. 2015; 11: 947-958. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2YhSSCb
- Song J, Lin C, Yang X, Xie Y, Hu P, et al. Mitochondrial targeting nanodrugs self-assembled from 9-O-octadecyl substituted berberine derivative for cancer treatment by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. J Control Release. 2019; 294: 27-42. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2YryVso
- Greenstein JP. Biochemistry of cancer. Elsevier. 2016; Ref.: http://bit.ly/2YkPUNg
- Siegel R, DeSantis C, Virgo K, Stein K, Mariotto A, et al. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012; 62: 220-241. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2NdHHcn
- Miller KD, Siegel RL, Lin CC, Mariotto AB, Kramer JL, et al. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016. 2016; 66: 271-289. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2XyLTaR
- Schumacher TN, Schreiber RD. Neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Science. 2015; 348: 69-74. Ref.: http://bit.ly/31XS47H
- Ahles TA, Root JC. Cognitive effects of cancer and cancer treatments. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2018; 14: 425-451. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2IRsMka
- Heath JR, Davis ME. Nanotechnology and cancer. Annu Rev Med. 2008; 59: 251-265. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2xjDM2Z
- Wang X, Yang L, Chen Z, Shin DM. Application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy and imaging. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 97-110. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2YhI1Id
- Shi J, Kantoff PW, Wooster R, Farokhzad OC. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities. Nat Rev Cancer. 2017; 17: 20. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2X30XZT
- Jain RK. The next frontier of molecular medicine: delivery of therapeutics. Nature medicine. 1998 Jun;4(6):655., Allen TM. Ligand-targeted therapeutics in anticancer therapy. Nat Med. 2002; 2: 750. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2ZRvpbb
- Nakamura Y, Mochida A, Choyke PL, Kobayashi H. Nanodrug delivery: is the enhanced permeability and retention effect sufficient for curing cancer? Bioconjug Chem. 2016; 27: 2225-2238. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2XGLSl0
- Chen Q, Liang C, Wang C, Liu Z. An imagable and photothermal “Abraxane‐like” nanodrug for combination cancer therapy to treat subcutaneous and metastatic breast tumours. Adv Mater. 2015; 27: 903-910. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2J8EXb8
- Fan W, Yung B, Huang P, Chen X. Nanotechnology for multimodal synergistic cancer therapy. Chem Rev. 2017; 117: 13566-13638. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2Yi9rOr
- Sinha R, Kim GJ, Nie S, Shin DM. Nanotechnology in cancer therapeutics: bio conjugated nanoparticles for drug delivery. Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2006; 5: 1909-1917. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2IS8J54
- Olov N, Bagheri‐Khoulenjani S, Mirzadeh H. Combinational drug delivery using nanocarriers for breast cancer treatments: A review. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2018; 106: 2272-2283. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2Nijbaj
- Raza A, Rasheed T, Nabeel F, Hayat U, Bilal M, et al. Endogenous and Exogenous Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems for Programmed Site-Specific Release. Molecules. 2019; 24: 1117. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2XflIX6
- Alexis F, Rhee JW, Richie JP, Radovic-Moreno AF, Langer R, et al. New frontiers in nanotechnology for cancer treatment. Urol Oncol. 2008; 26: 74-85. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2xgI3Ev
- Ferrari M. Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges. Nat Rev Cancer. 2005; 5: 161-171. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2Lqemcv
- van Elk M, Murphy BP, Eufrasio-da-Silva T, O’Reilly DP, Vermonden T, et al. Nanomedicines for advanced cancer treatments: Transitioning towards responsive systems. Int J Pharm. 2016; 515: 132-164. Ref.: http://bit.ly/2ZUbxV2
- Qin SY, Zhang AQ, Cheng SX, Rong L, Zhang XZ. Drug self-delivery systems for cancer therapy. Biomaterials. 2017; 112: 234-247. Ref.: http://bit.ly/3021xt1