Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Common manifestations of asthma include wheezing, chest tightness, cough, shortness of breath. Diagnosis of asthma requires clinical documentation of respiratory symptoms, exacerbation of symptoms following exposure to triggers, as well as demonstration of expiratory airflow obstruction. Wheeze is a continuous sound, lasting longer than 0.25 s that is produced by oscillation of opposing airway walls [1,2]. Wheezing, although a typical symptom of asthma, can also be caused by other diseases. Apart from asthma, wheezing can be due to extra-thoracic upper airway obstruction, intrathoracic upper airway obstruction, lower airway obstruction.
Background: Globally, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects millions of elderly individuals are affected with AD who suffer from decline in cognitive ability. However, immune system dysfunction has a role in AD pathogenesis. However, pharmacological therapeutic intervention for caring of ADis not available. Therefore there is a need to develop novel therapeutic modalities for AD individual care.
Objective: The objective of the this trial was to detect immune system and quality of life (QOL) response following aerobic versus resisted exercise training among AD subjects.
Methods: Fifty older with AD disease the range of age ranged was 61 to 73 years enrolled in the current study. However, smoking, liver, chest, renal, metabolic and cardiac dysfunction considered as exclusion criteria. Participants were randomly enrolled into group (A) who applied aerobic exercise intervention, while group (B) applied resisted exercise intervention for period of six months.
Results: The SF-36 which measure QOL along with in the immunological parameters (CD3 count, CD4 count, CD8 count and CD4/CD8 ratio) showed significant improvement following aerobic and resisted exercise. However, comparing between both groups showed significant differences with greater significant improvement in all measured parameters following aerobic exercise training (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is the most appropriate exercise to improve immune system and quality of life among elderly Alzheimer’s.
Introduction: There is currently no strategy for identifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients whose pulmonary function could benefit from inhaled corticosteroids. We investigated whether a 28-day regime of inhaled corticosteroids improved pulmonary function test results among COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion.
Methods: This single-centre one-arm pre–post trial included COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion treated at our institution from September 2018 to August 2019. Patients were administered budesonide (200 μg, 8 puffs daily) for 28 days. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at baseline and after 28 days of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. Secondary outcomes included differences in COPD Assessment Test scores, %FEV1, and that between the percent forced vital capacity (%FVC) at baseline and after 28 days of treatment.
Results: Twenty patients completed the 28-day inhaled corticosteroid regime. The mean difference in FEV1 between day 1 and day 28 was 340 mL (95% confidence interval: −100 to 770 mL; p = 0.122). The mean differences in secondary outcomes were: %FVC, −0.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.84 to 2.53%; p = 0.905); %FEV1, 1.63% (95%CI: −4.56 to 7.81%; p = 0.589); COPD Assessment Test score, −2.50 (95%CI: −5.72 to 0.72; p = 0.121).
Conclusion: The 28-day course of inhaled corticosteroids yielded no significant difference in FEV1 for COPD patients with a fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration > 35 parts per billion.
Trial registration: University Hospital Medical Information Network Center, UMIN000034005. Registered 3 September 2018,
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary syndrome composed of exocrine gland dysfunction involving multiple systems which if untreated may result in chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic enzyme deficiency and failure to thrive. The association between CF and other inherited diseases or congenital anomalies is rare. We describe a rare case of CF with concomitant congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). 21- Hydroxylase deficiency accounts for most CAH cases. Varity in clinical phenotypes depends on the amount of enzymatic activity which in turn depends on different combination of gene mutations. The genes of CAH and CF are located in different locations. The chance of these diseases coexisting in our patient would be a rare combination. However, such a case will be more frequent in our population than others because of consanguineous marriage and common ancestors. There are diagnostic difficulties, similarities and contradictions between two diseases and they are pointed out.
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