HSPC Articles

Articles Library

Research Article

Immunohistochemical expression of Nestin as Cancer Stem Cell Marker in gliomas

Rasha Mokhtar Abdelkareem*, Afaf T Elnashar, Khaled Nasser Fadle and Eman MS Muhammad

Background: Gliomas represent the most frequent primary tumors of central nervous system (CNS), contributing to more than half of the incidence of brain tumors. Cancer stem cell markers (CSC) identify a group of patients at high risk for progression. Nestin is an intermediate filament (IF) protein was first described as a neural stem cell/progenitor cell marker. Nestin-positive neuroepithelial stem cells are detected in the subventricular zone of the human adult brain and they remain mitotically active throughout adulthood. The expression of Nestin in gliomas has been suggested to be related to dedifferentiation, improved cell motility, invasive potential and increased malignancy. This study aims to investigate Nestin immunohistochemical expression in different types of glioma and its correlation with different clinicopathological parameters. 
Materials and Methods: Nestin immunostaining was studied in 60 specimens of glioma using avidin-biotin peroxidase method. 
Results: Nestin was strongly expressed in 11/60 (18.33%), moderately expressed in 29/60 (48.33%) and weekly expressed in 15/60 (25%) of studied gliomas. A significant positive correlation was found between Nestin expression and histologic type (p < 0.001) and increasing grade of gliomas (p < 0.001). 
Conclusion: Increased Nestin expression is correlated with tumor progression, increasing grade and poor prognostic parameter of glioma. Nestin is a useful marker for detection of CSC in high-grade glioma which is responsible for resistance to chemo-radiotherapy and may serve as a predictor for patient outcomes.


States Care - The Cure for Patient Healthcare

Deane Waldman*

Clinical physicians believe they are drowning . . . because they are! Between complying with an ever-changing landscape of time-wasting federal regulations, avoiding Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations, plus the entire billing process, who can keep up with the literature, study a patient’s medical history, or even talk with a patient?!?

Review Article

Alcoholism and its implications for the dental team, an update and review of the literature

Vignesh Eswara Murthy*

Precis: This Literature review is intended to provide dental practitioners with an update of the implications that Alcoholism poses to them.

Statement of the problem: Alcoholism raises several distinct problems for dental professionals.

Purpose of the study: The focus of this review has been to primarily identify and critically appraise the associations between alcoholism and the various difficulties that have been derived from the literature.

Materials and methods: A structured review of the literature was undertaken using PubMed, Google Scholar and the Cochrane library, additional searching of reference lists was also undertaken. A number of articles were critically analyzed which included Cochrane and systematic reviews, meta-analyses and a number of cross-sectional studies. The data was compared under several headings and tabulated in certain instances.

Results: Alcoholism raises various implications that dental professionals should be aware of including increased incidences of caries, periodontal disease, pathological tooth wear & oral cancer. Chronic Alcohol intake interacts with the pharmacodynamics and kinetics of many routinely prescribed medications in routine dental practice. In addition, there are problems related to access to care and during acute episodes of intoxication abusers may participate in antisocial behavior in the healthcare environment.

Conclusion: Alcoholism has several implications for the dental team, however, dentists who are familiar with the manifestations of the illness, as well as the challenges raised in dental practice can confidently offer these patients a full range of dental treatment.


Pulse Synchronized Contractions (PSCs)

Katherine A Lothman* and Allen W Mangel

A key platform underpinning the traditional understanding of the cardiovascular system, with respect to the behavior of large arterial vessels, is Otto Frank’s Windkessel Hypothesis [1]. This hypothesis posits simply that the smooth muscle walls of large arteries do not undergo rhythmic contractions in synchrony with the heartbeat but, rather, behave as passive elastic tubes undergoing distension from pulsatile pressure waves. The Windkessel Hypothesis is elegant, well described for over a century, ingrained in the understanding of cardiovascular medicine and physiology, and simply wrong.

Research Article

Incidence of hypertension in a high-risk workgroup (Police officers) - Observational study

Guillermo Padrón Arredondo*

Introduction: Hypertension is a silent pathology in a way that affects all four spheres to be considered as such; magnitude, transcendence vulnerability, and feasibility. The World Health Organization estimates that 45% of deaths from heart disease and 51% of deaths from stroke globally are caused by hypertension.
Material and method: A longitudinal, descriptive and quantitative observational study was carried out on the personnel of high-risk public service providers.
Results: The total population sampled was 550 people where it was possible to determine the sex where the disease predominates, since 92% of the hypertensive population belong to the male sex, while 8% of the female population. 57% of the total population were classified as normotensive, while 21% were classified as High Normal, Grade I Hypertension, and Grade II Hypertension.
Discussion: AHT is the result of a series of interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors in an organism that tries to adapt to the increase of the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance of the blood vessels, which is manifested by the increase in blood pressure figures. Physical activity has been shown to have a lower risk of hypertension compared to sedentary individuals. The daily stress these workers face predisposes them to suffer their manifestations as headache, muscle pain, fatigue, digestive disorders and constant elevations of blood pressure.

Short Communication

Human mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media promotes the wound healing process - An in vitro study

Rashi K Jain*, Devashree Vakil, Corey Cunningham and Kuldip Sidhu

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) conditioned medium (CM) has a promising prospect towards skin regeneration. Therefore, human dental pulp and adipose stem cells (DPSCs and ADSCs) were isolated, propagated and evaluated for their stemness and genetic stability over time in culture before making CM. We aimed to characterize the applicability of lyophilized ADSCs and DPSCs derived CM (AD-CM and DP-CM) at 5 mg, 10 mg and 20 mg for wound healing process. The ability of wound closure was assessed by direct human dermal fibroblast cell scratch assay, treated with variable concentrations of AD-CM and DP-CM in vitro. Additionally, we also assessed the expression of different cytokines and growth factors secreted from ADSCs and DPSCs in the CM relevant to the wound healing by cytokine array analysis. Our data demonstrates a significant effect of both the AD-CM and DP-CM in wound healing within 24 hrs compared to that in control.

Review Article

Drug abuse and its ramifications on skeletal system

Das Sanjita* and Kumar Naveen

The purpose of this study is to highlight the drug abuse hazards and preventive aspects. From a public health perspective, substance abuse has long been a source of major concern, both for the individual’s health and for wider society as a whole. The UK has the highest rates of recorded illegal drug misuse in the western world. In particular, it has comparatively high rates of heroin and crack cocaine use. Substances that are considered harmful are strictly regulated according to a classification system that takes into account the harms and risks of taking each drug. The adverse effects of drug abuse can be thought of in three parts that together determine the overall harm in taking it. Some addictive substances are more damaging to the skeletal system along with the others. In this review article, an effort has been taken to elaborate the effects of addictive drugs on human highlighting these most problematic substances for bones and also the promising potential prevention aspects of drug abuse.


Biological membranes: The laboratory of fundamental physics

Samo Kralj* and Mitja Kralj

Biological membranes present an essential constituent of living cells. Their main role is to separate the interior of a cell from its surrounding, however allowing the selective transfer of specific material through it. Configuration changes of membranes are often correlated with important biological processes [1-7]. For example, they might trigger divisions of cells [4], adaptation of red blood cells [1] to temporal conditions during their transport to different parts of biological tissues, they might be involved in cancerous [5] and cell death [6] processes... Membrane structures are in general extremely complex, however, their key properties are often dominated by geometry.

Research Article

A Systematic review for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with Myocardial Fibrosis: A CMR LGE Study

Sahadev T Reddy, Antonio T Paladino, Nackle J Silva, Mark Doyle, Diane A Vido and Robert WW Biederman*

Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients have a predisposition for malignant VT/VF and consequently, sudden cardiac death (SCD). In single center studies, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) defined fibrosis has been linked to VT/VF. However, despite innumerable investigations, SCD has not been definitely attributable to LGE. Explanations for these are believed to be related to insufficient statistical power.
Methods: We performed an electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed: and CMR abstracts for original data published or presented between Jan 2001 to Mar 2011. Key search terms: HCM, LV fibrosis, SCD and LGE. Studies were screened for eligibility based on inclusion criteria: referral for CMR exam with LGE for HCM; and follow-up for incidence of VT/VF and SCD. Categorical variables were evaluated between patient groups via Chi-square test.
Results: A total of 64 studies were initially identified. Of these, 4 (6.3%) were identified and included (n = 1063 patients). Three prospective and one retrospective study were included. LGE was detected in 59.6% of patients. As expected, the presence of myocardial fibrosis was associated with VT/VF (x2 = 6.5, p < 0.05; OR 9.0, (95% CI 1.2 to 68.7). Moreover, myocardial fibrosis strongly predicted SCD (x2 = 6.6, p < 0.05; OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 9.7).
Conclusion: Despite single center CMR studies, LGE has consistently predicted VT/VF while prediction of SCD has remained paradoxically unlinked. Although the lack of studies meeting our criteria limited our ability to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis, we have been able to demonstrate for the first time that LGE-defined fibrosis is a predictor of SCD in patients with HCM.

Review Article

Do beta adrenoceptor blocking agents provide the same degree of clinically convincing morbidity and mortality benefits in patients with chronic heart failure? A literature review

Martin Mumuni Danaah Malick*

Chronic heart failure has been extensively characterized as a disorder arising from a complex interaction between impaired ventricular performance and neurohormonal activation. Since beta adrenoceptor blocking agents are currently considered an integral component of therapy for the management of patients with severe chronic heart failure; several well designed clinical trials have been conducted to determine the morbidity and mortality benefits of these agents these studies, however did not yield the same results in terms of morbidity and mortality benefits. Currently only Bisoprolol, Carvedilol and sustained release metoprolol succinate have clinically proven and convincing morbidity and mortality benefits the current list of approved medicines of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) of the republic of Ghana does not provide coverage for these lifesaving therapeutic agents. The objective of this review was to collate the relevant scientific evidence that will convince the authorities at the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) of the Republic of Ghana to include at least one of the evidence based beta adrenoceptor blocking agents in the list of approved medicines.
A thorough search on the internet was conducted using Google scholar to obtain only the clinically relevant studies associated with the benefits of beta adrenoceptor blocking agents in patients with chronic heart failure published in the English language. The phrases beta adrenoceptor blocking agents and chronic heart failure were used as search engines.
The search engine yielded several studies that met the predefined inclusion criteria. However, only the Cardiac Insufficiency BIsoprolol Studies (CIBIS-I and CIBIS-II), Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study (COPERNICUS) and Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial (MERIF-HF) because of the clinical relevance of their findings Beta adrenoceptor blocking agents such as atenolol and propranolol have been used in the management of patients with chronic heart failure. However, their efficacy and optimal dose in reducing mortality have not been scientifically established not all beta adrenoceptor blocking agents scientifically studied provide the same degree of clinically meaningful and convincing morbidity and mortality benefits in patients with chronic heart failure.

Research Article

Anthropometric characteristics and somatotype of professional soccer players by position

Cavia MM*, Moreno A, Fernández-Trabanco B, Carrillo C and Alonso-Torre SR

The anthropometric characteristics are decisive for an optimal physical level and, therefore, a good level in the game; and they can be different depending on the game position.
The aim of this study was to identify the physical characteristics, body composition and somatotype of professional soccer players and to verify differences according to their playing positions: goalkeepers, defenders, forwards and midfielders.
The measurements were performed on 57 male players of a soccer team of the Spanish Football League One. Twenty seven anthropometric variables were measured (height and body weight, four bone breadths, eleven girths and ten skinfolds) and the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis was also performed. The percentage of body fat has been determined from 11 different equations.
Goalkeepers showed the highest weight (80.2 ± 3.2 kg), supraespinal (10.5 ± 3.8 mm) and abdominal (15.6 ± 3.5 mm) skinfolds than others positions. In relation to body fat percentages, similar results were obtained from the equations of Jackson-Pollock (from 3 and 7 skinfolds), Carter, Withers, and Heyward and Stolarczyk (mean value 7.8 ± 1.5%). Higher results were obtained from the other equations applied. Differences among positions were also found concerning body composition; goalkeepers showed the highest body fat percentage (9.4 ± 1.4%). Mean somatotype was also different among positions; goalkeepers and forwards presented a balanced mesomorph somatotype while defenders and midfielders showed an ecto-mesomorph one.
The differences in morphological characteristics according to the team position were notice only in goalkeepers, especially regarding their weight, abdominal and supraespinale skinfolds and the percentage of fat tissue.

Research Article

Gynaecological malignancies after breast cancer diagnosis: A population-based study

Maria Pilar Barretina-Ginesta, Jaume Galceran*, Helena Pla, Cristina Meléndez, Anna Carbo Bague, Alberto Ameijide, Marià Carulla, Jordi Barretina, Angel Izquierdo and Rafael Marcos-Gragera

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies. BC survivors have higher risk of second primary cancers than the general population. There is an increased interest in BC survivor management, including the prevention of these second cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of gynaecological malignancy (GM) as second neoplasm among BC patients in our population.
Methods: Patients with invasive BC diagnosed from 1980 to 2014 included in the Girona Cancer Registry were included. The incidence of second GM in these patients was compared to those in the general population. Second primary cancer was stated as a tumour diagnosed after 2 months from the BC diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess of risk (AER) were calculated.
Results: 9,717 patients were diagnosed with invasive BC during this period, with a median age at diagnosis of 61 years, and a median follow-up of 7.9 years. 117 of them developed a second GM. By tumour type, the only statistically significant higher SIR was observed for corpus uteri cancer (SIR:2.28 95% CI 1.82-2.83; AER:6.43 95% CI 4.13-9.14). After reviewing the histology of the CUC cases, we found that 71.4% were type I (endometrioid adenocarcinoma), 15.5% type II (serous adenocarcinomas and clear cell carcinomas), 10.7% carcinosarcomas, 2.4% sarcomas and there were no unspecified malignant neoplasms.
Conclusion: BC survivors have an increased risk of corpus uteri cancer, with an increase in unfavourable histologies compared to the general population. Lifelong primary and secondary prevention interventions should be recommended for these patients.

Research Article

Renal function effects of FDS, a saponin isolated from Filicium decipiens seeds: Biochemical and Histopathological studies

Romero MP Brandao-Costa*, Juanize Matias S Batistaa, Thiago Pajeu Nascimento and Ana LF Porto

Physicochemical and pharmacological studies indicated that Filicium decipiens seeds contained various specialized metabolites, including saponins. The aim of this work is to reveal the nephrotoxicity of FDS, a saponin isolated from Filicium decipiens seeds on male Wistar rats histopathological and biochemical parameters. Rats were submitted to oral ingestion of FDS (6.0 mg/kg) and crude extract (120.0 mg/kg) and were observed high levels of urea and creatinine in blood analyses of all animals followed by an acute renal failure by glomerular retraction. In the present study, FDS and crude extract when administered in Wistar rats induced an increase of serum levels of Urea and Creatinine, biochemical markers of kidney function. Table 1 shows Urea concentration at Test group with FDS (54.3 ± 1.80 mg/ml) and Test group with crude extract (49.7 ± 2.00 mg/ml), were 47% and 34.7% higher, respectively, when compared to control group (36.9 ± 2.00 mg/ml), and Creatinine at the test group with FDS (2.1 ± 0.03 mg/ml) and test group with crude extract (1.6 ± 0.09 mg/ml) presented a value 3.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, than control (0.6 ± 0.08 mg/ml). Based on these results, our data demonstrate a significant effect in renal function of rats treated with F. decipiens saponin.

Case Report

Stercoral perforation: A rare case and review

Lava Krishna Kannappa*, Muhammad Sufian Khalid, May Hnin Lwin Ko, Mohsin Hussein, Jia Hui Choong, Ameer Omar Rawal-Pangarkar, Danaradja Armugam and Yahya Salama

We present a 54-year-old male with abdominal pain, Vomiting and weight loss since 5 months. Perforation was noted at recto-sigmoid junction and underwent Hartman’s procedure with end colostomy. Histology of sigmoid colon confirmed a Stercoral perforation without any evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. Patient had chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of epiglottis a year ago and was on codeine phosphate and Oromorph as and when required since his treatment for SCC for pain. Patient also had been suffering from constipation since he finished chemotherapy. Stercoral perforation always need to kept in mind in patients who present with constipation and need to take all patients who present with chronic constipation and initiate measures we encounter commonly in everyday practice. We present a brief review about Stercoral perforation and its management.

Review Article

Protection from the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington’s Disease, and Parkinson’s Diseases, through the Mitigation of Reactive Oxygen Species

Samskruthi Madireddy* and Sahithi Madireddy

The biological changes caused by oxidative stress (OS) are known to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. The brain is particularly vulnerable to OS due to its high lipid content and extensive consumption of oxygen. OS processes, particularly the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), play a critical role in how neurodegenerative disorders develop. This is evidenced by in vivo studies investigating various biomolecules related to OS, such as products of lipid and DNA oxidation. Accordingly, ROS can also cause oxidative-related damage in neurodegenerative disorders, including dopamine auto-oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, glial cell activation, α-synuclein aggregation, excessive free iron, and changes in calcium signaling. Furthermore, excessive levels of cellular oxidants reduce antioxidant defenses, which in turn propagate the cycle of OS. As such, it is increasingly important to determine the linkage between a high intake of antioxidants through dietary interventions and a lower risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, in addition to modulating the immune system, optimal nutritional status is capable of changing various processes of neuroinflammation known to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Accordingly, a better understanding of the role ROS plays in the etiology of neurodegeneration is needed, along with the identification of dietary interventions that may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for both the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, this review presents a comprehensive summary of the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, nutrients believed to be useful for mitigating and counteracting ROS are discussed.

Case Report

A unique case of metastatic spinal epidural abscess associated with liver abscess following ascending cholangitis and Escherichia coli bacteremia

Nour Karra#, Samer Ganam#, Amitai Bickel, Maxim Bez, Ibrahim Abu Shakra, Doron Fischer and Eli Kakiashvili*

Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a life-threatening infection that may develop as a result of an underlying hepatobiliary disease. A possible complication of PLA is metastatic spread, resulting in distant seeding of infection in other organs, and occasionally in the epidural space. Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection with severe potential complications. We describe a 71-year-old patient who presented with ascending cholangitis that was complicated by micro PLA, with a subsequent Escherichia coli bacteremia and metastatic SEA. An emergent surgical intervention with laminotomy and drainage of the epidural collection was performed. The patient was treated with a prolonged antibiotic regimen, with uneventful recovery and no neurologic sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a SEA following E. coli PLA.

Research Article

Diagnosis of critical congenital heart defects in Iceland 2000-2014

Hallfríður Kristinsdóttir, Þórður Þórkelsson, Hildur Harðardóttir and Gylfi Óskarsson*

Critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are preferably diagnosed prenatally or soon after birth. Late diagnosis has been related to poorer prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess when CCHDs are diagnosed in Iceland and whether late diagnosis is a problem. All live born children in Iceland and foetuses diagnosed with CCHDs during the years 2000-2014 were included. CCHD was defined as a defect requiring intervention or causing death in the first year of life, or leading to abortion.
The total number of pre- and postnatal diagnosis of CCHDs was 188. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 69 of 188 (36.7%). Of 69 diagnosed prenatally 33 were terminated due to CCHD. Of the 155 live born children with CCHD, 36 (23.2%) had a prenatal diagnosis and 100 (64.5%) were diagnosed shortly after birth, before discharge from birth facility. 19 children (12.3%) were diagnosed late, that is after discharge from birth facility. Coarctation of the aorta was the most common CCHD diagnosed late (6/19).
Prenatal screening and newborn examination give good results in diagnosis of CCHDs in Iceland. Late diagnosis are relatively few, but both the number of prenatally diagnosed CCHDs and CCHDs diagnosed shortly after birth can be further improved.

Research Article

Evaluation of the predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc Score for no-reflow phenomenon in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Mahmoud Shawky Abd El-Moneum*

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the predictive clinical value of CHA2DS2-VASc score for no-reflow phenomena in patients having ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who applied to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Subjects and Methods: Three-hundred STEMI patients underwent primary PCI. They were classified into: group (1) included 27 patients with no-reflow and group (2) included 273 patients without no-reflow (control). CHA2DS2-VASc risk score was computed for each patient.

Results: This study found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in multivariate analysis of the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and no-reflow phenomenon. The predictive power of individual components in CHA2DS2-VASc score for no-reflow was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). So, significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc score is connected with higher risk of no-reflow and in-hospital mortality rate.

Conclusion: Significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc score is associated with higher risk of no- reflow phenomenon and in-hospital mortality rates in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI.

Research Article

Age Estimation Reports: Where do we stand?

Sakher Al Qahtani*

Age estimations process is not standardized worldwide. However, there is a wide agreement about the most suitable methods currently available. Up until now, the procedure of creating expert reports and to implement quality assurance in age estimation are variable.

Aim: The aim of this paper was to examine expert age estimation reports from around the world and identify the similarities and shortcomings present, which will help in providing recommendations to improve the reporting to reach standardization in expert age estimation reports.

Methods and Material: A questionnaire was developed to explore whether there is a universal consensus in writing age estimation reports. Countries participated in the survey were: Afghanistan, Australia, France, Indonesia, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Areas investigated by the survey included: Information about the individual in question and the entity requesting the assessment, if age interval is given along with if statistics were described in the report, if population reference data are used and reported and finally if the format of the report is standardized within each country.

Results: The results of this survey suggest that there is a high degree of individual variation in age estimation reports, sometimes even within the same country. While the majority of participants report the main findings, some important information is still missing. The statistical information remains extremely varied.

Conclusion: Although a resolution is not obvious, it is hoped that this study will promote further research and discussion on reporting age estimation. International guidelines on quality assurance in age estimation reports are urgently needed. Information to be reported should be specified on an international level and the exact report format to be used could be left to the national societies.

Research Article

Radiofrequency ablation for snoring and sleep apnoea

Shah Neha*

Radiofrequency proves to be a useful tool for snoring sleep apnoea cases. Its advantage includes relative precision in incision making, relative bloodless fields if used appropriately, decrease postoperative pain and excellent healing with fibrosis which aids in stiffening tissues.

Radiofrequency is high frequency alternating current used to ablate (cut/coagulate) tissues. It can be applied to nasal turbinates, soft palate, tongue base, tonsils etc. and it can be used to perform various procedures in the cutting mode to improve obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

The objective/aim was to assess efficacy of radiofrequency as a tool for procedures/surgeries for snoring/ sleep apnoea.

The parameters assessed were post-op pain, post- op blood loss, reduction in subjective snoring sounds by patients and partner, reduction in AHI post operatively.


Research Article

Addition of Simvastatin to Carvedilol and Endoscopic Variceal Ligation improves rebleeding and survival in patients with Child-Pugh A and B class but not in Child Pugh C class

Sanjeev Kumar Jha*, Kuldeep Saharawat, Ravi Keshari, Praveen Jha, Shubham Purkayastha and Ravish Ranjan

Background: Even with current standard treatment after variceal bleeding which includes combination of nonselective b-blockers and repeated endoscopic variceal ligation, the risk of rebleeding and mortality are high. Statins exhibit an antifibrotic effect and improves HVPG. We evaluated whether addition of simvastatin to carvedilol plus EVL therapy reduces variceal rebleeds or death in patients with cirrhosis.

Method: Patients with a variceal bleed 5 to 10 days before were randomly assigned to groups A [carvedilol (n = 69)] or group B [carvedilol (maximum dose - 12.5mg), and simvastatin (40mg/day) (n = 65)]. Primary end points were variceal rebleeding or death. Secondary end points were new complications of portal hypertension and serious adverse effects of drugs.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 49.05 ± 25.74 weeks, composite end point i.e. rebleeding or death developed in 23 patients (33.3%) in group A and 12 patients (18.5%) in group B [HR for simvastatin = 0.512; 95% CI: 0.254 – 1.030; p = 0.06]. In subgroup analysis by excluding patients of Child C class, 18 patients (34.6%) in group A and 7 patients (13.6%) in group B developed composite end point [HR for simvastatin = 0.369; 95% CI: 0.154 – 0.887; p = 0.026]. 17.4% and 15.4% patients in group A and B developed additional secondary complication [HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.345-2.161; p = 0.75). No simvastatin induced significant adverse effects were found.

Conclusion: Addition of simvastatin to carvedilol and EVL may reduce the rebleeding and death in patients with less advance liver disease.

Research Article

Compliance of hypertensive patients with antihypertensive drug therapy at the Renaissance Hospital of N’Djamena, Chad

Adam Ahamat Ali*, Guillaume Mahamat Abderraman*, Zeinabou Maiga Moussa Tondi and Hissein Ali Mahamat

Introduction: High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. In hypertension, non-compliance is frequent. The objective of this work is to evaluate the therapeutic observances and to identify the predictive factors of poor compliances in Chadian hypertensive patients.

Patients and Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional study over a six-month period from January 15 to July 15, 2019. This was performed in the outpatient Cardiology and Nephrology units at the Renaissance Hospital of N’Djamena. We included all follow-up patients who had hypertension who consulted during the study period. However, dialysis patients and children were excluded from this study. The parameters studied were demographic characteristics, economic and therapeutic data and the rate of therapeutic compliance.

Results: Eighty-seven patients were included. The average age was 50 years old. The sex ratio was 2.5. Sixty-seven percent (n = 58) of the patients were from urban areas. The predominant cardiovascular risk factors were smoking in 25% (n = 22) and diabetes in 23% (n = 20). Hypertension was uncontrolled in 76% (n = 66) patients. Adherence was poor in 66% (n = 57) of patients. The monthly cost of treatment was respectively 10,000 and 20,000 FCFA in 52% (n = 45) of cases. Combination therapy was observed in 70% of cases (n = 61) and 56% (n = 49) of patients had more than one drug intake. The adherence rate was 93% (n = 28) in the urban population (p < 0.001). All patients (n = 30) who were observing their treatment were educated (p < 0.001). The adherence rate was 20% (n = 6) in patients who had a monthly income less than 100,000 FCFA (p = 0.004). The adherence rate was 60% (n = 18) when the monthly cost was less than FCFA 10,000 (p = 0.003). The adherence rate was 77% (n = 23) in patients receiving monotherapy (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study showed a low level of adherence in Chadian hypertensive patients. The complexity and cost of antihypertensive therapy, poor knowledge of hypertension, and ignorance of its severity have been the main factors of poor compliance.


We may need to reconsider when to apply sunscreen in our daily life

Win L Chiou*

Broad-spectrum sunscreens are now widely used worldwide as an adjunct to help prevent sunburn, skin cancers and premature skin aging. In the United States, all persons older than 6 months are recommended to apply sunscreen to all sun-exposed skin from toes to head except eyes and mouth even on cloudy days. Such a recommendation is apparently based on concepts that exposure to sunlight damages the skin, the damage is cumulative and hence any sun exposure should be minimized or prevented. This communication raises several questions suggesting that the above recommendation may need to be reconsidered. For example, numerous previous studies have indicated many potential health benefits from non-burning sun exposure including protection against sunburn, melanoma, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer, increasing vitamin D synthesis, helping sleep, reducing blood pressure, heart attack and stroke. Recent studies suggested that regular lifetime non-burning sun exposure may not result in premature skin aging and the skin aging is mainly caused by the intrinsic factor. Skin aging or whole-body aging has been recently postulated to be mainly attributed to a gradual reduction in cardiac output/index with age and a new anti-aging or age-reversing nutritional theory has been proposed. An apparent lack of long-term cumulative sunray damage was also supported by reported age independence in incidences of sunburn and skin cancers. It is of interest that the current US policy is different from that of World Health Organization and Australia recommending the need of sun protection only when UV Index is 3 or greater. In view of the above, some general guidelines regarding when to best apply sunscreen are proposed.

Case Report

Intestinal malrotation presenting with midgut volvulus in an adult

Marta Alberich Prats*, Ricard Frago Montanuy and Sebastiano Biondo Aglio

A 36-year-old man without previous medical history presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and vomiting of acute onset. His vital signs were stable and he had no fever. Abdominal exploration revealed distention with pain at palpation. Laboratory tests were normal. Abdominal X-Ray showed gastric and small intestine distention.A nasogastric tube was placed and fluid therapy started. Computed tomography showed an intestinal malrotation, without the duodenum crossing the midline and with the colic frame arranged in the left hemiabdomen (Figure 1), complicated with a midgut volvulus as demonstrated by the whirlpool sign (Figure 2, arrow). Ladd’s procedure was performed using a midline open approach. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy and chylous ascites was found (Figure 3). The volvulus was reduced by counter-clockwise detorsion without need of intestinal resection and Ladd’s bands division along with an extended Kocher manoeuvre (Figure 4) allowed a good position of the mesentery. Appendectomy was also conducted. Postoperative course was uneventful with the patient being discharged the fifth day, after resumption of bowel function. No alterations were detected at follow up one month later.

Case Report

Anterior Abdominal Wall Abscess: An unusual presentation of Carcinoma of the Colon

Keerthana Panchagnula, Poojitha Yalla, Badareesh Lakshminarayana*, Kshama Hegde and Ramesh Singaraddi

Background: Colorectal cancer progresses without any symptoms early on, or those clinical symptoms are very discrete and so are undetected for long periods of time. The case reported is an unusual presentation of colorectal cancer.

Case Report: A 60 year old man presented with right sided abdominal swelling. On examination, a well-defined, firm, tender swelling was noted. Computed tomography confirmed the presence of a mass arising from the right colon with infiltration of the right lateral abdominal wall and adjacent collection. An exploratory laparotomy with drainage of the subcutaneous abscess, resection of ascending colon, and ileotransverse colon anastomosis was performed.

Conclusion: A differential diagnosis of carcinoma colon should be considered when an elderly patient presents with abdominal wall abscess accompanied by altered bowel habits or per rectal bleeding, even if there are no other significant clinical symptoms and a thorough investigative work up is required to confirm the diagnosis, to avoid untimely delay in treatment, and reduce mortality.

Research Article

Nebulization as complementary therapy for dogs with respiratory tract infections

Stopyra Artur*, Sobiech Przemyslaw, Pomianowski Andrzej, Zarczynska Katarzyna and Edyta Kaczorek

Respiratory tract infections in dogs pose a significant problem and often require prolonged treatment. The effectiveness of pharmacological therapy can be improved through the administration of nebulized compounds to liquidize mucus and promote its evacuation from the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nebulized 0.9% NaCl in dogs with respiratory tract infections. Respiratory functions were assessed based on the results of arterial blood gas analyses, and the patients’ clinical status was determined by evaluating the severity of symptoms on a point grading scale. Inhalation of nebulized 0.9% NaCl significantly accelerated improvement in the patents’ clinical status (normalization of body temperature, decreased cough frequency, decrease/elimination of nasal and ocular discharge, improved appetite) and improved pulmonary gas exchange by reducing partial pressure and total content of carbon dioxide and increasing partial pressure and total content of oxygen in blood.

Research Article

Impact of Pacemaker Implantation on 12-Month Resource Utilization Following TAVR Hospitalization

Steven D Culler*, Aaron D Kugelmass, David J Cohen, Matthew R Reynolds, Phillip P Brown, April W Simon and Marc R Katz

Purpose: This study reports resource utilization during a Medicare Beneficiary’s (MBs) Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) index hospitalization and all subsequent encounters for 12 months and compares data between MBs who did or did not receive a pacemaker implantation (PPM) during their index hospitalization.

Method: This retrospective study examined Medicare hospital claims from January 1, 2014 through June 30, 2015. 15,533 MBs who survived for 365 days were studied. Information from all encounters during the study period was combined to compare hospital resource utilization and outcomes.

Results: 14.8% of MBs had a PPM during the index hospitalization. 46.0% of MBs had at least one readmission to a hospital during the 365-day follow-up period. 54.6% of MB’s first hospital readmission occurred within 90 days of their TAVR discharge date. Average total Medicare reimbursement for all hospitalizations was $60,638 ± $28,974 associated with average total hospital length of stay of 11.2 ± 11.7 days. After adjusting for demographics and 47 comorbid conditions, MBs receiving a PPM during the index TAVR had significantly higher estimated Medicare reimbursement ($5,132) and longer total length of stay (1.8 days) for the entire study period than MBs not receiving a PPM.

Conclusion: Total Medicare reimbursement and hospital LOS were significantly higher among MBs that had a PPM implantation during their index admission; however, there were no significant differences in readmission rates, readmission length of stay, or days to first readmission during the follow-up period between the two study cohorts.

Research Article

The effect of anemia on serum hepcidin levels in patients with heart failure

Betul Borku Uysal*, Feray Akbas, Esma Altunoglu, Gulhan Ipek Denız, Duygu Uysal, Harun Uysal, Hanife Usta Atmaca, Yasin Yuksel, Hale Aral, Guven Cetın, Cem Ar M and Fusun Erdenen

Background: Anemia is an accelerating problem among patients with heart failure (HF) and its presence is associated with more symptoms. In this study, we investigated whether anemia in heart failure was related to hepcidin concentration.

Methods: 50 patients with heart failure and 20 healthy subjects with no history of a chronic illness including heart failure as control group, were included in the study. Heart failure was verified by echocardiography in each subject and patients were defined as ones with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) if EF ≤ 40% and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) if EF 40% - 50%. Blood samples were taken from all patients after 10-12 hours fasting. Anemia assessment was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criterias.

Results: There was a positive correlation between hepcidin concentration and urea, ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrite, C-reactive protein (p < 0,05). Hepcidin concentrations of anemic heart failure patients were significantly lower than the non-anemic heart failure patients (p < 0,05).

Conclusion: We found that serum hepcidin concentration in anemic patients with heart failure was lower than in heart failure patients without anemia. We believe that iron defiency occurs as a result of inflammatory process in heart failure and therefore hepcidin concentrations decrease as a response. However, long-term follow up studies are needed.

Research Article

Synthesis of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2@Ag core-shell nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced upconversion luminescence in bio-applications

Grigory Arzumanyan*, Dmitriy Linnik*, Kahramon Mamatkulov, Maria Vorobyeva, Anastasia Korsun, Valentina Glasunova and Anka Jevremovic

The present report highlights our results on synthesis of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2@Ag core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) for plasmon-enhanced upconversion luminescence (UCL). Hydrophilic surface UCL nanoparticles (UCLNPs) as cores were obtained by precipitation of Rare Earth Elements (REE) chlorides from water-alcohol solutions. The formation of a hydrophobic surface of α-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs was achieved by thermolysis method at 280 °C and β-NaYF4:Yb,Er by precipitation method in nonpolar medium at 320 °C. Silica shell was formed by the modified Stöber method on the surfaces of UCLNPs with different polarity and phase composition. A mixture of hexane-cyclohexane-isopropyl alcohol was used as a medium for the formation of mononuclear CSNPs on hydrophobic surfaces of cores with different thicknesses of the silica shell: 5 nm and 14 nm. Formation of a predetermined thickness of silica shell was carried out by introducing a precise quantity of TEOS taking into account the size of core NPs with molar ratio TEOS: H2O equal to 1:6. The morphology and phase composition of cores and CSNPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction, respectively. The insertion of Ag NPs into the structure of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 was carried out in parallel at the stage of shell formation, which made this synthesis a one-step process. The control of the size of Ag NPs was implemented through the use of a colloidal solution of NPs of the cluster structure by changing the polarity of the medium. The highest intensity enhancement of 85-fold with 5 nm and 29-fold with 14 nm shell thickness was recorded, respectively. For the first time, tests on bioimaging of neutrophil cells by those CSNPs are demonstrated.

Research Article

Tamsulosin and Dementia in old age: Is there any relationship?

Rebecca Renata Lapenda do Monte, Karina de Andrade Vidal Costa, Arnaldo Santiago Nunes Junior, Amalia Cinthia Meneses Rego and Irami Araujo-Filho*

Tamsulosin is used to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), prescribed annually to about 12.6 million patients worldwide. It is an alpha-adrenergic antagonist that reduces the tone of the prostate smooth muscle involved in the pathophysiology of BPH. By acting on alpha 1A receptors, predominant in the prostate, tamsulosin also acts on receptors present in the brain. This study consisted of a literature review aimed at disseminating scientific knowledge about the relationship between the use of tamsulosin and the onset of dementia. PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, Embase, and Web of Science studies involving dementia in patients using tamsulosin in the last five years were selected. The review showed a risk correlation and a higher incidence of dementia in treated patients. The risk ratio, when compared to other medicines, approached 1.20. In conclusion, it was identified the need for clinical trials with higher sampling power to increase relational significance due to the high prevalence of BPH and the extensive use of tamsulosin in elderly patients with the disease.

Case Report

Fatal agranulocytosis associated with Metamizole treatment in a 16-year-old girl

Packo Dieu-le-veut Saint-Cyr Sylvestre*, Nanho Danho Clotaire, N’dhatz Comoe Emeraude, Boidy Kouakou, Camengo Police Serge Magloire, Diakite Mamady, Mbelesso Pascal and Koffi Kouassi Gustave

Agranulocytosis is one of the common reasons of consultation in hematology. It’s life-threatening because of an infection risk. The metamizole is a drug, known for its potential rare danger of inducing a severe agranulocytosis. However, it remains widely used because of its beneficial effect analgesic and antipyretic. We report in this study, a case of a girl who was 16 years old, referred for severe agranulocytosis, and appeared two weeks after treatment with Novalgin. The clinico-biological symptoms were dominated by Streptococcal septicemia with an infectious pulmonary and digestive focus. The blood cell count confirmed a severe agranulocytosis with total disappearance of neutrophils. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and stimulation with hematopoietic growth factor, the clinical evolution was fatal in the short term. What motivates us to add this case to those of the literature in order to remind practitioners about the danger of this drug, and to promote has doubled of vigilance during use.

Case Report

Automatic heartbeat monitoring system

Franchini Roberto*

The proliferation and popularity of open source hardware and software, such as Arduino and Raspberry PI, together with IoT and Embedded System, has brought the health industry to rapid evolution, creating portable and low-cost medical devices for monitoring vital signals. Electrocardiographic (ECG) equipment plays a vital role for diagnosis of cardiac disease. However, the cost of this equipment is huge and the operation is too much complex which cannot offer better services to a large population in developing countries. In this paper, I have designed and implemented a low cost fully portable ECG monitoring system using android smartphone and Arduino. The results obtained by the device were tested comparing them with those obtained from a traditional ECG used in clinical practice on 70 people, in resting and under-activity conditions. The values of beats per minute (BPM), ECG waveform and ECG parameters were identical, and presented a sensitivity of 97.8% and a specificity of 78.52%.

Case Report

A rare case of recurrent urinary tract infection due to Trichosporon species in an immune-competent diabetic female patient

Saroj Adhikari, Bhuvan Saud*, Govinda Paudel and Sunita Wagle

Trichosporonosis is a disease caused by Trichosporon spp. which are ubiquitous anamorphic yeast that commonly inhabit the soil. In human they are found in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Globally, Trichosporon spp. infection is rare and remains scantily reported in urinary tract infections and disseminated invasive infection amongst immunocompromised and cancer patients with neutropenia. Trichosporon asahii is the most commonly reported species. Virulence factors like proteinases, lipases, and phospholipases may be responsible for disease manifestation. We report a case of recurrent urinary tract infection due to Trichosporon spp. in a 62-year-old immunocompetent diabetic female which remained misdiagnosed for a long period of time. The patient was subsequently treated successfully by oral fluconazole drug.

Research Article

Screening of antibiotic residue in poultry in Kathmandu valley of Nepal: A cross-sectional study

Rajiv Sapkota*, Ramila Raut, Sujan Khanal, Muna Gyawali and Dipesh Sahi

This cross-sectional study was conducted to screen the presence of antibiotic residue in poultry. A total of 60 samples (30 Muscle and 30 Liver) were taken from local meat shops from different parts of Kathmandu valley. Disc assay method was used. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) were used as test organisms. The results revealed 8 positive samples (which is 13%). Among 30 Liver samples, 3 showed positive result, while only 2 muscle sample indicated positive result. Muscle has the highest percentage of positive results than liver. For S. aureus showed greater percentage of positive results than that of E. coli. The presence of antibiotic residue and its many pathological effects to public health demands the strict rules and regulations as well as surveillance from the concerned authorities.

Research Article

The association between hypoxia, chronic ischemia and alters prostate structure and progress of chronic prostatic disease

Mauro Luisetto*, Behzad Nili Ahmadabadi, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Gamal Abdul Hamid

Chronic prostatitis today show high level of relapses and recurrent pathological events even if using the best pharmacological therapy. A better understanding of physiopathological effect of ischemic hypoxic condition (pelvic, prostate tissue) and the lymphatic congestion in same body region contribute in evolution of a complex condition. The same focusing the strategy in biofilm reduction or in leukocyte infiltration can be a right way to reduce relapses and progression of the prostatic disease. Hypoxia is also related to prostatic cancer progression and prostatic biofilm if responsible of making a new micro- environment often drug resistance. A deep knowledge in this kind of phenomena can improve the clinical effect of drug therapy.

Research Article

Prevalence of disabling hearing loss in the elderly

Letícia Raquel Baraky Vasconcelos, Paula Ferraz Rodrigues, Paula Liziero Tavares and Audryo Oliveira Nogueira*

Introduction: Disabling hearing loss refers to hearing thresholds superior than 40 dB in the better ear in the adults. The main cause of hearing loss in the elderly is the age-related hearing loss, also called presbycusis. This type of hearing impairment occurs as individuals grow older and is usually sensorineural hearing disorder greater for high-pitched sounds and affects both ears equally. It is estimated that 466 million people worldwide have disabling hearing loss, one third of which are over 65 years old.

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of disabling hearing loss in the elderly of Juiz de Fora.

Methods: Cross-sectional study with 122 patients. Pure tone audiometry was performed after meticulous physical examination of the external ear.

Results: Out of 122 older adults, 85 (69,6%) presented disabling hearing loss.

Conclusion: Hearing loss, specially disabling hearing loss, is a frequent condition in the elderly and has a big impact on their quality of life. For that it should be promptly diagnosed so treatment can be initiated.

Case Report

Occipital lobe ependymal cyst with unusual presentation

Okacha Naama*, Abdelilah Idir and Omar Boulahroud

Intraparenchymal cysts without communication to the ventricles or the subarachnoid space are named ependymal or epithelial cysts. The estimated ratio of their incidence compared with arachnoid cysts is 1:10. Neurologic deficit can occur when the cyst exerts mass effect on its surroundings. We report a case of cerebral ependymal cyst in a 75-year-old lady who presented with history of headache, vomiting and left incomplete homonymous hemianopsia. Neuroimaging studies showed a large right occipital cyst. She underwent the neurosurgical procedure of marsupialization. Histologic findings and the immunophenotype was consistent with a diagnosis of ependymal cyst. The patient made an excellent recovery after the procedure.

Review Article

Three modern serological methods to detect plant viruses

Mahmoud Hamdy Abd El-Aziz*

The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of plant viruses is well documented. It proved to be a very valuable detection tools for the plant viruses. The efficiency of the ELISA technique was for practical purpose independent of the ratio of antibodies to antigen. This avoids the necessity of making specific enzyme conjugates for each antigen to be tested and eliminates the extreme specificity, thus allowing for quantitative evaluation of strain relationships. The advantages of indirect ELISA are sample. It needs only to be macerated and added to the plate. The crude antiserum could be used, although it should be cross absorbed before to prevent spurious host reaction. Single commercially available second antibody conjugate is utilized, thus eliminating the problems of preparing and storing many different conjugated antisera. Blotting technique has become widely used for specific identification of nucleic acid and proteins. This dot assay was modified to detect protein by spotting the antigen on a nitrocellulose membrane and incubating the membrane in test antibody followed by incubation in peroxidase-conjugated second antibody to the first antibody, and by development in 4-chloro-1-naphthol. The above procedure termed dot blot immunobinding assay (DBIA). The technique of tissue blotting on nitrocellulose membrane was described for detection of plant viruses in infected plants. Tissue blots were made by pressing with a firm and gentile force, the freshly cut tissue surface on nitrocellulose membranes. The possibility of using both sides of the nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) by tissue blot immuno assay (TBIA) for the detection plant viruses. In an effort to reduce the cost of virus assays, different types of regular paper were evaluated as possible replacements for the commonly used nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) as the solid phase in the tissue-blot immunoassay (TBIA) were  used. Comparisons between different serological methods were demonstrated by many investigators Dot immunobinding was eight times more sensitive for detection of PVX and four times more sensitive for detection of PVS and PVY than DAS-ELISA.

Research Article

Comprehensive phenotypic characterization and genetic distinction of distinct goosegrass (Eleusine indica L. Gaertn.) ecotypes

Robert A Kerr*, Tatyana Zhebentyayeva, Christopher Saski and Lambert B McCarty

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L. Gaertn.) is a troublesome weed in turfgrass systems throughout the world. The development of herbicide resistant ecotypes has occurred to multiple modes of action. Goosegrass is a prolific seed producer (~50,000 per plant), fast growing and diverse weed. Such growing attributes make it essential to have a better understanding of the genetic diversity of various ecotypes. The objectives of this study were to determine if morphologically distinct goosegrass ecotypes collected in Florida were phenotypically distinct and genetically different. Phenotypically, the goosegrass ecotypes can be classified as follows; dwarf, intermediate 1 (int_I), intermediate 2 (int_II) and wild. The dwarf had the least seedheads followed by the wild ecotype; 5 and 17 respectively, while int_I and int_II had highest number of seedheads; 22 and 34 respectively. The dwarf ecotype had lowest height of 6 cm and the wild ecotype had highest height of 36 cm. Dwarf and int_II ecotypes had shortest internode length of 0.2 cm and 1 cm, respectively, while the wild ecotype had longest internode length of 7 cm. The dwarf ecotype had lowest number of racemes per plant of 1, while the wild ecotype had highest number of racemes per plant of 7. Total biomass was lowest for the dwarf and int_II ecotype; 0.7 g and 1.5 g, respectively, and total biomass was highest for the wild ecotype at 5 g. Gene sequencing of two rice (Oryza) gene sequences (accession AP014964 (gene A) and AP014965 (gene B)) and subsequent phylogenetic analysis suggest the ecotypes are genetically different. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of interest were discovered indicating allelic differences between ecotypes.

Research Article

Serological and molecular characterization of two seed born cowpea mosaic Comovirus isolates affecting cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L.) in northern Egypt

Mahmoud Hamdy Abd El-Aziz* and Hosny Aly Younes

Cowpea plants naturally infected with cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) showed different mosaic, mottle, dwarfing, and vain clearing symptoms. Diseased plants were ollected from certain locations of Alexandria and El-Beheira governorates during the growing seasons from 2011 to 2012. CPMV was detected in infected sap at 8 to 24 days after inoculation by DBIA, indirect ELISA and tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA). Chlorotic local lesions were observed on Chenopodium amaranticolor in infectivity test. By using indirect ELISA and DBIA, CPMV were detected in infected plant sap of serial dilutions up to 1: 400. The incidence of CPMV in 21 day old cowpea seedlings grown from infected seeds was determined by ELISA and positive detection of virus antigen reached 65%. Nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA and DBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. Results revealed that both faces of nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. According to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of CPMV infected plant; the amplified product was approximately 800bp of partial coat protein gene. The nucleotide sequences accession number were LN606585 and LN606586. The phylogenetic tree was generated using sequences of CPMV isolates with the other CPMV records from GenBank.

Review Article

Avermectins: The promising solution to control plant parasitic nematodes

Mohamed S Khalil* and Dalia M Darwesh

Abamectin and emamectin are members of avermectin family which categorized as very effective but in the same time are toxic naturally. Most of products in this family are utilized as pharmaceuticals in both humans & animals and for crop protection.Despite avermectins are having complex chemical structures, but they are produced via synthesis in large scales for commercial use. Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) cause severe damages in all parts of their host plants, in addition to yield losses. The available strategies to control PPN include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to environment and human health. Therefore, this scenario gave an opportunity for the utilization of avermectins (abamectin and emamectin) to control plant parasitic nematodes because of their chemical and biological properties, as well as relative safety. Avermectins have short half-lives and their residues can be eliminated easily through different food processing methods. Both abamectin and emamectin were very effective nematicides which proved capability of reducing PPNs significantly in various crops.

Research Article

Low back pain induces disability of women in primary uncomplicated pregnancy

Panagiotis Korovessis*, Rania Antonaki, Spyridon Zacharatos and Vasileios Syrimpeis

Study design: A consecutive case series study

Purpose: To investigate whether Low Back Pain (LBP) in women with primary singleton pregnancy induces disability.

Background: LBP is reported to be increased in pregnants than in non-pregnant women. Different outcome measures have been used to search for correlations between pain and disability.

Methods: 167 pregnant women aged 30 ± 3.5 years participated. Two equal categorial age groups were constructed: Group A included women aged 23 - 29 years, and Group B women aged 30-39 years. Their weight was 76 ± 13 kg prepartum and the Body Mass index (BMI) was 28 ± 4 prepartum. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for LBP pain intensity and Oswestry Disability Scale (ODI) for disability estimation in the last three months prepartum and in the first three months postpartum.

Results: The women weight was 67 ± 13 kg postpartum. The BMI was 24 ± 4 postpartum. There was no difference in VAS and ODI scores versus BMI, weight and height between the two age groups in both periods of observation: prepartum and postpartum. Prepartum, 81.4% of women claimed LBP that dropped to 55.5% postpartum. ODI score dropped from 19.5 ± 13.6% prepartum to 11 ± 12% postpartum. The ODI subscales that showed significant reduction postpartum were: Pain intensity (P = 0.002); working (P = 0.009); sitting (P = 0.004); standing (P = 0.003); sleeping (P = 0.008); and traveling (P = 0.006). VAS prepartum was increasing as the weight was increasing in both periods of observation (P = 0.015 and P=0.051) respectively. VAS prepartum was significantly correlated with BMI prepartum (P = 0.019) and postpartum (P = 0.028).

Discussion: Physical disability in pregnant women was low and reduced following delivery. Disability was linked with LBP intensity, weight, BMI and height, but not with age or educational level.


The rising role of natural killer cells in patients with malignant hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Khalid Ahmed Al-Anazi*

Natural killer (NK) cells, the third population of lymphoid cells, comprise 5%-25% of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes and represent the first line of defense against infections and tumors [1-7]. They can be derived from: bone marrow, PB, cryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and various cell lines such as NK-92 and KHYG-1 [1].

Review Article

Advances in the use of GABAergic interneurons for the treatment of epilepsy

Federica Frisina#, Giulia Valetti#, Giulia Zuccarini#, Luciano Conti# and Giorgio R Merlo*

Forebrain GABAergic neurons, the main inhibitory type of neuron in the cortex and hippocampus, represent a highly heterogeneous cell population that has been implicated in the predisposition to epilepsy and the onset of seizure. Earlier attempts to restore inhibition and reduce seizure in animal models of epilepsy have been carried out using embryonic basal forebrain tissue as source of immature GABAergic progenitors in cell-based therapies, with promising results. For therapeutic strategies this approach appears unrealistic, while the use of pluripotent stem cells to obtain immature GABAergic neurons opens new and promising avenues. Research on neural stem cells and pluripotent stem cells has greatly advanced and protocols have been established to efficiently direct progenitor cells to differentiate towards the GABAergic lineage. However, being highly heterogeneous, these neurons are difficult to be fully represented in vitro. Better knowledge on the expressed gene profiles, at single cell level, and the differentiation trajectory of these neurons will consent a more precise monitoring of the differentiation steps. Here we review the current literature about how to obtain and characterize genuine inhibitory neurons, how these can be grafted in animal models (and one day possibly in human) and which diseases could potentially be targeted and the efficiency of therapeutic outcome. The main obstacles that need to be overcome are: a) choice of an appropriate animal model, b) availability of human cells prone to GABA differentiation, c) the full representation of all IN subtypes, their proportions and their physiological activities, d) how to monitor them on the long-term after transplant.

Research Article

Glycemic status and its effect in Neonatal Sepsis - A prospective study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

Badri Kumar Gupta*, Binod Kumar Gupta, Amit Kumar Shrivastava, Pradeep Chetri

Introduction: Sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. Neonatal sepsis can alter the glucose level and both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia may occur. A high or low blood glucose level may have a significant effect on the outcomes in patients of neonatal sepsis.
Aims: The aim of the study to see the glycaemic status and its effect on outcome of neonatal sepsis.
Material and Methods: This hospital based prospective observational cross-sectional study was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Universal College of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital over a period of 4 months, from May 2019 to August 2019. A total of 220 Neonates suspected sepsis under the age of 28 days admitted in NICU, were studied and included in our study. Clinically suspected neonatal sepsis cases were enrolled in the study. Venous blood was collected before giving any intravenous fluid, dextrose or antibiotics and blood sugar, complete blood counts, CRP levels and blood culture were send to laboratory within half hour of collection. All patients included in this study were treated accordingly and followed up strictly. Blood glucose level and mortality of neonates having hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia were analyzed among CRP and culture positive patients. Quantitative data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were expressed as frequency and percentage and comparison carried by Chi-square (χ2) test.
Results: A total of 220 patients clinically diagnosed as neonatal sepsis were studied. 118 (53.6%) patients were found CRP positive and 56 (25.5%) patients were blood culture positive. Glycaemic status was analyzed among CRP and culture positive patients. Majority (55.9%) patients were found normoglycemic, 35.5% were found hypoglycemic and 8.6% were found hyperglycaemic in this study. 182 (82.73%) patients were cured and 38 (17.27%) died. Mortality was high in hypoglycaemic patients (34.4%) compared with normoglycaemic patients (9.82%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between two groups, the mortality was high in hyperglycaemic patients (58.33%) compared with normoglycaemic patients (9.82%) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) between two groups.
Conclusion: Alteration of glycaemic status occurred in septic newborn. Mortality is higher among the septic newborn with hyperglycemia. The present study found that majority of neonate with sepsis had high mortality rate when blood glucose level were either more than 145 mg/dl or less than 45 mg/dl. This signifies the importance of meticulous blood glucose estimation in cases of neonatal sepsis to improve mortality outcome.

Research Article

Does it matter what a mother consumes? An anthropological exploration of dietary practices among Churachandpur (Manipur) pregnant women and its impact on infant birth weight

Evelyn Ngaithianven, JS Sehrawat* and Reetinder Kaur

Background: Nutritional status of expectant women is an important indicator of healthy pregnancy and an ideal birth weight of the infant. The present study is an attempt to understand food eating practices and related taboos among the Paite women and whether or how these practices influence weight gain among infants during their first year of life.

Methods: The longitudinal study was conducted for a period of 16 months between November 2010 and February 2012) among 186 Paite mother-infant pairs. Women who had completed 37 to 42 weeks of pregnancy were included. Infant’s weights were measured using standard technique and information on mothers’ food related practices was recorded during the house visit using a structured schedule. Standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis.

Results: A peculiar practice, ‘pica’ was observed among a few women. A number of food taboos were found to be followed by the ‘Paite’ women during course of their pregnancy.

Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed in the mean weight of babies from birth through the age of 1 year between mothers practicing and not practicing food taboos. However, it was found that the mean weight of the babies throughout the study period was comparatively higher among non-taboo mothers. It could be suggested that women must be counseled during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the maternity clinics and hospitals about dietary practices and their anticipated impact on health of the newborns.

Research Article

Plaque morphology in diabetic vs. non diabetic patients assessed by Multi-Slice Computed Tomography coronary angiography

Hesham Mohamed Aboul-Enein, Amr Elsayed El Naggar, Shereen Ibrahim Farag, Waleed Atef Ahmed Hassan*

Background and Objectives: Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) provides high accuracy for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). The introduction of the latest computed tomography technology allows comprehensive evaluation of various aspects of CAD, including the coronary calcium score, coronary artery stenosis, bypass patency, and myocardial function. This study aimed to assess the effect of DM on coronary arteries evaluated by MSCT-CA Comparing Plaque Morphology in Diabetic patients with Non-Diabetic Whoever Controlled or not assessed by HbA1c.
Methods: In this study we randomly assigned 150 adult patients were diagnosed with suspected coronary artery disease underwent MSCT-CA for evaluation their coronaries regarding luminal stenosis, Plaque analysis, Remodeling index, SSS, SIS and Ca score.
Results: There was statistically significant difference between diabetics & non-diabetic groups in LM lesions with (P = 0.029). also, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex, diabetics were shown a trend toward more mixed plaque with statistically significant {(OR): 3.422, 95% CI 1.66-7.023, P = 0.001}; whereas, after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, patients with diabetes also shown a trend toward more mixed plaque with statistically significant (OR: 3.456, 95% CI 1.668-7.160, P = 0.001). It means significant differences in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, with a higher proportion of mixed plaques, a more vulnerable form of atherosclerotic plaque in diabetics (P < 0.001) otherwise No significant difference.
Conclusion: MSCT angiography may be useful for the identification of CAD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. There were statistically significant differences in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition, with a higher proportion of mixed plaques, between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Furthermore, MSCT may give accurate information about plaque characteristics according to different coronary risk factors, thereby identifying high risk features warranting a more intensive anti-atherosclerotic treatment.

Case Report

Scintigraphic non-invasive diagnosis of amyloid cardiomyopathy

Laroussi Mohamed-Salem*, Tomas E Rodríguez-Locarno, Tatiana Moreno-Monsalve, Isabel Castellon-Sanchez, Jose F Contreras-Gutierrez and Antonia Claver-Valderas

Amyloidosis encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble abnormal amyloid aggregates, due to a failure in protein quality control. Cardiac amyloidosis is a disorder in which proteins misfold and deposit as amyloid fibrils that infiltrate the myocardial extracellular space [1].

Transthyretin (ATTR) and light chain (AL) are the most frequent types of cardiac amyloidosis. Transthyretin is a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, it may be hereditary or acquired from either wild-type (ATTRwt) or mutant (ATTRm) amyloid [2]. Cardiomyopathy is a common manifestation of ATTR amyloidosis with a particularly poor life expectancy of 2 to 6 years after diagnosis [3]. Although considered rare, the prevalence of this serious disease is likely underestimated because symptoms can be non-specific, and diagnosis largely relies on amyloid detection in tissue biopsies.

Research Article

Prevalence of congenital heart diseases among primary school children in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, West Africa

Ujuanbi Amenawon Susan*, Tabansi Petronilla Nnena, Otaigbe Barbara Edewele

Introduction: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Community-based studies are important in ascertaining the burden of the disease.

Objectives: The study was set out to determine the prevalence and types of CHD among primary school children in Port Harcourt Local Government Area (PHALGA) of Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 1,712 primary school pupils were selected by multistage sampling from twelve schools in PHALGA. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from pupil’s parents on their child’s biodata and symptoms suggestive of heart disease. General physical and cardiovascular system examinations were carried out on each selected pupil, following which those with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of heart disease had echocardiographic confirmation of their cardiac status.

Results: The 1,712 subjects were aged 5-14 (mean 8.48 ± 2.30) years. 874 (51.1%) were females while males were 838 (48.9%). The study revealed that 31 pupils had congenital heart diseases confirmed by echocardiography, giving a prevalence of 18.1 per 1,000 pupils. The commonest cardiac defects seen were acyanotic CHD in 30 (96.8%) pupils while cyanotic CHD was seen in only one (3.2%) pupil. Among the acyanotic CHD, atrial septal defects (83.9%) followed by ventricular septal defects (9.7%) were the commonest. CHD occurred with higher frequency among females (64.5%) and among the younger age group of 5-9 years (61.3%) though these were not statistically significant (p > 0.005).

Conclusion: Cardiac examination as part of compulsory health screening at primary school entry will help detect children with CHD, reduce delay in diagnosis for intervention, avert debilitating morbidity and assure a better quality of life. 

Research Article

Novel paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty via single retrograde popliteal access for challenging superficial femoral artery and iliac artery lesions?

Erdem Cetin*, Celal Selcuk Unal, Aydın Keskin, Hakan Kartal

Objectives: We report our results regarding the use of BioPath™ paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters for superficial or distal external iliac artery revascularization via single retrograde popliteal access.

Methods: We included 105 prospective consecutive patients. Single retrograde popliteal access was achieved under ultrasound guidance with the patients laid prone. An over-the-wire atherectomy system was used if risk of distal embolization was high due to plaque intensity of the target lesion. A 4 to 7 mm-diameter BioPath™ 035 balloon catheter was used for all lesions. Follow-up at 6th month included doppler ultrasound examination for patency.

Results: Seventy-two patients (68.6%) had total SFA occlusion and 41 patients (39%) had concomitant external iliac artery involvement, out of whom 31 (29.5%) had total occlusion. Procedural success 90.5% for superficial femoral artery and 85.3% for external iliac artery. One-year patency rates in SFA and EIA were 84.8% and 80.4%, respectively

Conclusion: Single retrograde popliteal access and drug-coated balloon angioplasty may offer a useful alternative to known modalities in treatment of challenging superficial femoral artery and concomitant iliac artery lesions.

Research Article

Prediction of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction after 6 months of Aortic Valve Replacement in patients with Chronic Severe Aortic Regurge

Ahmed S Ammar, Mohammad Gouda*, Mohammad Hassan

The natural history of chronic severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) is characterized by a prolonged period of preserved global left ventricular (LV) systolic function and compensated eccentric hypertrophy, which insidiously gives way to myocardial decompensation [1].In its early stages, myocardial dysfunction may be reversible once implantation of a mechanical or bioprosthetic aortic valve eliminates the volume load. If left untreated, myocardial dysfunction becomes irreversible, a condition associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality [2]. The choice of optimal timing of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with AR often poses a dilemma for clinicians. If AVR is performed at a time when LV function is normal, then the patient may be exposed unnecessarily to the potential hazards that accompany prosthetic valves. However, if surgical correction of the volume overload state is delayed excessively irreversible cardiac dysfunction may have already occurred and the outcome may be unsatisfactory [3]. The decision is to when to intervene for chronic AR depends primarily on the symptomatic status of the patient and the potential for normalization of ventricular and myocardial performance after AVR [4]. Measuring LVEF as a surrogate for myocardial performance is problematic in the setting of chronic AR because LVEF is augmented by increased preload and is therefore limited in detecting subtle myocardial dysfunction. Thus, there is a clinical need for quantitative noninvasive parameters to assess myocardial function in the setting of altered loading conditions and to predict postoperative LV systolic dysfunction [5]. The aim of the study is to assess the validity of new echo-Doppler indices for prediction of postoperative LV dysfunction 6 months after AVR.

Research Article

Arrhythmia of the heart - computer analysis

VI Kaganov*

The problem of synchronization of oscillations of various physical nature is discussed. From the standpoint of the theory of synchronism, a model of the heart is considered as a system of four connected between self-oscillating links: two atria and two ventricles. The synchronous and asynchronous operating modes are considered at sinusoidal and relaxation oscillations. A computer program has been compiled that simulates the fluctuations in the heart using four differential equations. Four examples of calculation according to the program are given for asynchronous and synchronous operation modes. The possibility of evaluating the ablation procedure from the perspective of a computer model is discussed.

Research Article

Results of chemotherapy in the treatment of chronic lymphoid leukemia in Black Africa: Experience of Côte d’Ivoire

N’dhatz Comoe Emeraude, Packo Dieu-le-veut Saint-Cyr Sylvestre*, Nanho Danho Clotaire, Bognini Sarah, Kamara Ismael, Boidy Kouakou and Koffi Kouassi Gustave

Background: The treatment of chronic lymphoid leukemia currently uses news drugs which are more expensive in our countries. Its why, the results of chemotherapy remains a challenge in our sector.

Aims: To evaluate the place of polychemotherapy in the treatment of chronic lymphoid leukemia in black Africa.

Methods: It was a prospective, descriptive, analytic and non-comparative study, concerning the records of patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia treated and followed at the department of clinical hematology in Abidjan.

Results: We included 56 patients. The average age was 62 years with extremes of 38 and 84 years. The sex ratio was 0.8 in favor of female. The clinical signs noted a tumor syndrome among which splenomegaly, classified stage III (46, 43%) and adenopathy (64, 29%). Biologically, we observed a blood lymphocytosis (50%), an anemia (39.29%) and a thrombocytopenia (62.50%). The majority of patients were classified stage A of BINET (51.79%). The COP protocol (44.64%) and the monochemotherapy with chlorambucil (39.29%) were the most used. The therapeutic response of polychemotherapy was low (12.5%) compared to 35, 71% for monochemotherapy (p = 0.0001) with overall survival significantly better in monochemotherapy. The outcome of patients used polychemotherapy were more adverse that of patients used chlorambucil alone (p = 0,003). The overall probability of survival at 12 months was 90, 9% for patients who used monochemotherapy and 63, 4% for polychemotherapy.

Conclusion: Polychemotherapy in chronic lymphoid leukemia of black African has an adverse therapeutic response hence the interest of using new therapeutic possibilities.

Review Article

A mouse model of coronary microvacsular disease using a photochemical approach

Xinlu Wang, Fang Liu and Zhen W Zhuang*

The development of reproducible rodent models of coronary microvascular disease (MVD) is essential for the early detection, treatment, and mechanism study of the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction and subsequent microthrombi in the coronary arterioles, two early events in clinical coronary MVD, could be reproduced by photochemical reaction (PCR) technology in mice hearts. After rose bengal (one of photosensitizers) was administrated systemically, a green light was locally used to activate the photosensitizer, inducing over-production of oxidative stress in the heart. Following PCR, animals demonstrated reproducible endothelial injury, occlusion in arterioles, focal ischemia, and infarct-let with preserved cardiac function. Our technique has proven to be a reliable and reproducible means of creating coronary MVD in mice. We believe that this is an ideal model for developing a novel molecular tracer for earlier detection of coronary MVD, for testing new anti-fibrinolytic drugs, and for investigating the complex pathophysiology of coronary MVD. The protocol for establishing this model takes about thirty to forty minutes.

Case Report

Anomalies of coronary artery origin: About two cases

Dioum M*, Sarr EM, Manga S, Mingou JS, Diack A, Diop AD, Bindia D, Diagne PA, Sarr AN and Diop IB

Anomalies of coronary artery origin are congenital malformations characterized by the abnormal birth of a coronary artery from the controlateral coronary aortic sinus (birth of the left coronary artery from the right sinus or birth of the right coronary artery from the left sinus).The artery concerned has an abnormal initial path between the aorta and the pulmonary artery; this segment is most often intramural, in the aortic wall. They are rare with a prevalence (0.1% to 0.3% of the population).

Research Article

How often is Klippel-Feil Syndrome associated with congential heart disease presentation of five cases and a review of the literature

Ramush Bejiqi, Ragip Retkoceri, Arlinda Maloku, Rinor Bejiqi, Aferdita Mustafa, Faruk Husremovic and Samir Bejic*

Introduction: Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), is a bone disorder characterized by the abnormal joining (fusion) of two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae), which is present from birth. Three major features result from this abnormality: a short neck, a limited range of motion in the neck, and a low hairline at the back of the head. In some individuals, KFS can be associated with a variety of additional symptoms and physical abnormalities which contribute in the deterioration and complication of the condition of the child.

Aim of presentation: Here, we report five children from Kosovo with KFS associated with different heart abnormalities, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of selected conditions in resources-limited settings.

Methods: Retrospectively we analysed medical reports of five children, diagnosed at different age with congenital disease and clinical and lab signs of Klippel-Feil syndrome.

Conclusion: Basing on our cases, all diagnosed in a small country as a Kosovo, we can conclude that KFS is not such a rare condition. In addition, such syndrome is not so rarely associated with different congenital heart disease. In four cases cardiac surgery was indicated and successfully was done abroad Kosovo in the lack of such services in Kosovo.

Research Article

Effect of laparoscopic salpingectomy on subsequent ovarian response after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

Chadi Yazbeck*, Asma Boukadida, Christian Chauvin, Anne Laure Margulies and Segolene Falcone

Background: The effect of salpingectomy on ovarian response is a matter of debate. Due to conflicting data, alternative techniques were developed to perform salpingectomy for treatment of hydrosalpinges in infertile patients. This study aims to evaluate the effect of salpingectomy on ovarian response after stimulation with gonadotropins.

Methods: In a retrospective analysis, one hundred fifty-seven patients with tubal infertility were divided into three groups according to their surgical histories: bilateral salpingectomy (BS group); unilateral salpingectomy (US group); and no history of salpingectomy (NS group). Ovarian response and IVF outcomes were compared between groups by analysis of variance. Prognostic factors for ovarian response were estimated by linear regression models.

Results: In the BS group, the total numbers of oocytes retrieved, and embryos obtained were significantly lower than those in the NS group (p = 0.02). Poor ovarian response was also more frequent in the BS group (p = 0.02). In the US group, follicle development was reduced on the operated side. This effect was more pronounced when salpingectomies were performed for hydrosalpinges than when performed for ectopic pregnancies, and significant decreases were observed in follicle recruitment (p = 0.005) and oocyte retrieval (p = 0.02) on the operated side.

Conclusion: Salpingectomy could have a minor negative effect on ovarian response. This is particularly true with bilateral salpingectomies, in which the ovarian blood supply could be disrupted, with no possible compensation by the contralateral side.

Research Article

The place of health innovation in space to improve the lives of earthlings

Brigitte Godard

For over twenty years, following the creation of space stations, MIR first and then the ISS (International Space Station) men (3 to 6) live and succeed each other continuously about 300 - 400 km of altitude to make scientific experiments. For this reason sending men into space has become an activity “almost banal or regular “but this remains potentially a very dangerous environment for the adapted manon Earth and thus requires medical monitoring to ensure the health of astronauts and the persistence of their ability during their mission. In general, the medical benefits on Earth of space conquest go far beyond envy and the need for man to discover the cosmos but to develop many tools medicines to also offer solutions for all living beings on Earth!

Research Article

Evaluating cortical bone porosity using Hr-Pqct

Rique AM, Madeira M, Luis L, Fleius MLde F, Paranhos NF and Lima I*

This work aims to evaluate cortical porosity through a high-resolution peripheral quantitative micro-tomography in a group of 47 patients. All patients, in vivo, were subjected to the medical care protocol of the University Hospital Clementino Fraga, 020-213. Patients were women aged from 37 to 82 years old, who did not present fractures in their lower and upper limbs, all of them showing good health. During screening, they were required to have normal BMD (as determined by DXA; T-score ≥ 1.0) and no low-trauma fractures history. The exclusion criteria for all the individuals enrolled in this control study include, for example, alcoholism, chronic drug use, and chronic gastrointestinal disease. Male patients ranging from 42 to 79 years old presented the same health issues as women group. Results showed an increase in the amount of pores on the cortical bone of the evaluated patients over time; however, this increase was also observed in pore diameter, as well as a decrease in the border between the cortical and trabecular bone, indicating a deterioration in cortical bone quality over the years.

Research Article

Novel paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty via single retrograde popliteal access for challenging superficial femoral artery and iliac artery lesions?

Erdem Cetin*, Celal Selcuk Unal, Aydın Keskin and Hakan Kartal

Objectives: We report our results regarding the use of BioPath™ paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters for superficial or distal external iliac artery revascularization via single retrograde popliteal access.

Methods: We included 105 prospective consecutive patients. Single retrograde popliteal access was achieved under ultrasound guidance with the patients laid prone. An over-the-wire atherectomy system was used if risk of distal embolization was high due to plaque intensity of the target lesion. A 4 to 7 mm-diameter BioPath™ 035 balloon catheter was used for all lesions. Follow-up at 6th month included doppler ultrasound examination for patency.

Research Article

The validity of progesterone level on hCG injection day in the prediction of IVF/ICSI cycles’ outcome

Mostafa A Abolfotouh*, Hallah Al-Anazi and Samar Hassan

Background: Previous studies highlighted the negative effect of premature progesterone elevation (PE) during IVF cycles on the cycle outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of progesterone level on hCG day (P4) in the prediction of IVF/ICSI cycles’ outcome.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, all fresh cycles of 256 patients who underwent IVF or ICSI cycles in 2017 at reproductive endocrinology & infertility unit/ Obg/Gyn department at King Abdulaziz Medical city, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were followed up. They were started on gonadotropin medications for ovarian hyperstimulation, followed by serial transvaginal U/S and serum estrogen levels each visit. Patients having 2 or more 18mm follicles were triggered by hCG 10,000 IU and ovum pickup was done 34-36 hrs after. Data were collected on patients’ characteristics [age, BMI infertility type], cycles’ characteristics [number of follicles and endometrium thickness on hCG day, P4 and estrogen levels], rates of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the cut-off of P4 that corresponds with a negative pregnancy test. Logistic regression analysis was used and significance was considered at p - value of ≤0.05.

Results: Pregnancy rate in the study sample was 36.7%. The mean P4 level in cycles with negative pregnancy tests was significantly higher than the mean in cycles with positive tests (p = 0.018). After adjusting for confounders, significant negative association between P4 and pregnancy rate was evident (p < 0.03). The optimum trade-off of P4 for prediction of a negative pregnancy test was 1.5nmol/L. This cut-off level had a 59% sensitivity, 51% specificity and 68% positive predictive value and 10% & 15% absolute and relative risk reductions respectively. Cycles with mean P4 of ≥1.5nmol/L were significantly associated with primary infertility (p = 0.011), lower mean BMI (p = 0.009) higher mean estrogen level (p < 0.001), lower live birth rate (p = 0.048), higher abortion rate (p = 0.039), and higher ovarian hyperstimulation rate (p = 0.027). 

Conclusion: Premature elevation of progesterone level on the hCG day in IVF/ICSI cycles may have adversely impacted the pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcome. The cutoff point of 1.5nmol/L for this P4 was not valid in predicting pregnancy outcomes.

Review Article

Management of Ischemic Stroke during cardiac catheterization: A case report and review of literature

Naoufal Chouaib*, Said Jidane, Mounir Lekhlit, Ahmed Belkouch, Tahir Nebhani, Saad Zidouh and Lahcen Belyamani

Stroke following coronary interventions is a devastating and most dreaded complication with signiβicant morbidity and mortality. Various factors have been ascribed for this complication including the technical errors [1]. A small percentage of strokes are iatrogenic, including those associated with invasive cardiac procedures. According to the literature, it is a rare complication of left heart catheterization [2]. Percutaneous coronary intervention is increasingly used to treat patients with diffuse atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes and even high-risk patients such as low ejection fraction [1]. The authors describe a patient who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the context of inferior infarction, which was complicated by ischemic stroke during cardic catheterization.

Research Article

Risk factors of survival in breast cancer

Akram Yazdani*

Background: In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of prognostic factors on breast cancer survival in Iran.

Methods: This study was carried out using data from 500 participants with breast cancer. Data were gathered from medical records of patients referring to four breast cancer research centers in Esfahan, Iran, between 1990 – 2000. Age at diagnosis (year), size of tumor, Involve lymph nodes, tumor grade, and family history and married were the prognosis factors considered in this study. A Cox model was used.

Results: The median follow-up period was 29.71 months with the interquartile range of 19-61 months. During the follow-up period, 57 (10%) patients died from breast. The Cox model showed that number of lymph nodes involved, and the tumor size and grade tumor are the prognostic factors survival in breast cancer.

Conclusion: This study, confirmed the importance of early diagnosis of cancer before the involvement of lymph nodes and timely treatment could lead to longer life and increased quality of life for patients.

Research Article

An evaluation of visual outcome of corneal injuries in a tertiary care hospital

Aarudhra Premchander, Seema Channabasappa, Nischala Balakrishna* and Neha Nargis

Background: Corneal injuries are significant contributors to blindness. Cornea being the most anterior structure of eye is exposed to various hazards like airborne debris and blunt trauma. By understanding different types of injuries to which cornea is exposed, the practitioner maybe more capable in managing injuries to minimise structural and visual sequelae.

Objectives: To study various patterns of corneal injuries and its visual outcome among patients of ocular trauma in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Study of 100 cases of corneal injuries wherein patients were treated according to injury type and followed up for 4 months.

Results: Majority of patients belonged to working population between age groups 21-65 years. Most patients suffered from corneal abrasions while the least common were perforating and lacerating injuries. Alkali injuries were more common than acid injuries. Most patient presented within 24 hours and had only epithelial defects. Therefore, the number of patients receiving conservative management was higher than those receiving surgical intervention.

Conclusion: Most common causes of blindness and low vision in our study was full thickness corneal laceration and corneal abrasions, foreign body injuries affecting the pupillary area and involving anterior or mid stroma causing nebular or macular grade opacities hampering vision.

Case Report

Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa: Case report and review of the literature

Denise Goodwin*, Amanda M Olsen and Karl Citek

Significance: Due to the limited number of reported cases little is known about the characteristics of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa. Information from additional case reports can aid in learning more about the condition. We report a case of retinitis pigmentosa that has remained unilateral for 28 years and review the available literature.

Case Report: A 40-year-old Caucasian female presented for an opinion as to the cause of her vision loss. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated hypoautofluorescence in the midperipheral retina and a hyperautofluorescent ring surrounding the area of preserved photoreceptors in the macula. Optical coherence tomography showed disruption of the ellipsoid zone and the external limiting membrane. Electroretinography (ERG) showed severely reduced rod and cone function monocularly.

Discussion: Retinitis pigmentosa is typically bilateral and symmetric. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa is a rare condition that manifests with only one eye having changes typical of retinitis pigmentosa. The unaffected eye can have no signs of retinitis pigmentosa and must have a normal ERG after long-term follow up. It is critical to rule out inflammatory, traumatic, toxic, and cancer associated retinopathy that can present with retinal pigmentary changes. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa generally remains unilateral, but long-term follow up with ERG is important. There is currently no treatment that can stop the process of retinitis pigmentosa, but gene therapy shows promise.

Case Report

Weight loss counseling for dialysis patients to prepare for transplant

Karen F Factor*

Obesity has become a worldwide Epidemic affecting more than 300 million people. Overweight is defined as BMI (Body Mass Index) of 25-29.9 kg/m2. Obesity is defined as BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, and Morbid Obesity is a BMI of > than 35 kg/m2 [1].

Many Dialysis patients are overweight. Dialysis patients that are labeled morbidly obese based on BMI, may not be able to be listed on the Transplant list. Some Dialysis Clinics require a BMI less than 35 kg/m2 and some require a BMI < than 40 kg/m2. Hence, many obese dialysis patients are asked to lose weight, and we all know that Renal Transplant provides a better quality of life [2].

Because each transplant center may use different criteria for eligibility, patients and members of the dialysis team should be aware of the BMI criteria for the referral transplant center. Patients who are not eligible for the transplant due to obesity should receive counseling emphasizing a healthy lifestyle and weight loss [3].

Successful weight management requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing health care team members. They consist of the following: Renal Dietitian, Social Workers, Nurse, Exercise Physiologist and a Physician [6].

Case Report

A case report of an Erdheim-Chester patient focused on pain management

Jose Osvaldo Barbosa Neto*, Joao Batista Santos Garcia, Thiago Alves Rodrigues and Camila Freitas de Andrade Rodrigues

Introduction: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare and diffi cult-to-treat non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by the excessive production and accumulation of histiocytes. This study reports a case of ECD, emphasizing both its diagnosis, assessment and treatment of the
pain associated with the disease.

Case Report: Six years ago, a 39-year-old male patient presented with generalized pain of moderate intensity in the lower limbs that involved periods of greater intensity associated with ambulation. The diagnosis of histiocytosis associated with panhypopituitarism and adrenal insufficiency was proposed. For a specific diagnosis, a bone lesion biopsy was performed, revealing the presence of histiocytic proliferation that was CD1 negative, S100 protein positive, and CD68 negative. Therefore, the diagnosis of non-Langerhans histiocytosis known as ECD was confirmed. During the two years that followed, the patient presented with severe bone pain, particularly in the lower limbs and cranial vault, and the pain subsided to a certain extent with the use of tramadol and paracetamol. Because of the pain, the patient was unable to walk and became bedridden As the patient remained in severe pain, even after the administration of morphine, the opioid was changed from morphine (60mg/day) to oxycodone (30mg/day) for a convenient dosing schedule; furthermore, the oxycodone dosage was scheduled to increase to 40mg/day that same week. The patient experienced significant pain reduction, requiring rescue analgesia only once or twice a week.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on the characterization and treatment of pain specific to ECD, and we highlight that the patient had a good response to treatment.

Research Article

Outcome of laparoscopic varicocelectomy with mass ligation technique for symptomatic varicocele

Sardar Rezaul Islam*, Majedul islam, Shah Alam Sarkar and Shah Paran

Background: Varicocele therapy is a controversial issue. No single approach is adopted as the best therapeutic option. Testes get blood supply from testicular artery, cremasteric artery and artery to the vas deference. So ligation of testicular artery in the abdomen do not cause ischemia to the testis. This was already demonstrated in many studies. Classical Palomo varicocelectomy also consists of open ligation of testicular vessels in the retroperitoneum. En mass ligation of testicular vein and artery is technically easy and fast in laparoscopic varicocelectomy (LV). Chance of missing some veins are also less. Henceforth recurrence is also less. Recurrence and post-operative complications are high when only testicular vein is ligated by laparoscopy in the retroperitoneum. We wanted to see the outcome of laparoscopic varicocelectomy by mass ligation technique.
Methods: 56 patients of symptomatic varicoceles were included in the study from the outpatient services. Symptomatic varicoceles of grade 2 to grade 3 were operated from January 2012 till January 2019 over a period of 7(seven) years in Jahurul Islam Medical college Hospital. The patients were selected for dull pain and ugly veins not for infertility. All were operated by laparoscopy with en-mass ligation of testicular vein and artery in the retroperitoneum. They were followed up for a period of six months after surgery. We collected all the data in a retrospective manner.

Results: The average operation time was 27±3 minutes. Average post-operative hospital stay was 32±7 hours. There were no technical failures requiring conversion to open varicocelectomy. There was no incidence of hydrocele formation nor testicular atrophy. One patient of bilateral varicocele had 50% reduction of his varicocele. We considered this a recurrence. All other patient had complete reduction of varicocele. One patient developed hemo-peritoneum due to dislodgement of hemo-clip, which required laparotomy. He did not require any further surgery for his varicocele.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic varicocelectomy with mass ligation technique is safe, effective, less time consuming and easy to perform. Recurrence and post-operative complications are minimum. Plastic hemo-lock should be used rather than titanium heom-clip for ligation of testicular vessels. There is no incidence of testicular atrophy or any adverse effect on testis.

Review Article

Extremely large hemangioma of the liver: Safety of the expectant management

Subhi Mansour, Sharbel Khouri, Maisa Andraous and Safi Khuri*

Hemangiomas are known as congenital vascular malformations that can affect almost any organ or tissue, with the liver being the most common intra-abdominal organ to be involved. It is well known that hemangiomas are the most common benign tumours of the liver, and develop in about 4-20% of people, mainly young adult females. Recently, due to the dramatic rise in the use of imaging studies for different purposes, a parallel increase in the incidence of these tumours has been noticed. Most liver hemangiomas are small (less than 4cm in diameter), asymptomatic and found incidentally during abdominal operation for other indication or on radiologic studies. Giant liver hemangioma is defined as hemangioma with a diameter of more than 5cm. This unique and uncommon type of haemangioma usually poses therapeutic challenges for the treating physician, especially hepatic surgeons, due to the unclear natural history, and due to the risk of life threatening complications is yet to be established. While it is already proved by several studies that conservative management of giant hepatic hemangioma is safe, it is not known whether observation of the extremely large hepatic hemangioma (tumours larger than 10cm) is safe as well.

The aim of this article is to review the English literature to find out if conservative management of the extremely giant liver hemangioma is safe and can be recommended.

Case Report

Carotid artery disease: AngioCT features

Joana Ferreira*, Olinda Miranda, Alexandre Lima Carneiro, Sandrina Braga, Joao Correia Simoes, Celso Carrilho, Amílcar Mesquita and Jorge Cotter

The objective of this paper is to emphasis the AngioCT features of carotid dissection/mural hematoma. The image show an internal carotid artery with narrowly eccentric lumen surrounded by a crescent-shaped hypodense mural thickening, with a visibly enhancing vessel wall. The carotid hematoma is a hypodense mural thickening that leads to expansion of the arterial wall, compression of the lumen and release of thrombogenic factors by intimal damage. Hematoma between the intima and media causes vessel expansion diameter and a narrow eccentric lumen. Peripheral hyper density is due to the contrast enhancement of the vasa vasorum in the adventitial layer. The physician should be familiar with the imagiologic features of carotid arterial disease, due to the diferent treatment options.

Case Report

The Pierre Marie-Sainton syndrome: Report of a family

Salem Y*, Omar Y, Dorsaf S, Sonia M, Samir B and Olfa B

Pierre Maria and Sainton syndrome or cleido-cranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare syndrome presenting an autosomal pattern of inheritance, characterized by characterized by a triad: clavicular aplasia, delayed ossification of the fontanelles and sutures of the vault of the skull. To these may be added multiple dental inclusions.

Review Article

Wifi and health: Perspectives and risks

Myriam Ben Salah*, Hafedh Abdelmelek and Manef Abderraba

Increased exposure to electromagnetic fields such as radio frequencies used by Wifi technology raise questions and concerns about their impact on health. For answer these questions, several scientifi c studies have carried out followed by results publication in prestigious scientifi c revues.

Review Article

Essential thrombocythemia: Biology, clinical features, thrombotic risk, therapeutic options and outcome

Vincenzo Accurso*, Santoro M, Contrino AD, Casimiro P, Raso S, Carlisi M, Sardo M, Perez A, Di Piazza F, Russo A and Siragusa S

Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) is currently classified as a Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) together with polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF); the latter can be further divided in pre-fibrotic primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) and overt myelofibrosis, as listed in the revised 2016 World Health Organization classification of myeloid malignancies (WHO 2016). Overall, respect to the others MPNs, ET is characterized by favorable prognosis, lower life expectancy if compared to the control population, increased risk of thrombohemorrhagic complications along with possible evolution in myelofibrosis and leukemic transformation. In this review the authors will review current knowledge on biology, clinical aspects, prognosis and stratification of thrombotic risk, therapeutic options and outcome in ET patients.

Research Article

Gender and left ventricular structural and functional differences in pulmonary hypertension among end stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis

Umar Malik, Ihab Ajaaj, Jon P Blaschke, Betty Skipper, Sandra L McClelland, Kathleen Fagan, Antonia M Harford, Philip G Zager and Veena Raizada*

Introduction: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is prevalent in hemodialysis (HD). In the general population, more women than men have PH due to left ventricular (LV) disease with preserved ejection fraction (EF). Little is known about the gender-specific prevalence of PH and associated LV abnormalities in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on HD. Our aim was to evaluate gender differences and LV structural and functional changes in PH among ESRD patients on HD.

Methods: Ninety-four patients (ages 23-77 years) underwent echocardiography after HD. Patients were divided based on estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) (Group A PASP < 40 mm Hg, Group B PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg). LV measurements included LV mass, LV internal dimensions, and LV ejection fraction (EF). LV diastolic function (LVDF) was assessed from mitral inflow deceleration time (DT) and E/A ratio.

Results: Fifty-five patients (59%) had PH, including 32 of 49 men (65%) and 23 of 45 women (51%). LVEF was lower in Group B (46.4 ± 17.6 vs. 62.4 ± 14.4%, p < 0.001). Men with PH had higher LVIDd, cm (5.52 ± 0.89 vs 4.78 ± 0.75, p < 0.001), LVIDs, cm (3.75 ± 0.94 vs 3.14 ± 0.91, p = 0.03) LV mass, g (236 ± 74vs 189 ± 56, p = 0.02) and lower LVEF (40.0 ± 16.7 vs 52.0 ± 15.6, p = 0.008) than women.

Conclusion: Patients on HD have a high prevalence of PH. PH was not associated with clear LV structural changes. There was a depression in LV systolic function without changes in LVDF. PH patients were more often men with hypertrophied LV with depressed LV systolic function.

Research Article

Colour keys to emotion in management of children and intellectual distraction using coloured games in dental environment for children

Rajakumar S*, Kavitha Ramar and Revanth MP

Aim and objective: Dentistry for children is not difficult but is different from what is practiced for adults. The children reacts to differently to people and places around them. Anxiety is an emotional state that helps normal individual defend themselves against a variety of threats and
Dental anxiety refers to patients specific response towards dental suitation-associated stress. So the aim is to evaluate the anxiety related management of the children using intellectual mind game of the individual.

Study design: The background of the study is to evaluate and study the effectiveness of anxiety control of children using colour distraction between 5 and 12 yrs of age group as one part and the intellectual distraction of children between the same age group using buchanan facial imaging scale and intellectual coloured game chart

Results and conclusion: lowering of anxiety was noticed in the children obtained the favorite colours in the dental environment and easy distraction can be achieved using intellectual gamings.

Research Article

Role of novel cardiac biomarkers for the diagnosis, risk stratifi cation, and prognostication among patients with heart failure

Jennifer Miao, Joel Estis, Yan Ru Su, John A Todd and Daniel J Lenihan*

Background: Current guidelines for diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF) rely on clinical findings and natriuretic peptide values, but evidence suggests that recently identified cardiac biomarkers may aid in early detection of HF and improve risk stratification. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of multiple biomarkers in patients with HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).

Methods: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI), N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), endothelin-1 (ET-1), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pMMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured using single-molecule counting technology in 200 patients with varying stages of HF. Plasma detection with cross-sectional associations of biomarkers across all HF stages, and advanced-therapy and transplant-free survival were assessed using multivariate analysis and Cox regression analyses, respectively.

Results: NTproBNP, pMMP-9, IL-6 were elevated in early, asymptomatic stages of HF, and increased with HF severity. Higher circulating levels of combined IL-6, NTproBNP, and cTnI predicted significantly worse survival at 1500-day follow-up. Cox regression analysis adjusted for ACC/AHA HF stages demonstrated that a higher concentration of IL-6 and cTnI conferred greater risks in terms of time to death, implantation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or heart transplantation.

Conclusion: Biomarkers of inflammation, LV remodeling, and myocardial injury were elevated in HF and increased with HF severity. Patients had a significantly higher risk of serious cardiac events if multiple biomarkers were elevated. These findings support measuring NTproBNP, cTnI and IL-6 among patients with HF and LVSD for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

Case Report

Late discover of a traumatic cardiac injury: Case report

Benlafqih C, Bouhdadi H*, Bakkali A, Rhissassi J, Sayah R and Laaroussi M

Blunt chest trauma leads to a wide range of lesions, relatively minor parietal injuries to potentially fatal cardiac lesions, making diagnosis and management difficult. The diagnosis is currently facilitated by imaging, however, these lesions may go unnoticed and be discovered late through complications.

We report the case of a neglected heart wound revealed by a heart failure. This case is notable due to a favourable outcome despite a delay in diagnosis due to a lack of pericardial effusion and the absence of cardiac symptoms, and a long delay from injury to appropriate treatment in the presence of a penetrating cardiac wound deep enough to cause a muscular ventricular septal defect and lacerate the anterior mitral leaflet.

Research Article

Cytogenetic and clinical features of longlivers with osteoarthritis from Precarpathian region (West Ukraine) for 1998-2014yy

Kozovyy R*, Kovalchuk L and Kitsera N

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide.

Aim of our study was to assess the clinical and the cytogenetic characteristics in longlivers with osteoarthritis from Precarpathian region (Ukraine).

Methods: Cytogenetic, Clinical

Results: All of the subjects were separated into three groups: І group - 146 longlivers patients who had hypertension and osteoarthritis (ОА); II group - 93 longlivers patients only with ОА. The control (third) group included 130 patients aged 90-102 years without osteoarthritis and hypertension in anamnesis. In the age group more than 95 years, men and women of both groups were significant difference (p<0,05) to be compared with control.

Cytogenetic characteristics of the long-livers with on osteoarthritis showed that most there is a tendency for a higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations in male long-livers and tere are significant difference among control (p<0,05). The number of chromosomes associated in a single cell was significantly higher (p<0,05) in both groups compared to control.

Conclusion: The importance of this study resides, to the best of our knowledge, in the fact that the largest group of patients in Ukraine was analyzed and assessed.

Review Article

Biologic therapy in severe asthma: An update

Maha A Al Ammari*

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, reversible airflow obstruction and recurrent symptoms. Patients often present with coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest tightness, were they usually responds to the mainstay of treatment that relies on inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS), and long acting β2 agonist (LABA), along with leukotriene. In around 20% of the patient’s morbidity, mortality and cost of therapy increased because they fail to benefit from the existing gold standard therapy regimen. Both immunoglobulin-E (IgE), interlukin-5 (IL-5) had proven to play important major role in asthma pathogenesis. Over the past two decades biologic therapy that targeting IgE begins the era in treating severe asthma, and recently anti-IL-5, revealed major role in eosinophils maturation, activation, survival, and recruitment process of severe asthma. The different biologic therapy that is currently available in the market are supported by solid evidence from controlled randomized clinical trials, to guide the clinician on the type of patients that will benefit from the therapy, with an insight on the appropriate monitoring parameters and patient evaluation plans. This review was conducted by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed clinical trials, guidelines, and review articles published in English in the role of biologic therapy in severe asthma. The main aim from publishing this review is to summarize the current available evidence on the approved biologic therapy in treating patients with severe asthma.

Letter to the Editor

Serum MicroRNA-155 in Acute Graft-Versus-Host-Disease (aGVHD)

Yvonne A Efebera*, Amy S Ruppert, Apollinaire Ngankeu, Sabrina Garman, Prasanthi Kumchala, Alan Howard, Steven M Devine, Parvathi Ranganathan and Ramiro Garzon

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) is a curative treatment for many hematologic malignancies. Unfortunately, about  30-50% of all recipients undergoing alloHSCT develop acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality [1,2].Treatment of aGVHD involves the use of immune suppressive drugs such as high dose of steroids that leads to further immunosuppression and risk for opportunistic infections. Often patients are refractory to steroids therapy making the prognosis dismal. Thus, it is critical to identify robust biomarkers to detect aGVHD before onset of clinical symptoms so that therapeutic strategies can be implemented that may result in better treatment responses and less toxicity.

Research Article

Discovering the right treatments for diabetes (2), blood’s pressure, and relating diseases

Alaa Hussein Al-Darraji*

For last decades diabetes type 2, blood’s pressure (especially hypertension) and relating diseases are most serious problems for much people over the world. These diseases are not like other different diseases then for studying them very accuracy, this research choose sample from different societies a small city called “Al-Mejar Al-Kabeer” in south of Iraq. People of this city do same activities than other Iraqi cities and during the last twenty years the only change happened in this city is; they changed them drinking water from tap water to commercial water called it R.O. Population of this city is about 70000 persons and about 20000 from them have diabetes that means more than 28% from all people of this city have this disease, this ratio or may be more for hypertension. 

Results of this research show that the main reason for diabetes type 2, blood’s pressure and relating diseases is civilization. It shows according good evidences that the right treatment for diabetes, hypertension and relating diseases is about 5g/day potassium ions (K+) with less amounts from sodium ions such as 2:1. In fact, insulin forming from known amino acids so each body need sufficient amounts from these acids therefore the right treatment for diabetes type 2 is not only potassium it must there sufficient amounts from proteins each day or each three days.

References of this research indicated; Diabetes and hypertension are well understood but this research find that these diseases need a chemist touch to be fully understood.

Research Article

Validation of the Omron HBP-9031C blood pressure monitor for clinics and hospitals according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol

Kanako Saito, Yukiko Hishiki and Hakuo Takahashi*

Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Omron HBP-9031C automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure (BP) measurement device for blood pressure monitoring, according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol (ANSI/AAMI/ISO).

Participants and Method: The device evaluations were performed in 85 participants, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the protocol. The validation procedure and data analysis followed the protocol precisely.

Results: In the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2-2013 validation procedure (criterion 1), the mean ± SD of the differences between the test device and reference BP was 0.5 ± 7.84/-1.9 ± 6.30 mmHg (systolic/diastolic). The mean differences between the two observers and the Omron HBP-9031C were 0.5 ± 6.69 mmHg (range, −18 to 15 mmHg) for systolic BP and -1.9 ± 5.63 mmHg (range, −17 to 14 mmHg) for diastolic BP, according to criterion 2. The two criteria of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO were fulfilled.

Conclusion: The professional OMRON BP monitor, HBP-9031C fulfilled the requirements of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO validation standard and can be recommended for clinical use.

Research Article

Assessment of the effect of cigarette smoking on the different denture base material

Ashish Pandey*, Neeraja B, Himanshu Joshi, Deepti Upadhyay and Sonam Pandey

Background: The present study was conducted to assess effect of cigarette smoking on different denture base material.

Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Prosthodontics. A total of sixty wax specimens in the shape of circular discs were prepared. These were divided into two groups. Group I (30) specimens were heat‑cured denture base materials and group II (30) specimens were flexible denture base materials. Both specimens were further divided into four subgroups of 15 each. Subgroup I was heat‑cured denture base material specimens (control group), subgroup II was flexible denture base material specimens (control group), subgroup III was heat‑cured denture base material specimens exposed to cigarette smoking (study group) and subgroup IV was flexible denture base material specimens exposed to cigarette smoking (study group). The initial (IRa) and final (FRa) surface roughness was measured before and after smoking test of the specimens.

Results: It was observed that in group I, mean IR (µm) value was 0.182 and FR value was 0.572. In group II, mean IR (µm) value was 0.265 and FR value was 0.831. In group III, mean IR (µm) value was 0.195 and FR value was 1.892. In group IV, mean IR (µm) value was 0.291 and FR value was 1.892. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: The surface roughness of the specimens fabricated from the flexible denture base material was found to be more compared to heat‑cured denture base specimens after exposure to cigarette smoke. There is need to educate the patients regarding cleanliness of denture to avoid infection in the oral cavity.

Results: It was observed that in group I, mean IR (µm) value was 0.182 and FR value was 0.572. In group II, mean IR (µm) value was 0.265 and FR value was 0.831. In group III, mean IR (µm) value was 0.195 and FR value was 1.892. In group IV, mean IR (µm) value was 0.291 and FR value was 1.892. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: The surface roughness of the specimens fabricated from the flexible denture base material was found to be more compared to heat‑cured denture base specimens after exposure to cigarette smoke. There is need to educate the patients regarding cleanliness of denture to avoid infection in the oral cavity.

Research Article

Wound architectural analysis of 1.8mm microincision cataract surgery using spectral domain OCT

Benedito Antonio de Sousa, Anderson Teixeira*, Camila Salaroli, Nonato Souza and Lucy Gomes

Purpose: Analyze Microincision Cataract surgery wound using Fourier-Domain optical coherence tomography.

Setting: Medical School of Medicine, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasília, Brazil.

Design: Prospective comparative observational study.

Methods: Forty eyes were included in this prospective study divided in two groups: with contact lens (CL) and without contact lens (WCL). A line scan pattern of the corneal incisions were acquired using a Spectral domain OCT system immediately after the surgery, and at postoperative days 1, 7 and 30. Incisions were analyzed regarding length, location, angle, architecture, and anatomic imperfections.

Results: All incisions were located temporal or nasal superiorly. The average wound length was 1.28 + 0.18mm and the mean incision angle was 49 + 9 degrees. The average wound length of the WCL group mean was 1.24 + 0.17 mm and the mean incision angle was 51 + 8 degrees. Comparing groups for the length and the angle, the incisions measurements were not statistically significant. Anatomic imperfections were observed at the first day postoperative in 12 eyes for CL group and in 13 eyes for the WCL group. No patient presented endophthalmitis during the follow-up.

Conclusion: Epithelial imperfection was observed in two patients in the WCL group with spontaneous resolution. The CL group had the highest length and lowest angle of corneal incision. Using contact lens to prevent wound construction imperfection appears not to be a good option. Further studies using a greater number of patients with an architectural analysis of clear corneal incisions are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

Review Article

Timing of cardiac surgery and other intervention among children with congenital heart disease: A review article

Chinawa JM*, Adiele KD, Ujunwa FA, Onukwuli VO, Arodiwe I, Chinawa AT, Obidike EO and Chukwu BF

Background: Early diagnosis and improved facilities are necessary for determining the optimal timing of surgery and other interventions in children with congenital heart diseases in Nigeria. This is because late presentation, late diagnosis and delayed surgery can lead to mortality and affect the quality of life among these children.

Objectives: This review article is aimed at enumerating the timing of cardiac surgeries and other interventions and to seek if there is any factor associated with the timing of cardiac surgery.

Methods: A search on PubMed database, World Health Organization libraries, Google scholar, TRIP database, and reference lists of selected articles on timing of cardiac surgery in children was done. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was also searched. We noted few data from African setting. Key words such as timing of cardiac surgery; children, congenital heart defect were used.

Conclusion: Appropriate timing for cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease is very important as late surgical intervention could result in several morbidities and mortality.

Research Article

Comparison of selected lower limb biomechanical variables between university of ibadan sportsmen with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome

Ayodeji Ayodele Fabunmi* and Samson Oluwaseyi Oladipupo

Patellofemoral pain syndrome is common among athletes who participate in jumping, running and pivoting sports. The aim of this study was to compare selected lower limb biomechanical variables between University of Ibadan students (athletes) with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

The research design for this study was a case control survey and a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants. Two hundred and twenty two (191(85.8%) males and 31 (14.2%) females) sportsmen participated in this study. The participants’ age was between 20-29 years. Fourty sportsmen tested positive to Clarke’s test while 27 sportsmen tested positive to Eccentric step test. Measurements of static quadriceps angle, hamstring tightness and navicular height were taken for all participants.

Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, percentages and inferential statistics of Independent ‘t’ test.

The mean lower limb biomechanical variables of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome were 13.18 ± 2.37°, 106.46 ± 16.11° and 1.21 ± 0.61 cm while those without were 13.65 ± 2.46°, 128.95 ± 25.36° and 1.03 ± 0.58 cm for static quadriceps angle, hamstring tightness and navicular height respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in selected lower limb biomechanical variables between participants with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

In conclusion there was no significant difference in static quadriceps angle, hamstring tightness and ankle pronation between participants with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. It was recommended that PFPS development is probably multifactorial with other functional disorders of the lower extremity apart from the selected variables.



Research Article

Assessment of shoulder pain and somatic dysfunction in young competitive swimmers: Preventive Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

Fanny Granger, Marion Etevenard, Jean-Pascal Kily and Martin Garet*

Context: Shoulder pain is one of the most frequent reported complaints in intensive competitive swimming. The so-called ‘swimmers’ shoulder’ has been widely explored and has been reported sometimes without specific reference to contributing mechanisms or structures. Somatic dysfunction is defined as an impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic system and may appear in the early stage of pain feeling.

Aim: To evaluate somatic dysfunctions in a group of young competitive swimmers with and without shoulder pain and its relationship with the shoulder’s mobility along with the efficacy of an osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on shoulder’s mobility, pain, and comfort of swimming.

Material and method: 20 competitive swimmers (14.6±1.3 ys; 11.6±2.4 hs.wk-1) were divided into two groups, with and without shoulder pain (SPG / CG). Before and after light touch/OMT, and 1 week later, somatic dysfunctions, shoulder’s range of mobility, pain, and swimming comfort were assessed by 2 independent osteopaths.

Results: Somatic dysfunctions were observed in both groups without significant differences in the number or localization and were independent of severity of pain. In the SPG, pain decreased significantly after OMT (6.1±1.9 vs. 3.9± 1.8; P=0.001) and remained stable 1-week later (P=NS). Shoulder’s mobility was lower on the aching shoulder in the “shoulder pain” group when compared to the control group on flexion and abduction tests but not on extension or adduction tests. Following OMT, only abduction improved when compared to light touch. Comfort in swimming was reported as “better” in both OMT/light touch groups.

Conclusion: There is no difference between light touch and OMT as both decreased pain and increased comfort in swimming but abduction range of motion only improved in the OMT group.


Research Article

Nanotechnology to improve the biofouling and corrosion performance of marine paints: from lab experiments to real tests in sea

George Kordas*

Nanocontainers of the type CuO, ZnO and CeMo were developed in the present work and incorporated into commercial paints. The nanocontainers were filled with bromosphaerol (CuO and ZnO), SeaNineTM 211 (CuO and ZnO), and 8Hydroxyquinoline (CeMo). The new resulting paints were tested in the lab and in the sea via painting a fraction of two ships. The outcome of this work is encouraging demonstrating that the new nanotechnology-based paints yield to superior commercial paints that may present a major milestone in the new generation of marine paints.

Research Article

Research of possibilities of studying the areas of development of erosion of slope lands in Azerbaijan and fight it

Rans Aliev ZH*

The study proved that in gully systems with the largest catchment area ranging from 5.0 to 28.8 km2, the degree of dismemberment of gully systems is small, varies mainly from 1 to 3 km / km2, less often from 3 to 5 km / km2. As can be seen, the average annual growth of ravines is 0.34 ... 7.48 m in length, 0.20 ... 2.48 m in width, 0.10 ... 1.16 m in depth. The intensity of erosion development (ravine, planar, etc.) is mediated by their catchment area. Moreover, the degree of division of individual gully systems here is not dependent on their catchment area, moreover, the greatest dissection is observed in gully systems that have the smallest catchment area, which is associated with the conditions of their location.

Case Report

A fatal portal vein thrombosis: A case report

M Kechida*, W Ben Yahia and W Mnari

Background: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired hematologic condition which could be revealed by deep venous thrombosis. It could be fatal unless correctly treated.

Case report: We report here the case of a 28 year-old male with no medical history who was admitted to the emergency room for severe abdominal pain. Computerized Tomography angiography (CT) scan revealed portal vein thrombosis. Laboratory findings showed pancytopenia with severe regenerative normocytic anemia resulting in PNH. Because of the lack of Eculizumab, treatment was first based on curative anticoagulation until bone marrow transplant, with no success.

Conclusion: PNH remains a severe disease with bad prognosis unless treated with Eculizumab.

Review Article

Fifth “dark” force completely change our understanding of the universe

Robert Skopec*

For something that’s literally as old as the universe, dark matter doesn’t get much attention outside scientific circles. Maybe that’s because, other than a short-lived SyFy series and a late-period Randy Newman album, this nebulous star stuff has had a tough time breaking the pop-culture barrier. But the truth is that today, dark matter has never mattered more. Our own Milky Way is embedded in a massive cloud of it, we’re looking for its interactions deep inside the earth, and there are whole galaxies without it. So what is dark matter, anyway? Why can’t scientists get enough of the stuff, even though they can’t actually find it? What deep, dark secrets does it hold? And could it ultimately shape the future of life as we know it?

Research Article

The effects of a clinical ladder program on professional development and job satisfaction of acute care nurses

Yolanda A Coleman* and Romy Desai

Nurses play a vital role in acute care hospitals and health care delivery. The purpose of this research study is to identify the nurse’s perception of the Clinical Ladder Program at their hospital and the correlation it has on the nurse’s job satisfaction and their professional development.A quantitative study will be conducted using two convenience samples from Alexian Brothers Hospital and Saint Anthony’s hospital with a total of 52 nurses who are currently participating in the clinical ladder program. The results of this research should be used as opportunities for improvement within the nursing profession at an acute care hospital. This project is beneficial in advancing nursing knowledge and practice because many nurses do not understand why participating in this advancement program can positively impact many aspects of their role at work aside from being a nurse, such as role and identity development at their workplace. Implementing clinical advancement programs in a facility can also increase quality of patient care delivery by retaining excellent nurses. These nurses can demonstrate their It is important in the field of nursing to actively seek improvement and education in practice to keep up with the new evidence-based research practices that are developed daily. The Clinical Ladder Program has become a widespread program in various acute care hospitals for nurses to increase their professional role development.

Review Article

Subungual exostosis: Pediatric aspects

Mohamed Anouar Dendane, Achraf El Bakkaly*, Zakaria Alami Hassani and Abdelouahed Amrani

Subungual exostosis (SUE) is a benign phalangeal tumor of an osteocartilaginous nature [1]. SUE is most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults; most of these lesions are located in the big toe, although they can occur (albeit infrequently) in other toes. We report five observations of SUE described in young children under 10 years and discuss the particularities of this pathology in the pediatric population.

Research Article

Epidemiological Prevalence of Tuberculosis in the State of Maranhão between 2014 and 2016

Pedro Agnel Dias Miranda Neto*, Hortência Biatriz de Melo Santana, Vanessa Maria das Neves, Hermerson Sousa Maia, Thayna Milena Nunes Franca and Rosana Karla Costa

Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacillus of Koch), and presents chronic evolution affecting the lungs frequently.

Objectives: Analyse, in the state of Maranhão, the epidemiological prevalence of tuberculosis between 2014 and 2016.

Materials and Methods: Documentary and descriptive study of secondary data collected in the database of the dates, epidemiological information and morbidities, between 2014 and 2016.

Results: 3,897 cases of tuberculosis in the state of Maranhão were recorded. The most affected age range was 15 to 59 years, totaling 3,111 cases, for both gender; of 60 to 79 years, 577 cases were totaled.

Conclusion: Tuberculosis affects more adolescent males from adolescence to old age, and it is necessary to promote knowledge of the disease for the population in order to advance in the control of the same and obtain satisfactory clinical results.

Conclusion: Tuberculosis affects more adolescent males from adolescence to old age, and it is necessary to promote knowledge of the disease for the population in order to advance in the control of the same and obtain satisfactory clinical results.

Research Article

The New (2018) European Hypertension Guidelines an overview and comments

Mohsen Ibrahim M*

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) jointly developed a series of hypertension guidelines in the years 2003, 207 and 2013. The most recent guidelines were issued by the two societies in August this year (2018) and were published in the European Heart Journal. The new guidelines are printed in more than 90 pages and cover almost all aspects of hypertension based on extensive review of literature giving highest priority to data from randomized controlled trials and well conducted meta-analysis. In important areas where there is inadequate or no evidence, guidelines authors resort to expert opinion. The text was developed over approximately 24 months and was reviewed by representatives of ESC and ESH national hypertension societies. Although it is less than five years since the last hypertension European guidelines in 2013, the recent 2018 guidelines show important differences in diagnosis and treatment strategies with the addition of new sections and recommendations on management of hypertensive emergencies, hypertension in women and pregnancy, different ethnic groups, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer therapies, peri-operative management, sexual dysfunction and perioperative management.

In this message, I will give an overview of the main recommendations in the European guidelines under two headings: diagnosis and treatment and I will conclude by comments.

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) jointly developed a series of hypertension guidelines in the years 2003, 207 and 2013. The most recent guidelines were issued by the two societies in August this year (2018) and were published in the European Heart Journal. The new guidelines are printed in more than 90 pages and cover almost all aspects of hypertension based on extensive review of literature giving highest priority to data from randomized controlled trials and well conducted meta-analysis. In important areas where there is inadequate or no evidence, guidelines authors resort to expert opinion. The text was developed over approximately 24 months and was reviewed by representatives of ESC and ESH national hypertension societies. Although it is less than five years since the last hypertension European guidelines in 2013, the recent 2018 guidelines show important differences in diagnosis and treatment strategies with the addition of new sections and recommendations on management of hypertensive emergencies, hypertension in women and pregnancy, different ethnic groups, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer therapies, peri-operative management, sexual dysfunction and perioperative management.
In this message, I will give an overview of the main recommendations in the European guidelines under two headings: diagnosis and treatment and I will conclude by comments.

Research Article

Rehabilitation of hearing by cochlear implantation

Abdelaziz Raji*, Houda Mounji, Youssef Rochdi, Hassan Nouri and Mehdi Elfakiri

Background: Cochlear implants (CI) are nowadays a widely accepted treatment for sensorineural hearing loss SNHL.

Aim: This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the surgical approach and to evaluate the outcomes of our experience in cochlear implantation.

Setting: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of University Hospital Mohammed VI Marrakech Morocco.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 113 patients with severe to profound hearing loss who underwent a cochlear implantation between 2007-2018.

Results: There were 65 females and 48 males with severe to profound bilateral deafness, of whom 103 had prelingual deafness. The mean age of pediatric cochlear implantation was 5.25 years. Implantation was unilateral in all patients. The procedure was followed by regular adjustments and speech therapy. The evaluation was carried out by the same team each month during the first 6 months, then every 6 months. The average duration of follow-up was 37.54 months. All patients benefited from their implants with inter individual variability.

The good results were correlated with early implantation, significant parental investment and a steady follow-up of speech therapy.

Conclusion: Cochlear implantation has revolutionized the management of severe to profound deafness. It is a safe and effective technique when it is aimed at correctly selected populations.


Research Article

Prevalence and seasonal variations of eggs of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of goats from smallholder farms in Mozambique

Alsacia Atanasio-Nhacumbe* and Carlos Francisco Sitoe

A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and seasonal variations of eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats in four provinces of Mozambique, from November 2016 to October 2017 in Tete and Cabo Delgado, and from November 2016 to October 2018 in Maputo and Gaza. In each province, flocks were selected from both lowlands, located within the valleys of the rivers, and uplands which are located outside the valleys. Faecal samples were collected at monthly intervals to monitor faecal egg counts fluctuations. The modified McMaster technique was used for quantitative analysis of nematode eggs and for detecting cestode eggs in faecal samples. The sedimentation technique for detecting trematode eggs in faecal samples was used. A total of 2 703 samples were examined for nematode eggs and 2 587 for trematode eggs. Faecal examination indicated that between 18% and 100% of goats sampled were infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes. The prevalence varied according to the season of the year and the ecological conditions. The highest prevalence and worm egg counts were recorded at about the peak of the rainy season. Strongyloides papillosus, Calicophoron spp., Fasciola spp. and Schistosoma mattheei eggs were also found. Moniezia expansa and Moniezia benedeni eggs were found in all the four study areas but its prevalence was low and irregular. Based on the results of this study, which showed a clear seasonal pattern, strategic anthelmintic medications to effectively control helminth infections in goats in the different ecological zones of Mozambique are suggested.

Research Article

Relation of Arachnophobia with ABO blood group system

Muhammad Imran Qadir and Sani E Zahra*

In 1901, ABO system of blood groups was determined by Karl Landsteiner. It is present in different organisms like rodents, primates that includes chimpanzees, bonobos etc. The blood groups type in this system depends on some genes that are specific ABO gene. Arachnophobia is the dread of creepy crawlies and different creature like spiders. Individuals suffering from arachnophobia generally feels uneasy in any place where they accept that they could harbour arachnids or their existence for example, webs. 100 samples of blood from volunteers were used for Blood group test. The Blood groups were tested and results were recorded after the test all the used kits were discarded. The results shows that there is no clear cut difference between the arachnophobic males and non-arachnophobic male’s percentages, so no relation found in males. Similarly, in females both phobic and non-phobic ladies have no differences in their result values so, no relation was found. Whereas, in case of arachnophobic males and females comparison no relation was found. So, there is no relationship between ABO blood group system and arachnophobia and there may be a relation between non-phobia and AB+, B+ blood group in males whereas, in females only B+ blood group have relation with non-phobia.

Case Report

Daub, Discolouration, Pigmentation-Solar Lentigo

Anubha Bajaj

Solar lentigo is defined as an alteration in cutaneous pigment deposition on account of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Solar lentigo is a benign, pigmented lesion with a characteristic increment in the quantification of pigmented keratinocytes. It can manifest as a dark brown spot on the skin.

Research Article

Prevalence of ESBL urinary tract infection in children

Galia ZA Awean, Khalil Salameh*, Hala Elmohamed, Hoor Alshmayt and Mohamed Riad Bur Omer

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the extremely popular causes of febrile illness in children, demanding antimicrobial therapy [1]. Overall, 8% of females and 2% of males, experience at least one incident of UTI by seven years of age, and recurrence takes place in up to 30% during a year [2].

Escherichia Coli has been known as the commonest causative organism of the majority of urinary tract infections in children with prevalence ranging from 80-90% [3]. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced by Gram-Negative Bacilli (GNB), accountable for fighting against penicillin, cephalosporin and aztreonam [4].

Case Report

Severe Infantile Transaldolase deficiency: A case report

Khaled Alqoaer*, Ziad Asaad and Maisa Halabi

Transaldolase TALDO deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the pentose phosphate pathway. It has variable presentations with poor outcome when present early in life. We present a young Saudi infant with a fatal early presentation of TALD deficiency.

Review Article

A Belgian program to fight child maltreatment: The “SOS children” teams

Emmanuel de Becker and Sophie Dechene*

Child abuse remains a complex issue affecting individuals, families, groups and society, and one which WHO prevalence figures show as a significant ongoing problem. The nature of the abuse, be it physical, sexual, psychological, or neglect, places the child at high risk of experiencing the multiple sequelae of the trauma. Depending on the child’s country, the disclosure of abuse by the child or a third party will either be moved into criminal justice system or directed to the medico-psycho-social sector.

In 1985, in Belgium, specialist teams were established to evaluate and support situations involving child abuse. More than thirty years later, we considered it opportune to update the parameters that our team has developed based on four reflexive themes. The first discusses the transformation of our society, families and individuals, exploring how each influences the others. The second theme describes the diagnostic process, holding in mind the complexity of any situation. The third theme describes the reasoning behind these teams, considering this as a de-judicialisation of such situations. Finally, we describe the different treatments available. This paper describes the evolution of clinical practice including developments in several aspects that have arisen through handling situations of abuse.

Research Article

Effectiveness of ethinyl oestradiol /cyproterone acetate and ethinyl oestradiol/ desogestrel with or without low-dose metformin on perceived health-related quality of life in hirsute women with polycystic ovary disease: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Sanjeewani Fonseka*, B Subhani, V Alahakoon, CN Wijeyaratne, IB Gawarammana, NS Kalupahana, N Ratnatunga, S Rosairo and PVR Kumarasiri

Background: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) is an endocrine disorder. It leads to menstrual disturbances, infertility, obesity and dermatological manifestations such as hirsutism and acne which leads to impaired health-related quality of life (QOL).

Aims: To evaluate the perceived health related QOL in patients with PCOD treated with ethinyl oestradiol (35µg)/cyproterone acetate (2 mg) (EE/CPA) and ethinyl oestradiol (20 µg)/ desogestrel (0.15mg) (EE/DES) alone and in combination with low-dose metformin.

Methods: A total of 117 patients with PCOD diagnosed according to Rotterdam Consensus Criteria 2003 with a hirsutism score of 8 or more according to modified Ferriman-Gallway Score (mFGS) were randomised to receive one of four drug combinations (arm A – EE/CPA, arm B- EE/DES, arm C- EE/CPA plus metformin, arm D- EE/DES plus metformin). The outcomes assessed were body mass index (BMI), hirsutism (using mFGS) and health-related QOL (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health- Related quality of life Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score) at baseline and 12 months after treatment.

Results: PCOSQ score in relation to the hirsutism, emotions, menstruation, obesity, infertility and VAS score in relation to hirsutism and obesity had improved at the end of 12 months (p< 0.001) in all treatment arms. There was no difference between treatment arms in all measured outcomes at baseline and at the end of 12 months.

Conclusion: Treatment with EE/CPA and EE/DES is associated with an improvement in perceived QOL in patients with PCOD. The addition of low-dose metformin did not have a significant benefit.

Case Report

Clinical, histopathological and surgical evaluations of persistent oropharyngeal membrane case in a calf

Vehbi Gunes*, Gultekin Atalan, Latife Cakir Bayram, Kemal Varol, Hanifi Erol, Ihsan Keles and Ali C Onmaz

A male, 4 days old and 20 kg Simmental calf was evaluated for regurgitation and hyper salivation since birth. The mother became pregnant by artificial insemination and the pregnancy was the second of the mother. A membrane closed the pharynx and a diverticulum on dorsal of this membrane was seen during oropharyngeal examination through inspection. Membrane was also viewed by endoscopy under general anaesthesia. Larynx and oesophagus were imaged by bronchoscopy through the back side of the membrane. After these applications, it was decided that soft palate adhered firmly to the root of tongue causing congenital atresia. Surgical treatment of oropharyngeal membrane was carried out under general anaesthesia. Firstly, tracheotomy was performed for to ease breathing and membrane removed by electrocautery application. Intensive fluid accumulation and oedema formation at the incision area were detected by endoscopic examination following operation and the calf had severe dyspnoea two days after operation and died due to respiratory insufficiency. At necropsy, severe inflammatory reaction, laryngeal oedema and intensive salivation at the surgical side was determined. Direct imaging techniques should be used to determine in the closed oropharyngeal lumen. Moreover, nasopharyngoscopy should be considered to image larynx and oesophageal way. Present case is the first report with concern to pharyngeal membrane formation together with direct imaging and surgical procedures. Therefore, it was considered that this case report could be useful for colleagues and literatures.

Case Report

Type II myocardial infarction and latent LVOT obstruction due to Systolic Anterior Motion of mitral valve

Makrides Constantinos*

Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a well-recognized feature in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but can occur in other clinical scenarios when anatomically susceptible heart is subjected to permissive physiological conditions that provoke systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM): ie, reduced preload, increased inotropic state, and decreased afterload.

This report describes a case of hemodynamically significant latent LVOTO that was associated with hypotension, syncope, acute myocardial ischemic ECG changes, and an increase in cardiac enzymes. (Type II myocardial infarction) in a non HCM patient with excessive anterior mitral valve tissue.

Research Article

Effect of Khaya Senegalensis Bark and Oil on Post-Harvest Fungal Agents of Groundnut Seeds Rot in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Channya FK*, Asama P and Anjili SM

Standardized method of seed treatment is of prime importance in the production of groundnut. The study was to carry out control trial using bark extract (aqueous and ethanol) and oil (seed) of mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) on seven (7) isolated fungi from two groundnut varieties (peruvian and valencia).The result shows that both mahogany bark and seed extracts are capable of inhibiting mycelial growth of all the isolates. There was no significant variation between the aqueous and ethanol bark extracts in-vitro, however the in-vivo test shows a significant difference between the aqueous and the ethanol bark extract in which the ethanol extract reduced growth of the pathogens more than the aqueous. For all the pathogens except Rhizopus stolonifer there was no growth between 50% to 100% concentration of the Khaya senegalensis oil in-vitro, however in-vivo control at 50% produced scanty to moderate growth for all the pathogens except Rhizopus stolonifer on peruvian, while there was full coverage on the seeds of valencia variety with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer having total coverage though Pseudaiiescheria boydii and Cylindrocarpon lichenicola were effectively inhibited and showed no growth at the 50% and 100%. Further research to focus on the quantifying the chemical constituents and formulation are suggested.

Research Article

Prognostic implications of vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease

D Martinez-Lopez, D Jover-Rios, P Esteve-Atienzar, J Mendez-Mora, A Mendez-Jover, F Caparros-Hernandez, V Jorda-Climent, C Segui-Perez, M Segui-Perez, C García-Cervera, JM Nunez-Cruz, J Guzman-Martinez, I Hernandez-Isasi, D Bonet-Tur, S Banon-Escandell, J Peris-García, P Roig-Rico, A Perez-Fullana and JM Seguí-Ripoll*

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent disease, imposing high mortality rates worldwide, and it is closely related to cardiovascular events. Vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent in patients with CKD from the earliest stages of the disease, and it has been associated with higher mortality. In order to assess the prognostic implications of vitamin D deficiency in CKD, we undertook a literature review, searching different databases in October 2018 for publications related to vitamin D in patients with CKD and hypovitaminosis D, and not on dialysis. The main cause of death in these patients is cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D is one of the first parameters that CKD changes and has an important prognostic role in this entity. Deficient levels in blood are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and survival impacts, independently of cardiovascular disease. Treatment with paricalcitol appears to reduce this risk. However, the evidence analyzed is insufficient to establish an association between vitamin D levels and the progression of kidney disease.

Research Article

Is there improvement in renal function in patients undergoing bariatric surgery?

Juliana Amaro Borborema Bezerra, Carlos Teixeira Brandt*, Daniel Mozart Bezerra Borborema, Arthur Quirino Ramos, Matheus Rodrigues de Souza and Fernanda Andrea Menezes Florencio Maciel

Introduction: Obesity may cause progressive chronic kidney disease. Weight loss in the postoperative follow-up of bariatric surgery may improve renal function in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to give insight on the subject using a sensible biomarker.

Methods: This cross sectional study was performed in the Obesity Department from Campina Grande – Paraiba, Brazil. It was randomly enrolled 23 postoperative patients (7 bypass and 16 sleeve), with at least two years of follow-up, from the outpatient Department and 29 (18 bypass and 11 sleeve) in the preoperative period for bariatric surgery. They were homogeneously from both genders with ages ranging from 25 to 57 years. Serum levels of creatinine and cystatin C were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the CKD Epi (chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration) cystatin-creatinine equation. The investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee.

Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the preoperative group was significantly greater than the postoperative group (p ≤ 0.0001). The mean serum levels of C cystatin was significantly greater in the postoperative group as compared to preoperative (p= 0.0197). However, there was no mean difference between creatinine serum concentrations comparing the two groups (p = 0.3252). The mean glomerular renal function rates of the groups were similar (p = 0.1240).

Conclusion: There is no definitive evidence for supporting the hypothesis that there is improvement in the kidney renal function after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Prospective cohorts are necessary to enlighten the answer for this important question.

Research Article

Carbonic Anhydrase I modifies SOD1-induced motor neuron toxicity in Drosophila via ER stress pathway

Deyi Lu, Xiao Peng, Xuejiao Jia, Guiyi Li, Na Tan, Zhen Wei, Xinzhu Fei, Xiaochen Liu, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki and Jian Liu*

Background: Drosophila models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been widely used in understanding molecular mechanisms of ALS pathogenesis as well as discovering potential targets for therapeutic drugs. Mutations in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause ALS by gain of toxic functions and induce toxicity in fly motor neurons.

Results: In this study, we have determined that human carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) can alleviate mutant SOD1-induced motor neuron toxicity in the transgenic fly model of ALS. Interestingly, we found that motor neuron expression of CA1 could independently induce locomotion defect as well as decreasing the survival rate. In addition, CA1-induced toxicity in motor neurons is anhydrase activity-dependent. Mechanistically, we identified that both SOD1- and CA1-induced toxicity involve the activation of eIF2α in the ER stress response pathway. Downstream activation of the JNK pathway has also been implicated in the induced toxicity.

Conclusion: Our results have confirmed that SOD1-induced toxicity in fly motor neuron also involves endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. More importantly, we have discovered a new cellular role that CA1 plays by antagonizing mutant SOD1-induced toxicity in motor neurons involving the ER stress pathway. Such information can be potentially useful for further understanding disease mechanisms and developing therapeutic targets for ALS.

Research Article

The turing machine theory for some spinal cord and brain condition, A toxicological - antidotic depurative approach

Mauro Luisetto*, Behzad Nili Ahmadabadi, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa, Ram Kumar Sahu, Luca Cabianca, Ghulam Rasool Mashori and Farhan Ahmad Khan

Aim of this work is to produce a general theory related an new depurative strategy to be devalued for reduce or delay some spinal cord and brain degenerative and inflammatory chronic disease or acute traumatic condition. It is used and informatics approach in order to set correct the problem and the process. Scope of this project is to submit to the researcher a new therapeutic strategy (under a depurative- toxicological-pharmacological) in this complex kind of disease. A Turing machine theory say us a method to TRASLATE the need of a strategy in a practical hypotesys of work. A global conceptual map can help in this field.

Research Article

Comparative study of carboxylate and amide forms of HLDF-6 peptide: Neuroprotective and nootropic effects in animal models of ischemic stroke

Аnna P Bogachuk*, Zinaida I Storozheva, Andrey Т Proshin, Vyacheslav V Sherstnev, Irina V Smirnova, Tatyana M Shuvaeva and Valery M Lipkin

Aim: The work was to perform a comparative study of the neuroprotective and nootropic activities of two pharmaceutical substances, the HLDF-6 peptide and its amide form (HLDF-6-NH2).

Materials and Methods: We used in the study healthy adult male Wistar rats aged 180–200 days weighing 280–300 g. We modelled ischemic stroke in rats by chronical occlusion of carotid arteries. Solutions of the HLDF-6-NH2 and HLDF-6 peptides were administered intranasally. Cognitive functions we assessed with Novel object recognition test and Morris maze.

Results: The amide form of HLDF-6 peptide is more efficient: the neuroprotective activity of HLDF-6-NH2, evaluated by improvement of cognitive functions in animals, surpassed that of the native HLDF-6 peptide. A dose of 250 µg/kg of HLDF-6-NH2 peptide resulted in practically complete restoration of the disturbed functions. In the model of ischemic stroke, the amide form of the peptide significantly excelled the reference substance mexidol both in the effective dose and biological activity.

Conclusion: The results of study of the agent allow hoping for its success in further clinical investigation. In view of high demand for the agent and in case of successful clinical trials, it will surely become widely used in clinical practice in treatment of IS.

Review Article

Sleeplessness and health

Sunitha V, Jeyastri Kurushev, Felicia Chitra and Manjubala Dash*

Sleep influences each intellectual and physical health. It’s essential for a person’s well-being. The reality is when we see at well-rested people, they’re working at an exclusive degree than people making an attempt to get by way of on 1 or 2 hours much less nightly sleep. Loss of sleep impairs your higher tiers of reasoning, problem-solving and interest to detail. Sleep deficit will additionally make people much less productive and put them at higher danger for creating depression. Sleep affects almost each tissue in our bodies. It influences growth and stress hormones, our immune system, appetite, breathing, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. Nurses play a foremost function in teaching and guiding the sleep deprived patients on the importance of sleep and its physiological and psychological effects.

Research Article

P wave dispersion in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Seyda Yavuzkir, Suna Aydin*, Melike Baspinar, Sevda Korkmaz, Murad Atmaca, Rulin Deniz, Yakup Baykus and Mustafa Yavuzkir

Background: Growing evidence has revealed that fear and anxiety related situations could affect cardiac parameters. P wave dispersion (Pd) is an important index. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate Pd values in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Methods: The study was composed of twenty-five female patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder and same number of healthy controls. Pd, Pmin and Pmax values were determined by electrocardiogram (ECG) in the subjects.

Results: It was found that patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder had considerably higher Pmax and Pmin values compared to those of healthy subjects. Pd was also significantly higher in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorders than that of healthy subjects.

Conclusion: Study suggests that patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder seems to have increased Pd, as can be seen in anxiety and fear related clinical conditions, considering that this group of patients have an increased trend to cardiac abnormalities, particularly cardiac arrythmias. To access strong conclusion, it is required novel studies with larger samples.

Research Article

Preclinical stiff heart is a marker of cardiovascular morbimortality in apparently healthy population

Charles Fauvel, Michael Bubenheim, Olivier Raitiere, Charlotte Vallet, Nassima Si Belkacem and Fabrice Bauer*

Background: The prognostic signifi cance of impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation and increased LV stiffness as precursor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and death is still largely unknown in apparently healthy subjects.

Methods: We constituted a cohort of 353 patients with normal ejection fraction (>45%) and no significant heart disease, based on a total of 3,575 consecutive left-sided heart catheterizations performed. We measured peak negative first derivative of LV pressure (-dP/dt) and operating chamber stiffness (Κ) using a validated equation. Patients were categorized as having: 1) normal diastolic function, 2) isolated relaxation abnormalities (-dP/dt > 1860mm Hg/sec and K <0.025mm Hg/ml), or 3) predominant stiff heart (K ≥0.025mm Hg/ml).

Results: During a follow-up of at least 5 years, the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (death, major arterial event, heart failure, and arrhythmia) was 23.2% (82 patients). Compared to isolated relaxation abnormalities, predominant stiff heart showed stronger prognostic significance for all events (p=0.002), namely heart failure (HR, 2.9; p=0.0499), cardiac death (HR, 5.8; p=0.03), and heart failure and cardiac death combined (HR, 3.7; p=0.003).

Conclusion: In this apparently healthy population referred to our center for cardiac catheterization, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was very high. Moreover, predominant stiff heart was a better predictor of cardiovascular outcomes than isolated relaxation abnormalities.

Case Report

Severe Infantile Coarctation and Mid Aortic Stenosis in Williams Syndrome

Lousararian Marina, Troglia Ana, Cabrera Maria J and Alday Luis E*

We report a challenging patient with Williams syndrome and severe coarctation of the aorta. As in a few similar cases reported, several surgical and catheter interventions for recoarctation, intrastent intimal proliferation and stenosis of the left sub-clavian artery were required. Aortic patch angioplasty is planned for the future in a grower child.

Research Article

Longitudinal and transverse dimensions of Hypertrophied Cardiomyocytes in human Left Ventricle (LV) at autopsy; Heart failure might result from changes in chamber geometry without contractile weakening

Richard E Tracy*

The shapes and sizes of human cardiomyocytes are accessible to systematic observation under most circumstances only at autopsy. This constraint has seriously curbed the study of these topics, thereby leaving a crippling gap in our understanding of heart failure. In recent years the only published ongoing findings have come from this laboratory. This article is a condensation of these reports, using those sources to develop fresh analyses designed to construct a set of organizing principles. The data are entirely retrospective thereby forbidding hypothesis testing and permitting only hypothesis formation. The hypotheses generated in this way are novel and surprising. In spite of the severe limitations in this methodology is seems possible that some useful new directions of inquiry might evolve from pursuing these original observations.

Research Article

Determination of anthocyanin content in two varieties of Hibiscus Sabdariffa from Selangor, Malaysia using a combination of chromatography and spectroscopy

Yew-Keong Choong*, Nor Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof, Jamia Azdina Jamal and Mohd Isa Wasiman

The calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used by many communities as herbal tea. Their anthocyanin contents have been reported as the key component in anti-obesity studies. This present work reported results of anthocyanin content of calyces in two varieties of H. sabdariffa collected from Sabak Bernam, Selangor, Malaysia.The samples have been authenticated in the Herbarium, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia prior to the study. The samples were processed and the ground dry raw material and its aqueous extract were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Two-Dimensional Infrared (2DIR). The short hybrid calyces (FT11-15A) raw material spectrum showed more than 80% similarity with long wild variety calyces (FT11-15B) when using “Compare” in analysis. The differences of both samples were obviously shown in their aqueous extract spectra. The peak at 1672 cm-1 and 841 cm-1 showed that tri-substituted double bond in FT11-15B aqueous extract was not present in FT11-15A aqueous extract spectra, whereby a double peak was assigned at 1221 cm-1 referred to anti symmetry stretching of aromatic and vinyl =C-O-C- with other =C-O- and 1192 cm-1 is assigned In-plane δ C-H in FT11-15A aqueous extract. The peak at 1071 cm-1 assigned as bonding C-H in plane bending of phenyl of both samples was the only peak comparable with standard delphinidin and cyanidin which are used for qualification and quantification of sample content. Aqueous extract spectra of both samples showed higher number of peaks detected compared with raw material spectra, which was attributed to the higher solubility of anthocyanins in water. The 2DIR correlation spectroscopy is advantageous in enhancing the qualitative analysis of herbal products. The anthocyanin content in both varieties of H. sabdariffa in descending amount is delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside (DS), cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (CS), delphenidin-3-O-glucoside (DG) and lastly cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (CG). FT11-15A has more content of DS and DG of raw material and CG of water extract plus TFA than FT11-15B, whereby, FT11-15B has more content of CS, CG of raw material and DS, DG, CS of water extract plus TFA than FT11-15A.

Research Article

Analysis of the characteristics of chinese traditional sports culture in the new period

SC Wang*

Through cultural consciousness, the characteristics of traditional Chinese sports culture in the new period are analyzed and studied, and the traditional Chinese sports culture in the new period has the following six characteristics: 1. Sports social model of “etiquette” 2. Sports personality model of the gentleman’s way; 3. The sports behavior mode of the golden mean; 4. The social nature of sports of socialism with Chinese characteristics; 5. Sports cultural nature of emotional culture; 6 limited competitive sports competition.

Short Communication

Triathlon challenge – from craggy to crazzy a different kind of pain management program

Michael G Serpell*

Sea swim (2.4 mile), bike ride (112 mile) and Marathon (26 mile), all in one day!
There are lessons that the 7.8 million UK Chronic Pain patients can learn from the world of endurance sports, and vice versa [1]. The training, psychological tools and strategies used by athletes to complete an endurance event, are equally relevant for those with chronic pain, who wish to regain some form of “normal” life if treatment therapies have failed [2,3].

This is my reflection of how, using some of the techniques involved in Pain Management Programs, I trained for an Ironman Triathlon in just over one year.

Review Article

Update on Phenobarbital for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Intensive Care

Rukma Parthvi* and Parker Agne

Alcohol abuse is a global health problem. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) ranges from mild to severe symptoms that can lead to fatal delirium tremens requiring ICU admission and incurring high health care cost as high as $20,000 a month. The latest published reports suggest that phenobarbital is a promising therapeutic option for management of AWS as evidenced by less ICU admissions, length of stay in hospital, use of adjunctive agents, health care costs and attention from the nursing staff than that of patients treated with commonly used benzodiazepines such as lorazepam, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital is beneficial for the treatment of AWS, both in the emergency and inpatient settings and both as monotherapy or in conjunction with benzodiazepines. It is safe for patients without severe hepatic impairment, has a better mechanism of action and longer half-life than benzodiazepines, and leads to less delirium and agitation. Powered randomized controlled trials with large populations are required, yet phenobarbital can be used to safely to treat AWS.

Research Article

Causal agents of Post-harvest Rot of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) and their control using Indigenous Practices in Hong, Adamawa State

Kazi N, Chimbekujwo IB and Anjili SM*

Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo) are grown all around the world for a variety of reasons ranging from agricultural purposes to commercial and ornamental sales. The pathogens causing the rot of pumpkin in the world include fungi, bacteria, and viruses. The study was aim to identify fungal pathogens of pumpkin rot during storage, as well as control measures of the diseases using wood ash, mango leaf and rice chaff.Three hundred and sixty-six (366) fruits of pumpkins were studied in Pela, Gaya and Kulinyi districts of Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The diseased samples (fruits) were randomly purchased. Of all the districts visited, Kulinyi has the highest percentage of disease samples (43.82%) while the least is Gaya district with 21.35%. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was used for the isolation of pathogens and these gave Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Phytophthora capsici. All the fungal isolates exhibited different degree of pathogenic effect on the pumpkin fruits. The pathogens are susceptible to treatment both In-vitro and In-vivo control trials with wood ash and mango leaf at p ≤ 0.05. Inhibition improved with increased in concentration of the wood ash and mango leaf. Rice chaff treatment equally proved worthwhile with significant inhibition compared to the control at p ≤ 0.05.

Research Article

The beneficial effects of varicella zoster virus

Khalid Ahmed Al-Anazi*, Al-Anazi WK and Al-Jasser AM

Varicella zoster virus behaves differently from other herpes viruses as it differs from them in many aspects. Recently, there has been growing evidence on the beneficial effects of the virus in immune compromised hosts and these effects are translated into prolongation of survival. The reported beneficial effects of the virus include: (1) stimulation of bone marrow activity in patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow failure syndromes, (2) antitumor effects in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, and (3) association with graft versus host disease which has anticancer effects. Additionally, there are several reports on the safety of the live-attenuated even in severely immune suppressed individuals and on the emerging role of the virus in cancer immunotherapy. In this review, the following aspects of the virus will be thoroughly discussed: (1) new data on the genetic background, pathogenesis, vaccination, and new therapeutic modalities; (2) bone marrow microenvironment and hematopoiesis; (3) cells involved in the pathogenesis of the virus such as: mesenchymal stem cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, T-cells and mononuclear cells; (4) cellular proteins such as open reading frames, glycoproteins, promyelocytic leukemia protein, chaperons, and SUMOs; (5) extracellular vesicles, exosomes, and micro-RNAs; and (6) signaling pathways, cytokines, and interferons.

Research Article

ROGAVF STUDY 2019 - Relationship of HbA1C (GLYCEMIC Control) on outcomes of AV FISTULAS: A prospective observational study

Premjeet Singh*, Zainal Ariffin, Hafizan Tajri, Azim Md Idris, Lenny Suryati and Lily Sofida

Objective: The main aim of the study was to compare outcomes based on diabetic control for patients undergoing formation of a new upper limb arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Research design and methods: A prospective cohort study was performed where we obtained baseline HbA1c in 65 patients before undergoing AV fistula formation. Patients were followed up at our clinic 6 weeks after creation to assess fistula maturity.

Results: Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between HbA1c status and maturity of AVF at 6 weeks after controlling for possible confounding factors such as age, sex, presence of hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Those with HbA1c less than 6.5 were 22 times likely to have maturity of AVF at 6 weeks as compared to those with HbA1c 6.5 or more (AOR = 22.65, p < 0.005).

Conclusion: Good diabetes control, reflected by an HbA1c of less than 6.5, is associated with a very high possibility of AVF maturity at 6 weeks post creation.

Review Article

Idiopathic post-operative biliary duct system dilatation; potential etiology and management

Mohamed M Nasr* and Maged M Nasr

What is called “idiopathic biliary duct system dilatation” or better to name it “un-explained biliary dilatation” is mostly following surgical procedures related to upper gastrointestinal and hepato-bilio-pancreatic systems. Having such situation, adaptive physiology of the biliary duct system has to be considered and rational has to be explained. The vast multimodal progress in techniques of investigations that has been applied on studying the hepato-bilio-pancreatic system has been utilized to clear the clinical ambiguity of biliary duct system dilatation for no logic reason but missing the correlation between both fields; the technical and the clinical ones. This clinical review is trying to fill this gap and introduce a comprehensive discussion of the subject.   Mechanical, biochemical and immune causes constitute a wide diversity of etiology related to biliary system dilatation that in some situations is really difficult to verify clinically. On the least, even we could not verify the etiology we need to identify that reaching a closed road is different than postulating suspicions that never exist. This review is a trial collecting all subject-related data that might be related to etiology mechanisms and utilize to find a correlation rationale. At some point verification of such correlation is really a far target that might be even impossible clinically with availing technical tools and hope in the future could be achieved.

Review Article


Shapovalov KA, Shapovalova LA

  1. The concept of wounds.
  2. Classification of wounds.
  3. Signs of wounds.
  4. Factors affecting the course of the wound process.
  5. Phases of the wound process.
  6. Types of wound healing.
  7. Features of wounds in children.
  8. First (first emergency) help.
  9. Complications of wounds.
  10. Specific bite wounds. Notion Treatment. Complications.
  11. Snake bites. First aid.
  12. Arthropod bites. First aid.

Wounds are called traumatic violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membranes with possible damage to the deeper tissues.

Case Report

Anasarca in a 35 year old man- A diagnostic dilemma

Okafor UH*, Okorie GO and Ede S

Anasarca is generalized swelling of the body following accumulation of fluid in the extracellular compartments. It may result from multiple aetiology mainly of renal, hepatic or cardiovascular origin. 

The aim of this case report is to highlight the challenges encountered in making diagnosis in a patient with anarsaca.

We report a case of a 34 year old transporter who presented with anasarca. He had clinical features and risk factors suggestive of renal, hepatic and cardiovascular disease. However investigations ruled out renal, hepatic or cardiovascular diseases as the aetiology of the anarsaca. The anarsarca was also noted to be unresponsive to diuretics. The diagnosis of the disease causing the anarsaca was therefore a dilemma.

Research Article

Cognition and Memory Impairment among Patients of Depression in Pakistan-The Role of Conventional and Newer Anti-Depressants

Madeeha Malik*, Muhammad Usama Khan, Azhar Hussain and Ayisha Hashmi

Background: Antidepressant therapy is the most adopted treatment option for depression. The evaluation of cognitive effects related to antidepressant drug use is important for better selection of antidepressant drugs that leads to improved cognitive performance and patient health related quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antidepressant drugs on cognition and memory among patients of depression in Pakistan. 

Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A pre-validated data collection tool Mini Mental State Examination was used. The sample size was calculated to be 382 with 95% confidence interval and 5% level of error. The data was cleaned, coded and analyzed statistically using spss 21. Chi-Square test (p ≥ 0.05) was used to find association among different variables.

Results: The results showed that out of 382 respondents, 7.3% (n=28) were being prescribed amytryptyline and among them 46% (n=13) had questionably significant cognitive impairment and 53% (n=15) had mild cognitive impairment. On the other hand out of 23% (n=89) patients on escitalopram monotherapy, 85% (n=76) had impairment of questionably significant impairment and only 13.4% (n=12) had mild impairment. Area of residence and medication therapy were significant variables (p<0.05) that can affect cognition and memory among patients of depression. 

Conclusion: The results of present study concluded cognitive impairment of questionably significant nature among patients of depression in Pakistan. For the better management of depression, it is recommended that anti-depressant drug therapy should be tailored according to individual patient requirements.

Research Article

Assessment of lipid and hematological profile among blood donors in European Gaza Hospital, Palestine

Ahmad M Tabash, Wesam M Afana, Abdrabbou M Elregeb, Sameer Abu Eid and Ayman M Abu Mustafa*

Background: There is an important shortage of blood in the greatest blood banks worldwide to meet up with requirements for numerous medical interventions. Limited studies have associated regular blood donation to the lowering of lipid function parameters. Assessing the lipid function is a classical method of evaluating an individual’s risk for coronary heart disease.

Objective: The general goal of the study is to determine lipid and hematological profile among blood donors in European Gaza Hospital, Palestine.

Materials and Methods: This study was a case-control study that involved 120 male, 40 of whom were regular blood donors (study group), 40 first time donors and 40 non- donors (control group) aged between 18-60 years. A volume of 5ml venous blood was drawn from each fasting participant into a dry biochemistry screw-capped tube. This was allowed to clot and the serum was used to determine total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), while HDL-C/LDL-C and TC/LDL ratio were calculated by using the following formula. Anthropometric parameters (weight, height) of donors were measured using standard protocol. The height (in meter), weight (in kilogram) were used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) using the following formula. BMI= weight (kg)/ (height in meter)² and blood was collected from each participant in EDTA (for hematocrit, ESR). Three groups were matched for age and BMI. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Chi-square (χ²) was used to compare the relationship between categorical variables, ANOVA was used to measure the difference between means. Data were summarized using tables, pie charts, histograms. A P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant for all tests conducted.

Results: The mean total cholesterol (169±10.85 mg/dl), triglycerides (116±9.73 mg/dl), HDL (54±2.5 mg/dl ), LDL (92±11.4mg/dl), LDL/HDL ratio (1.73±0.25) and TC/HDL ratio (3.16±0.26) were lower in the regular blood donors than the first time donors(198±10.13, 179±5.82, 42.33±1.6, 120±11.2, 2.85±0.36, 4.7±0.40) and non- donors (202±10.19, 180±12.68, 41.75±1.4, 125±11.7, 2.99±0.33, 4.86±0.32) respectively and statistically significant (P < 0.05).The mean ESR (6.63±0.87mm/hr) was lower statistically significant in the regular blood donors than the first time donors (7.40±1.17) and non- donors (7.60±1.48) respectively (P < 0.05). The mean HCT (42.98±0.86%) was lower statistically significant in the regular blood donors than the first time donors (44.63±0.90) and non- donors (44.75±0.74, P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Regular donors have reduced risk of developing coronary heart disease as reflected by the low total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, TC/HDL-c ratio and HCT and high HDL. BMI in regular donor was less than the donor for the first time and did not donate, but did not reach the statistical significance. Also in our study regular donors have reduced risk of developing inflammation as reflected by low ESR.

Case Report

Single Trans apical access for double aortic and mitral valves-in-valves procedures with high risk of thrombus embolism

Julien Adjedj*, Mathias Kirsch, Anna Nowacka and Olivier Muller

Background: Persistent left atrial thrombus remains a contra indication to transeptal valves in valves procedure. We aimed to perform a double valves in valves replacement through transapical access with cerebral angiography control during the procedure just after implantation. Our case shows the feasibility of this strategy and the management of right ventricle laceration successfully treated after extra corporeal membrane oxygenation implantation and local hemostasis. We reported a feasibility case report of successful double valves in valves implantation through transapical access with 6 months of clinical and computed tomography follow up.

Research Article

The relationship between serum and sputum levels of azithromycin and clinical endpoints in patients with bronchiectasis using azithromycin maintenance treatment

Josje Altenburg*, Erik B Wilms and Wim G Boersma

Background: Azithromycin (AZM) is a macrolide antibiotic with distinct pharmacokinetic properties and is increasingly used as maintenance treatment in patients with bronchiectasis in order to reduce infectious exacerbations and improve pulmonary symptoms. The exact mechanism of action is not known and the relation between azithromycin dose level, local and systemic drug levels and clinical effect however, has not been extensively studied yet.

Objectives: To explore the relation between AZM serum and sputum concentrations, clinical effect parameters and side effects.

Methods: Azithromycin concentrations were measured in serum and sputum samples of bronchiectasis patients receiving one year of AZM treatment (250mg OD) enrolled in the Bronchiectasis and Azithromycin Treatment (BAT) trial, a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Results were correlated with data on AZM dose level, exacerbation frequency, lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), quality of life and symptoms collected within the same year.

Results: 83 sputum samples from 31 patients and 151 serum samples from 43 patients were available for analysis. Mean AZM dose-level ranged from 18.8 to 39.8 mg/kg body weight/ week, generating mean AZM concentrations of 7.57 mg/L (SD 9.49) in sputum and 0.11 mg/L (SD 0.085) in serum. No correlation was found between side effects and AZM dose level, sputum- or serum concentrations. Significant correlation was found between AZM sputum concentration and CRP-level (r= -0.6).

Conclusion: High and stable AZM sputum levels were reached during long term treatment, as opposed to low AZM levels in serum. Apart from CRP-levels to AZM sputum concentration, no other outcome parameter showed significant correlation to AZM serum- or sputum levels. AZM dose- or exposure levels were not predictive for the occurrence of side effects.

Research Article

Cloning and Characterization of a Pseudo-Response Regulator 7 (PRR7) Gene from Medicago Sativa Involved In Regulating the Circadian Clock

Yilin Shen and Weifeng Nian*

The circadian clock is an endogenous molecular oscillator with a period of about 24 hours, which regulates the physiology and developmental processes of almost all higher plants. Pseudo-response regulators (PRRs) are an important part of the central clock oscillator, together with other clock genes, constituting interlinked transcriptional feedback loops, which partly influence plant growth and development.In this study, a circadian clock-related gene MsPRR7 was cloned from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) by homologous cloning. The full length MsPRR7 gene was 2648 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 2385 bp encoding a protein of 795amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MsPRR7 was closely related to PRR7 from the PRR family of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subcellular localization analysis found that MsPRR7 was located in the nucleus. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that expression of MsPRR7 gene transcripts in leaves was affected by circadian rhythms, and that its expression level increased with an extension of illumination time, reaching a peak around 8–10 hours. These results will provide the experimental basis for further study of the regulation of PRR family genes in alfalfa.

Research Article

Feasibility study on the evaluation of the effect of narrow-band CEChirp ASSR in the hearing fi eld after hearing aid in hearingimpaired children

Wang Yonghua* and Xing Shuoyao

Objective Study: Whether the narrow-band CE-Chirp ASSR test in the sound field is an objective evaluation method for the hearing aid compensation effect, and whether there is a difference in children with different hearing loss levels.

Methods: 39 children (67 ears) wearing full digital hearing aids with good rehabilitation effect and ability to cooperate with behavioral audiometry were selected. The narrow-band CE-Chirp ASSR test group in the sound field was set as the experimental group, and the sound field behavioral audiometry after hearing aid was set as the control group. According to the degree of hearing loss, it was divided into moderate hearing loss group, severe hearing loss group and extremely severe hearing loss group. The difference between test results of experimental group and control group was compared.

Results: There were no significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the moderate hearing loss group and the extremely severe hearing loss group at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4kHz (P > 0.05). The results of the experimental group and the control group in the severe hearing loss group, There was no significant difference at 0.5, 1, 2kHz (P > 0.05), there was a significant difference at 4kHz (P < 0.05), and the mean difference was - 6.4dB HL. When the degree of hearing loss was not grouped, there was no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group at 0.5, 1, 2kHz (P > 0.05), 4kHz was significantly different (P < 0.05), and the mean difference was -3.2dB HL.

Conclusion: It is clinically feasible to evaluate the hearing aid compensation effect of the narrow-band CE-Chirp ASSR in the hearing-impaired children. The grouping according to the degree of hearing loss can be more accurate in evaluating the hearing aid compensation effect. The narrow-band CE-Chirp in the sound field of children with moderate and very severe hearing loss ASSR results can be directly used to assess the hearing aid compensation effect, while children with severe hearing loss need to apply correction values at 4kHz.

Case Report

Methotrexate in management of Morbidly Adherent Placenta at Latifa Hospital, DHA, Dubai, UAE.: Case report

Atif BE Fazari*, Maria Eugenia Ramirez Aristondo, Faiqa Azim, Basma Abdo AlMaamari and Rasha Eltayeb

Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) includes the spectrum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. It is a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage. Caesarean section is main risk factor for MAP. Ultrasound scan is highly sensitive method for MAP diagnosis and sometime Magnetic resonance image is of choice. Early diagnosis timed elective planned intervention after preparation under skillful multidisciplinary team improve the outcome and minimize the morbidity. Caesarean hysterectomy, major arteries ligation, arteries embolization and leave the placenta in-situ all are choices of management. Use of Methotrexate for the placenta in-situ in MAP is still debatable. We present a case of MAP in which placenta left in- situ followed by multiple Methotrexate injection during postpartum with good outcome and acceptability.

Review Article

Predictive vision on governance and total quality in sports

Ibouchoukene Mohamed, Aboura Rabah, Hadiouche Abdelnour, Labane Karim* and Fahssi Mohamed Riadh

The aim of our study is to try to give a predictive vision on governance in the field of sports in Algeria.

This predictive approach looks at the overall quality of governance in order to be at the continental level or even across the Arab world.

To identify this and answer our questions, we conducted a survey of some leaders of the different sports institutions, namely the presidents of clubs (football, handball, athletics and judo), managers also have a sports experience and occupy currently responsible positions as managers of sports facilities.

The results of the survey we reveal significant figures on the component related to sports development prospects.

However, there are other aspects that are ambiguities in the management and organization that have an impact on good governance in sports.



To identify this and answer our questions, we conducted a survey of some leaders of the different sports institutions, namely the presidents of clubs (football, handball, athletics and judo), managers also have a sports experience and occupy currently responsible positions as managers of sports facilities.


The science of enduring pain. What can athletes and chronic pain patients learn from each other?

Michael G Serpell*

“It isn’t the mountains ahead to climb that wear you out; it’s the pebble in your shoe.” Muhammad Ali

What mind strategies can an endurance athlete use to get their body that bit further or faster, to be a inisher? At "top-level" sport, some say it's all in the mind!! When we push ourselves to the limit, we experience adversity. How and if we overcome that, will deine us, and our achievements.

“Adversity causes some men to break; others to break records.” William A. Ward (Inspirational Writer)

Pain is not only a physical experience, it is an emotional one as well. This is encapsulated in the very definition of pain by the International Association for the Study of Pain [1].

Research Article

High water intake in preventing the risk of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Zhijian Lin, John C Lieske*, Yue Li and Muthuvel Jayachandran

Background: Hyperuricosuria, persistently low urinary pH, and low urinary volume are the main risk factors of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Epidemiologic studies suggest that high water intake is protective against the occurrence of symptomatic kidney stone events of all types. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to evaluate the effectiveness of increased water intake to prevent symptomatic uric acid kidney stone events.

Methods: Seventeen studies were identified for the meta-analysis. Analysis of Q and I2% statistics revealed that a high heterogeneity in 16 studies, thus, random effects model was used. Protective associations were identified for high water intake individuals (SMD=0.52 L; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.84; p=0.002); a significantly decreased relative super saturation of uric acid versus controls (SMD=-1.15; 95% CI: -2.00, -0.30; p=0.008). Risk factors including urinary uric acid excretion and pH were not significantly related to high water intake (SMD=7.32mg/d, 95% CI: -52.27, 66.91; p=0.81), (SMD=0.14; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.31; p=0.09), respectively. Further subgroup analyses revealed that urinary uric acid excretion was significantly decreased in healthy individuals (SMD=-36.23 mg/d, 95% CI: -65.14, -7.31; p=0.001) compared to stone formers (SMD=27.41 mg/d, 95% CI: -33.18, 88.01; p=0.38); urinary uric acid excretion was significantly decreased in routine water intake groups (SMD=-61.49 mg/d, 95% CI: -120.74, 12.24; p=0.04) compared to mineral water intake groups (SMD=44.50 mg/d, 95% CI: -18.30, 107.29; p=0.16); urinary pH was significantly higher in mineral water groups (SMD=0.13, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.46; p=0.04) compared to regular water groups (SMD=-0.00, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.13; p=0.98).

Results: A total of 129 patients had 150 internal jugular catheter insertions. The mean age was 51.4±15.2 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. All the patients had chronic kidney disease; about 80% had tunneled IJC and 96.9% of the catheters were inserted in the right internal jugular vein. Immediate complications were recorded in 10% and late complications in 34.9% of the procedures. The immediate complications were kinking of guide wire (2%), arterial puncture (1.3%) and difficulty in locating the internal jugular vein (1.3%) or tunneling (1.3%). The late complications were infection (12.8%), poor blood flow (9.2%), bleeding (5.5%) and spontaneous removal of the catheter (5.5%). There was no statistical significant difference in both immediate and late complication with age and sex.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis identified evidence that urinary uric acid excretion, volume, pH and relative supersaturation of uric acid can be altered with high water intake intervention, reducing the risk of uric acid kidney stones.

Research Article

Complications of Internal jugular catheters in haemodialysis patients at a kidney care center in Nigeria

Okafor Umezurike Hughes*, Alade Stella and Edeh Samuel

Internal jugular vein catheters (IJC) is recommended as the central venous access of choice in haemodialysis patients. However it is associated with complications of variable severity.

Objectives: To study the complications associated with internal jugular vein catheters in haemodialysis patients in southern part of Nigeria.

Methodology: The clinical details of patients who had IJC insertion at the kidney house, Hilton clinics Port Harcourt from 1st October 2011 to 30th September 2016 were documented. Complications from the IJC developed by the patients during the study period were also documented. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 22. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: A total of 129 patients had 150 internal jugular catheter insertions. The mean age was 51.4±15.2 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. All the patients had chronic kidney disease; about 80% had tunneled IJC and 96.9% of the catheters were inserted in the right internal jugular vein. Immediate complications were recorded in 10% and late complications in 34.9% of the procedures. The immediate complications were kinking of guide wire (2%), arterial puncture (1.3%) and difficulty in locating the internal jugular vein (1.3%) or tunneling (1.3%). The late complications were infection (12.8%), poor blood flow (9.2%), bleeding (5.5%) and spontaneous removal of the catheter (5.5%). There was no statistical significant difference in both immediate and late complication with age and sex.

The ultrasound examination at discharge had a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 87% to detect future symptomatic lymphoceles. The positive predictive value was only 10%. The second ultrasound test had the best test variables to detect symptomatic lymphoceles with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87% and a predictive value of 28%.

Conclusion: Internal jugular catheter is froth with immediate and late complications in haemodialysis patients.


Proposal for the elimination of allergies

James F Walles*

A man I knew had an extreme allergy to poison ivy when he was a child. When he was about four-teen, he was hanging out with a group of his friends who dared him to eat some poison ivy. He did, and never got poison ivy again. Presumably, the ingestion of the allergen led to the development of immunity.

Research Article

Gestational hypercholesterolemia helps detect familial hypercholesterolemia and prevent late pregnancy complications

Josef Hyanek* František Pehal, Kseniya Dryahina, Ladislava Dubska, Blanka Míkova, Lada Gombíkova, Miroslav Prucha, Stanislav Kubu, Petra Halackova and Jaroslav Feyreisl

Introduction: In this retrospective study, we comment on the cause and diagnostic potential of the elevated serum total cholesterol and some non-cholesterol sterols in a population of healthy pregnant women from Prague, Czech Republic. 

Methods: Based on a total of 21,000 clinical biochemistry tests of healthy pregnant women with hypercholesterolemia observed during pregnancy, a testing group of 84 women with a total cholesterol (TC) above 7.0 mmol/l was established to analyze their non-cholesterol sterols (NCS) by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. Lathosterol (Lat) and desmosterol (Des) were evaluated as markers of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, whereas campesterol (Cam) and sitosterol (Sit) were analysed as markers of intestinal absorption.

Results: In the basic population, the frequency of gestational hypercholesterolemia with the serum TC levels > 7.0mmol/l was 1 to 136.The mean values were: TC 6.8 mmol/l, LDL-C 4.6 mmol/l, and HDL-C 2.2 mmol/l. In the selected testing group of 84, the mean values were: Lat 7.8+/-1.7 μmol/l, Des 4.7+/-0.9 μmol/l, Cam 9.8+/-2.6 μmol/l, and Sit 9.6+/-3.8 μmol/l. Lat correlated with TC (r = 0.53), LDL-C (r = 0.36), and non-HDL-C (r = 0.35). No such correlations were observed for Cam or Sit.

Conclusion: Our findings prove that gestational hypercholesterolemia is caused by increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis via lathosterol. Subsequently, we demonstrate how a single cholesterol test taken in the fifth to sixth month gestation can efficiently help detect familial hypercholesterolemia, and prevent related late pregnancy circulatory complications.

Research Article

Knowledge, perception and practices of Suez Canal University students regarding Hepatitis C Virus infection risk and means of prevention

Hesham El-Sayed, Sohair Mehanna, Adel Hassan, Mahmoud Sheded, Maha Abdel-Fattah, Samar Elfiky, Nermine Elmaraghy*, Nehal Lotfy and Zeinab Khadr

Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV in the world as more than 10% of population suffers from HCV infection. High prevalence of HCV in Egypt represents a great risk to the whole population that requires aggressive mass awareness regarding routes of infection and means of prevention. 

Aim: To determine the knowledge and practices of university students in 5 different faculties in Suez Canal University regarding HCV infection and means of prevention.

Materials and method: A cross sectional study was conducted in five university faculties in Suez Canal University.

Results: The study included 698 students from the faculties of Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Nursing and Education in Suez Canal University in Ismailia city in Egypt. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the knowledge about the diagnosis, complications and routes of transmission total knowledge score for HCV among the different faculties.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Knowledge and practices of university students in Suez Canal University is partial to weak especially in students of non-biological sciences who have less close contact with patients.

Research Article

Virulence Genes in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Isolated at Suez Canal University Hospitals with Respect to the Site of Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance

Nermine Elmaraghy*, Said Abbadi, Gehan Elhadidi, Asmaa Hashem and Asmaa Yousef

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the top five pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections. Biofilm formation is nowadays a major problem. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of virulence genes in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Suez Canal University Hospitals with respect to the site of infection and microbial resistance of the strains.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 47 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains collected from hospitalized patients from December 2015 to August 2017. To detect biofilm formation, we used Tissue Culture Plate Method. The virulence genes (toxA, algD, nan1, pslA and pelA) were amplified using PCR technique.

Results: The highest sensitivity was to Imipenem and Ciprofloxacin (85.1% and 68.1% respectively).With respect to the virulence genes, toxA gene was detected in 45 isolates (95.7%), algD gene in 42 isolates (89.4%), pslA in 42 isolates (89.4%) %), pelA cted in 41 isolates (87.2%) and nan1gene was detected in 19 isolates (40.45%).

Conclusions and Recommendations: We conclude that there is relationship between virulence genes and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We recommend the expansion of work on a larger sample size in a longer period of time.

Research Article

Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic diseases via Duodenal Minor Papilla: 135 cases treated by Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic Pancreatic Duct Balloon Dilation (EPDBD), and Pancreatic Stenting (EPS)

Tadao Tsuji*, G Sun, A Sugiyama, Y Amano, S Mano, T Shinobi, H Tanaka, M Kubochi, K Ohishi, Y Moriya, M Ono, T Masuda, H Shinozaki, H Kaneda, H Katsura, T Mizutani, K Miura, M Katoh, K Yamafuji, K Takeshima, N Okamoto, Y Hoshino, N Tsurumi, S Hisada, J Won, T Kogiso, K Yatsuji, M Iimura, T Kakimoto and S Nyuhzuki

Treatments via the minor papilla is effective where the deep cannulation via the major papilla is impossible in such cases as [1] the Wirsung’s duct is inflammatory narrowed, bent or obstructed by impacted stones [2] pancreatic duct divisum (complete or incomplete) [3], maljunction of pancreatico-biliary union with stones [4], pancreatic stones in the Santorini’s duct. In [1,2] cases, the pancreatic juice flow via the major papilla decreases, while that of the minor papilla increases. Then the size of minor papilla and its orifice shows corresponding enlargement. This substitutional mechanism is an advantage when undertaking our new method. Since the pancreatic juice flow is maintained via the minor papilla in these cases, accurate and careful endoscopic skills are necessary to prevent pancreatitis due to the occlusion of the Santorini’s duct after this procedure. We have experienced 135 cases treated via minor papilla in these 27 years, so we would like to report about its safety and efficacy.

Research Article

Blockade of the distal sciatic nerve with the patient in the supine position using a newly developed position aid with integrated ultrasound probe holder

Jens Magunia, Hans-Bernd Hopf and Michael Schutz*

Background: We have developed a femoral supporting pad with an integrated ultrasound probe holder and examined its practical usability on patients with lower limb surgery. 

Objectives: To evaluate the function of this novel femoral supporting pad with respect to its practicability during the performance of a distal sciatic nerve blockade, the time needed to perform this blockade including the catheter insertion and the quality of postoperative analgesia within the first 24 hours.

Methods: 50 patients which had been scheduled for elective lower leg, ankle or foot surgery had received a continuous blockade of the distal sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve blockade was performed sonographically controlled with the patients in supine position by using our novel femoral supporting pad with an integrated ultrasound probe holder. Primary endpoint: duration of the intervention. Secondary endpoints: pain intensity (visual analogue scale VAS 0-10) at the first postoperative day; cumulative opioid (piritramide) requirement during their stay on the post Anaesthesia care unit (PACU) with vs. without distal sciatic nerve blockade.

Results: 49/50 patients received a distal sciatic catheter, which had been sonographically placed within a mean time (mean ± sd) of 11:30 ± 3:13 minutes. VAS at the first postoperative day was (mean ± sd) 1 ± 2 at rest and 2 ± 2 as maximum. The piritramide requirement during PACU stay (mean ± sd) was 11 ± 8 mg without vs. 3 ± 6 mg with distal sciatic nerve blockade (p< 0.05).

Conclusion: Continuous distal sciatic nerve blockade using a novel femoral supporting pad with an integrated ultrasound probe holder was feasible in 49 of 50 patients within 11 minutes and 30 seconds.

Research Article

The value of routine ultrasound at discharge to identify patients at risk of developing symptomatic lymphoceles after kidney transplantation: A case-cohort study

Maja Joosten, Paul P Poyck, Frank C d’Ancona and Wilbert A van der Meijden*

Introduction: Ultrasound examination is frequently used to evaluate the graft after renal transplantation and to detect possible lymphoceles. The first ultrasound scan in our hospital is normally performed on the day of discharge. We questioned whether perirenal fluid collections detected by ultrasound examination at discharge are predictive for future symptomatic lymphoceles.

Methods: All ultrasound reports of all renal transplant recipients treated in our hospital between January 2010 and December 2017 were collected and screened for abnormalities such as fluid collections. Patients that developed a symptomatic lymphocele were compared with a control group from the same cohort. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination to detect symptomatic lymphoceles were calculated for the primary and consecutive ultrasounds tests.

Results: There were no significant differences at baseline characteristics between the Symptomatic lymphocele group and control group, with the exception of mean age at kidney transplantation (47 ± 17 years in the control group vs. 56 ± 13 years in the symptomatic lymphocele group, p=0.02).

The ultrasound examination at discharge had a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 87% to detect future symptomatic lymphoceles. The positive predictive value was only 10%. The second ultrasound test had the best test variables to detect symptomatic lymphoceles with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87% and a predictive value of 28%.

Conclusion: Routinely use of ultrasound testing on the day of discharge does detect perirenal fluid collections, but is not predictive for development of symptomatic lymphoceles in the future.

Research Article

Effectiveness of dexamethasone and hyaluronidase + valerate of bethasone associated with prepucial massage in the treatment of child phimosis

Anna Karoline da Rocha and Karine Furtado Meyer*

Introduction: The phimosis condition is characterized by the inability to retract the foreskin on the glans, making it impossible to expose them. Surgical treatment, although effective, has been questioned by the risk to which the patient is exposed. Therefore, we have opted for the use of topical corticosteroids to resolve this pathology.

Goals: To compare the effectiveness of Dexamethasone and Hyaluronidase + Betamethasone Valerate associated with preputial massage in the treatment of infantile phimosis, the degree of regression of phimosis, the time needed to achieve complete efficacy, possible adverse reactions, long-term outcome and parental adherence to treatment in children attending a specialized service in Blumenau, Santa Catarina.

Materials and methods: Controlled clinical trial, quantitative, non-blind, prospective and randomized sample analysis through the analysis of 523 patients.

Results: After 1 month of treatment, 435 patients presented some degree of regression and 63 children were referred to surgery. The success rate in this period was 45.8% in boys who were taking Hyaluronidase + Betamethasone Valerate and 49.8% in those who used Dexamethasone. In the late evaluation, 398 children reached grade 0, and 213 used Hyaluronidase + Betamethasone Valerate and 185, Dexamethasone; 39 patients were referred to the postectomy. Adherence to treatment was similar in both groups. The average time for degree 0 to be reached similar in both.

Conclusion: Both topical corticosteroids were effective in the resolution of phimosis. However, in the evaluation after the first month and in the regression, Dexamethasone proved to be more effective. The time to resolution of the condition was similar for both. The surgical procedure was taken when there was no clinical improvement. No adverse effects were reported in both groups.

Case Report

Mimicking multiple sclerosis - Ghost tumor that comes and goes in different parts of the brain without any treatment

Long Ching*, Ming Him Yuen, Tak Lap Poon, Fung Ching Cheung, Shun Hin Ting and Wing Chi Fong

Lesions that spontaneously come and go in central nervous system without any treatment at different time points and at different locations (CNS) usually lead ones to think of the possibilities of multiple sclerosis. However, sometimes there are exceptions. Surgical biopsy remains an important tool for defi nitive diagnosis in difficult cases. We report a case of intracranial diffuse large B cell lymphoma that spontaneously disappeared without any treatment and then reappeared at different time points and different locations.

Research Article

Diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission

Shapovalova LA, Shapovalov КA

Introduction: The problem of protecting and strengthening the mental health of the population is the most important task of ensuring the socio-economic well-being of the Komi Republic (RK) as an integral part of the Russian Federation (RF), since it is a key resource for the development of a subarctic region.

The aim of the work: was to characterize diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission at the 1State Autonomous Health Agency of the Republic of Komi “Consultative and Diagnostic Center of the Republic of Komi” (SAHA RK “CDC”) of the subarctic territory.

Materials and methods: The analysis of a continuous sample of 6255 patients of the psychiatrist of the consultative department in 2015-2017 was carried out. on the basis of medical records. Analysis methods included: analytical and statistical. The control group consisted of a continuous sample of 5,356 psychiatric patients in 2010–2012. The depth of the study was 8 years.

Discussion: Trends in changes in demographic indicators, including gender and age, in the structure of patients of a psychiatrist in an outpatient consultative procedure are considered. Indicators of the identified pathology of the mental sphere, including the first identified and pathology in patients suffering from epilepsy in comparison with the control group are given. Attention is paid to the organizational and methodological work of an outpatient counseling psychiatrist on the targeted identification by internists of signs of mental pathology in patients referred to a diagnostic center with somatic diseases. Priorities for the improvement of specialized advisory (including psychiatric) assistance to the population of the RK and ensuring its quality were identified.


1. The psychiatrist of the advisory department in 2015-2017. 6255 people were accepted (889 more than in the control group of 2010-2012). The increase was 16.78%. Primary patients account for 64.38% of the total number of people who applied to a psychiatrist (4027 people)

2. In the structure of the psychiatric pathology of the outpatient psychiatric appointment, the proportion of organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00-F09) is 47.9±0.6%; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-F49) - 39.6±0.6%; mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances (F10-F19) - 3.5±0.2%; mood disorders (affective disorders) (F30-F39) - 2.8±0.2%.

3. The most frequently detected pathologies in patients with epilepsy are: 1) Mild cognitive impairment; 2) Personality disorders; 3) Organic emotionally labile (asthenic) disorders. Their share annually accounts for 71.5%-75.8% of all types of nosological forms. The fourth and fifth ranking places are taken by: 4) Organic anxiety disorders; 5) Non-psychotic depressive disorders. Rarely diagnoses are established: “Organic Amnesia Syndrome” and “Dementia”.

4. Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders prevail in the structure of newly discovered mental disorders; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (up to 87.7%). Mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances and mood disorders (affective disorders) do not exceed 8.4%.

1. The psychiatrist of the advisory department in 2015-2017. 6255 people were accepted (889 more than in the control group of 2010-2012). The increase was 16.78%. Primary patients account for 64.38% of the total number of people who applied to a psychiatrist (4027 people).
2. In the structure of the psychiatric pathology of the outpatient psychiatric appointment, the proportion of organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00-F09) is 47.9±0.6%; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-F49) - 39.6±0.6%; mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances (F10-F19) - 3.5±0.2%; mood disorders (affective disorders) (F30-F39) - 2.8±0.2%.

Research Article

Micropollutants in wastewater irrigation systems: Impacts and perspectives

Jimena Lazaro Gil*

Climate change and the increasing global population pose a severe threat to the availability of freshwater in the world. Over consumption of water and deteriorating water quality are problems that should be addressed in order to ensure water availability for the coming decades. In this context, the increasing presence of micropollutants in water has shown to cause detrimental impact on water quality, given the negative disturbances that they can cause on human health and on the environment. Thus, it is important to study and quantify the presence of micropollutants in water bodies and also in regenerated wastewater based irrigation systems.

Case Report

Benzine as fire source in operation room

Domingos Dias Cicarelli*, Fernando Chuluck Silva, Carolina Martins Ricardo, Ana Carolina Makinoo Antunes, Murilo Alexandre Carmona and Maria Jose Carvalho Carmona

Provide a safety anesthesia to patient is only possible with the knowledge of material surrounding the operation room. Benzine is highly flammable substance and can produce several injures without the necessary care. This case describes a small fire caused by the presence of benzine in the surgical field concomitant with the use of electrocautery, which caused slight burns to the patient, but which could have been catastrophic, and proposes the use of protocols to prevent such accidents.

Review Article

Let us start an epidemic by giving away kindness

Yvonne Russer and Kuruvilla George*

‘Patients were left in soiled sheets or sitting on commodes for hours. Some patients needing pain relief got it late or not at all.’ These were a sample of the findings in the Francis Report which revealed severe failings in patient care in the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust in the UK. Recommendations in the Francis Report included the need to recruit compassionate staff and having compassion training for clinicians [1].Whether telling a young man that he has cancer or comforting an elderly woman who is feeling anxious, the health professional needs to be skilled in understanding what the other person is going through and respond appropriately.. The crisis of compassion in medicine is multifaceted in origin and some factors identified in the Francis Report were compassion fatigue, overwork, excess demand, lack of continuity and the failure to see the patient as a fellow human being [1]. Unfortunately modern medical practice prioritises technical progress, evidence-based medicine, meeting targets set by bureaucrats and efficiency at the expense of the ‘soul of medicine and medical practice’. Meeting key performance indicators (KPIs) has become the priority rather than the patient. Couple of other factors include increasing commercialisation of healthcare and the overemphasis of the biomedical model in medicine.

Mini Review

Circulating platelet-derived vesicle in atrial fi brillation

Alexander E Berezin* and Alexander A Berezin

Platelet vesiculation is common factor contributing in coagulation and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Platelet-derived vesicles are involved in the coagulation, thromboembolism, microvascular inflammation, arterial stiffness, vascular calcification, atherosclerotic plaque shaping and rupture, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac remodelling, and kidney dysfunction. Recent clinical studies have revealed elevated concentrations of platelet-derived vesicles in peripheral blood of patients with current AF and history of AF. The aim of the mini review is to discuss the role of platelet-derived micro vesicles as predictive biomarker in AF. Serial measures of circulating levels of platelet-derived vesicules are discussed to be useful in stratification of AF patients at risk of thromboembolic complications, but there is limiting evidence regarding their predictive value that requires further investigations in large clinical trials.


Varicella zoster virus: The potentially useful virus

Al-Anazi KA* and Al-Jasser AM

Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a double-stranded DNA virus, is a highly contagious human neurotropic virus that belongs to the alpha group of herpes viruses [1-4]. Primary VZV infection (chickenpox) occurs in childhood then the virus becomes latent in the nerve ganglia [1,5-7]. Reactivation of the virus may occur decades later and cause herpes zoster (HZ) which is manifested by a typical painful skin eruption that has characteristic dermatomal distribution [1,5]. Reactivation of VZV is usually predisposed to: old age; comorbid medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive airway disease, and end-stage renal disease; and immunosuppression due to malignancy, autoimmune disorders, immunosuppressive therapies, trauma, cytotoxic chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and solid organ transplantation (SOT) [1,5-7].

VZV infections can cause not only transient pancytopenia but also aplastic anemia that may require allogeneic HSCT [8-12]. Additionally, VZV infections have been reported to be associated with increased risk of developing lymphoid malignancies and solid tumors [13-17]. On the contrary, there is growing evidence showing certain beneficial effects of the virus in immunocompromised individuals and these effects may be translated into prolongation of overall survival (OS) [18,19]. In a single center, case-controlled, retrospective study that included 16 episodes of VZV infections occurring in 14 patients with various types of hematologic malignancies (HMs) and bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes, Al-Anazi KA et al., reported an increase in white blood cell count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, and platelet count starting approximately 6 weeks following VZV infections and this stimulation of the 3 hematopoietic cell lines in the BM that followed VZV infections was maintained for periods longer than 3 years following the infection [18]. In another single center retrospective study that included a large number of patients with multiple myeloma subjected to high-dose melphalan followed by autologous HSCT after control of their primary disease, Kamber C et al., reported that approximately one third of these patients developed VZV infections either before or after HSCT [19]. Despite encountering VZV infections in patients with worse expected prognosis, the OS in patients who developed VZV infection was superior to that in patients who never developed the infection [19]. Recently, Al-Anazi KA et al., reported BM biopsy-proven reversal of pure red cell aplasia manifested by a gradual increase in Hb level starting 6 weeks following a localized HZ infection till the Hb level plateaued above 14g/dL fourteen months following the viral infection [4]. Additionally, several studies have demonstrated that VZV infection may trigger chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic HSCT [20-22]. GVHD is associated with graft versus cancer effects and, provided GVHD is of low-grade, it can be associated with improvement in OS in patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma [23-25].

Research Article

A forensic treatment-monitoring study of an adult with attentiondefi cit disorder with hyperactivity and substance use disorder

Niels Peter Nielsen and Elisabeth H Wiig*

Background: The patient in this study experienced a childhood marked by conflicts within the family, physical abuse, frequent changes of school settings, truancy, and unspecified learning disabilities. After leaving school at age 17, she was chronically depressed, had anger attacks, lacked motivation, refused psychological assistance, and had problems finding work. At age 30, this culminated in an aggravated assault of a female in an urban public space, after which she was referred to the criminal courts. She was granted probation and hospitalized for psychiatric evaluation with follow-up, outpatient psychiatric treatment.

Aim: To present outcomes of longitudinal monitoring of methylphenidate effects on cognition and self-regulation during treatment of attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity and substance use.

Methods: During more than a year of treatment, psychiatric interviews and norm-referenced assessments of processing-speed and cognitive overhead monitored changes in cognition and substance use.

Results: At baseline, processing-speed measures of reactive and active attention were within the average-normal range, whereas cognitive overhead/shift cost was in the atypically high range, suggestive of ADHD symptomatology. The patient engaged in daily excessive use of cannabis, amphetamines, and other illegal substances. At the end of treatment, cognitive speed was increased and cognitive overhead normalized. With reductions in ADHD symptomatology, the patient used small amounts of cannabis during weekends and showed improved self-regulation, and legal restrictions were discontinued.

Research Article

Maternal mortality and factors affecting it, among pregnant women in Abeokuta South, Nigeria

Tumilara Busayo Amoo* and Oyinkansola Sarah Ajayi

This observational study assessed the knowledge of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at two selected hospitals in Abeokuta South, Nigeria on the causes and risk factors of maternal mortality, identified barriers to knowledge acquisition, and examined the influence of parity of respondents on their knowledge of factors causing maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria, it is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Descriptive research design was used in this study and qualitative data from 136 respondents selected randomly, were obtained through a self-designed questionnaire that comprised three sections. Data were analyzed and indicated that parity of the pregnant women do not have an influence on their knowledge of factors responsible for maternal mortality. Findings revealed that majority (67.6%) of the respondents had high knowledge on the causes of maternal mortality – haemorrhage, sepsis, prolonged/obstructed labour, anaemia, unsafe abortion, infection, hypertensive disorders, care rendered by unskilled medical practitioners and its risk factors - parity, poverty, place of last delivery and low attendance at antenatal clinic. Educational background, marital status, irregular antenatal visits, socio-cultural practices and occupational status were identified as barriers to knowledge acquisition. This paper concluded that pregnant women may have a high knowledge about the factors responsible for maternal mortality. This is probably due to the fact that all respondents had formal education and because they were interviewed on antenatal clinic days, which suggests that they might have heard about the causes and risk factors for maternal mortality during their visits. Authors recommended that government should employ qualified health professionals and provide medical subsidy, it is hoped that this will ensure that pregnant women get quality care throughout the period of pregnancy and delivery.

Case Report

Mesenteric cysts: A rare case

Maryam Asgharnia*, Tayebeh Rahbar and Seyedeh Fatemeh Dalil Heirati

Mesenteric cysts are rare benign intra-abdominal tumors with an incidence of 1 case per 250,000 hospital admission. This lesion occurs most frequently in women in the reproductive period.The etiology of such cysts remains unknown but several theories regarding their development exist. Most of these lesions present with vague abdominal pain and nausea. Less commonly they will present with bowel obstruction due to external compression. The diagnosis of these tumors is by abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography. We report a case of Mesenteric cyst in 51-year-old female patient.

Research Article

Focused Antenatal Care in urban Ghana: A qualitative study into physical accessibility of maternal health services in Kwabre East Municipality

Akowuah Jones Asafo* and Kwarteng Bernard Owusu

Background: Accessibility to healthcare is a major component of primary health care campaign for maintaining population health. Owing to this, the government of Ghana has instituted the free maternal care and focused antenatal care policies into the maternal health care policies to woefully control maternal mortality, morbidity and to ensure improved access, quality and continuous ANC use among pregnant women. Despite these interventions, pregnant women in the Kwabre East Municipality do not fully use ANC services as recommended by the World Health Organization.

Methods: Using an in-depth interview and two focus groups conducted with women of reproductive age (15-49) in the Kwabre East Municipality. The study investigated women’s opinions, perceptions and experiences on their ANC visits.

Results: The study revealed that physical accessibility and the social context of pregnant women continue to influence their ANC use even after the introduction of the free maternal care and focused antenatal care policies.

Conclusion: The study suggests that in order to fully utilize ANC visits as recommended by the WHO in the Kwabre East Municipality, the Municipal Health Directorate should liaise with collaborating stakeholders if not eliminating to limit the influence of restrictive factors to women’s quest of using ANC. It is further recommended that management do away with hindrances that delay women who seek for ANC services in health facilities and adopt strategies and procedures that aim at increasing ANC uptake.

Research Article

Determinants of women’s perceived satisfaction on Antenatal care in urban Ghana: A cross-sectional study

Akowuah Jones Asafo* and Danquah Benedicta Adoma

Despite evidence on major interventions on the uptake and scale up of interventions meant to promote maternal health care services, little is known about adequate use of such program in urban Ghana among reproductive aged women. This study examined the determinants of women’s Satisfaction on antenatal care use in selected health facilities in the Kwabre East Municipality of Ghana. Using facility-based cross-sectional survey design, a three-stage sampling technique was conducted to sample 220 women attending postnatal care at selected public health facilities. Open-ended questionnaires were used to obtain data from respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including binary logit regression model were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS and STATA software. Logit analytical framework was computed to determine equations of variance. The association between antenatal care use and women’s satisfaction was determined and assessed using Pearson’s χ2 (2) test indicating 1% was run. Most women (92.7%) had at least four ANC visits during their entire pregnancy. The results indicate standard deviation of 7 with 81% regular ANC visits and 19% irregular. Most women (55%) received care by one caregiver, followed by women (35%) who received care by two caregivers and women (10%) who were cared for by three caregivers. The regression results showed varying utilization levels of 10%, 5% & 1% ANC satisfaction. System induced factors aimed at promoting maternal care use satisfaction are suggested. 


Thirteen steps for offi ce hysteroscopy with minimal discomfort

Ricardo Bassil Lasmar* and Bernardo Portugal Lasmar

The Office hysteroscopy (OH) is a important procedure to make diagnosis and sometimes, treatment, of intrauterine pathology, without getting the patient to Operating Room. Its advantages are very well known: less costs, fast diagnosis, see and treat and several others. It's mainly difficulty is the discomfort during the procedure. To stimule to grow the number of gynecologist to leave OR and to go to office hysteroscopy, we propose thirteen steps for office hysteroscopy with minimal discomfort.

Rapid Communication

Utilization of post abortal contraceptive use and associated factors among women who came for abortion service at Debre Berhan Hospital, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia March 2019: Institution based cross sectional study

Abebe Muche*, Bekalu Bewket, Eferem Ayalew and Endale Demeke

Background: Post abortion family planning (PAFP) is the initiation and use of family planning methods immediately after, and within 48 hours of an abortion, before fertility returns. In most women fertility returns on average about two weeks after an abortion; however, ovulation can occur as early as 11 days post-abortion.

Objective: To assess utilization of post abortal contraceptive use and associated factors among women who came for abortion service at Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia March 2019.

Methodology: Institutional based cross sectional study design was conducted using hospital data obtained from Gynecology ward in Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, from March 1 -10, 2019. A systematic random sampling technique was used from the abortion register log book. Data was cleaned manually, coded and entered into Epi-data version 3.1 then exported to and analyzed by SPSS version 21 software. Multivariate analysis with AOR, 95% CI and p-value< 0.05 were used to identify variables which have significant association.

Result: The finding of the current study showed that among 371 study subjects 170(45.8%) utilized post abortal family planning. There was a significant association between utility of post abortal family planning and post abortion family planning counseling [AOR: 19.245, 95% CI: (10.199, 36.313), p-value= 0.001] and women who were primiparous had 5 times more likely to utilize post abortal family planning as compared to the women who were nullyparous [AOR: 5.314, 95%CI (1.089, 24.210), p value=0.001].

Conclusion and Recommendation: From a total of 371 study subjects 45.8% have utilize contraceptive after abortion service received. This study also showed that parity and counseling’s of family planning were statistically significant associated with utilization of post abortal family planning. We recommend Debre Berhan hospital to scale up activities on post abortal care to increase the number of clients who post abortal family planning.

Research Article

Non-chemical control of Armillaria mellea infection of Prunus persica

Jim Downer* and Ben Faber

Peaches, Prunus persica were planted as grafted saplings in an avocado orchard previously infested with Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P.Kumm. Trees were planted in large or small holes with or without fresh yardwaste chips added as an amendment and with or without a Trichoderma biocontrol product sprayed into the hole. Trees were monitored for six years -- growth and mortality was tabulated.Six years later 40% of the trees had died from the disease. Trees planted in a large hole were more likely to survive than in a smaller hole (P=0.07) and trees in large holes with fresh organic matter added were the most likely to survive (P=0.04). Trichoderma sprays in the planting hole did not increase survival rates. While growth was initially retarded by adding fresh yardwaste to the hole, in later years none of the treatments affected growth rates.

Case Report

Glomus Tumor of the Scrotum: A Case Report

Stephen Legg*

Glomus tumors are rare, usually benign, lesions that arise most often in the
extremities. They are derived from the glomus body and have a propensity to be found in the fingers and toes, and often in the subungual area [1]. They typically demonstrate pinprick sensitivity, cold hypersensitivity and paroxysmal pain [2]. Only two glomus tumors of the scrotum have been reported and we report a third case of this rare tumor.

Research Article

Insilico investigation of TNFSF10 signaling cascade in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma

Asima Tayyeb* and Zafar Abbas Shah

The ovarian serous Cystadenocarcinoma shared large number of deaths in gynecologic carcinoma. It has various numbers of molecular events from initiation to progression and at advance stage, surgery is the end product of such molecular signaling. We assess in this study the whole mechanistic view of TNFSF10 network which has the ideal apoptotic causing identity. We used fresh insilico strategy to uncover the secrets and inter-links from its protein-protein interaction complex. We retrieved the TNFSF10 signaling network from STRING database (www.string-db.org). The network contains 25 nodes and 152 edges with clustering presentation. After retrieval, we performed gene enrichment and characterization analysis of network from WebGestalt toolkit (www.webgestalt.com). Finally, we examined the participation of whole network in ovarian cancer progression from cBioPortal, a cancer genomic data portal (www.cbioportal.org). Our results showed that majority of cases have loss of function of death receptors (DR4 and DR5) that are the main unit of initiation of apoptotic signaling. Most of downstream signaling members showed amplification that regulates cell proliferative pathways including NFkB pathway. TNFSF10 cluster has loss of function and in future it gain attention for further research studies to discover its interactome level view for valuable therapy. FAS cluster has large number of members and majority showed amplification rendering them as co-targets for combinational drug designing.

Review Article

Cardiomyopathies - The special entity of myocarditis and infl ammatory cardiomyopathy

Felicitas Escher*, Uwe Kuhl, Dirk Lassner and Heinz-Peter Schultheiss

Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease with structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease, and congenital heart disease. However, it has become clear that diverse etiologies and clinical manifestations (e.g. arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D), ARVD/C, left-ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC)) are responsible for the clinical picture of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Research Article

C-reactive protein is associated with ventricular repolarization dispersion among patients with metabolic syndrome

Ylber Jani*, Atila Rexhepi, Bekim Pocesta, Ahmet Kamberi, Fatmir Ferati, Sotiraq Xhunga, Artur Serani, Dali Lala, Agim Zeqiri and Arben Mirto

Background: An increasing body of evidence indicates that inflammatory activation profoundly impacts the electrophysiological properties of cardiomyocytes. A marker of systemic inflammation such as C-reactive
protein(CRP), is associated with all parameters of the Mtabolic syndrome(MetS) and that may result in adverse cardiac events via multiple effects, ultimately resulting in a prolongation of Action Potential duration (APD), and thereby of the QTC (QT corrected) interval on ECG.

Objective: We sought to investigate the influence of CRP levels on the prevalence of prolonged QT-dispersion and prolonged Tpeak-Tend –dispersion in the patients with MetS.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter observational cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 200 patients with MetS, stratified in two groups:103 participants (50 females and 53 males) with level of CRP>3mg/l, and 97 participants (47 females and 50 males) with level of CRP<3mg/l), who attended outpatient visits at general cardiology Health Care Clinics during 1 calendar year. For the analysis of the ECG, we performed a manual measurement of the values using a digital caliper with measuring range of 0-150 mm, 0.01 mm resolution, and 0-100 ± 0.02 mm accuracy. QT interval dispersion was obtained by the difference between the maximum and the minimum QT intervals found in the 12-lead electrocardiogram. The Tpeak-Tend interval was obtained from the difference between QT interval and QTpeak interval.

Results: Prolonged QTC. dispersion, was found in 51.4% of participants with level of CRP>3mg/l and in 32.9% of with level of CRP<3mg/l, the differences were statistically significant. (p=0.004). The results showed that 51.4% participants with level of CRP>3mg/l had a prolonged Tpeak-Tend interval, and 32.9% of participants with level of CRP<3mg/l had prolonged Tpeak-Tend interval. Difference were statistically significant.( p=0.04). There were significant association of increased levels of CRP and QTC-dispersion (OR = 2.486, 95% CI 1.389-4.446).There were significant association of increased levels of CRP with Tpeak-Tend Dispersion (OR=2.239,95%CI 1.262-3.976). Prolonged QTC max. Interval OR=2.236,%CI 1.246-4.014),Prolonged Tp-Te-interval. (OR=2.367, 95%CI 1.327-4.222), also there were significant association of increased levels of CRP with BMI. (OR=1.154, 95%CI 1.095-1.227) and significant association of increased levels of CRP with presence of uncontrolled glicemia.(OR=1.779, 95%CI 1.014-3.12).

Conclusion: We think we proved the hypothesis that patients with MetS and high level of CRP have higher prevalence of QT- dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion than patients with MetS and lower level of CRP. These findings have both epidemiological and clinical relevance, also these findings might lend further insight into potential mechanisms by which MetS is associated with adverse cardiac events.

Case Report

Acute viral myocarditis due to Influenza H3N2 infection resembling an acute coronary syndrome: A case report

Carlos Jesus Rodriguez-Zuñiga, Leonel Martínez-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto Guizar-Sanchez, Mauricio Quetzal Trejo-Mondragon and Nilda Espinola-Zavaleta*

A 16-year-old man with history of two weeks-flu like symptoms with intermittent fever. He came to the emergency department with 2 hours-chest pain that radiates to the back and upper extremities. At the admission he was hemodynamically stable with normal blood pressure The ECG showed sinus rhythm and ST segment elevation of 0.5 mV in all leads (Figure 1A).The cardiac enzymes were elevated (Troponin 12.19 ng/mLland creatine kinase-MB fraction 63.25 U/L). He was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and later transferred to our medical unit to continue with study protocol. The transthoracic echocardiogram (Figure 1B) reported normal left ventricular systolic function with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 68%, global longitudinal strain -18%, TAPSE 30 mm, and normal systolic pulmonary artery pressure (30 mmHg).

Research Article

Bone marrow histology in CALR mutated thrombocythemia and myelofi brosis: results from two cross sectional studies in 70 newly diagnosed JAK2/MPL wild type thrombocythemia patients

Jan Jacques Michiels, Yonggoo Kim, Myungshin Kim, Francisca Valster, Vincent Potters, Zwi Berneman, Alain Gadisseur, Wilfried Schroyens and Hendrik De Raeve

The clinical phenotypes in 268 JAK2V617F mutated MPN patients in the Seoul study were PV in 101, ET in 95 and MF in 78 and 56 CALR mutated MPN consisted of PV in none, ET in 40 and MF in 16 cases. CALR mutated MPN patients were younger than JAK2V617F mutated MPN patients (mean ages 57.5 and 66 years), had lower values for values for leukocytes (8.6 vs 11.9x109/L) and higher values for platelets (898 vs 643x109/L respectively). Bone marrow histopathology in 268 JAK2V617F mutated MPN patients in the Seoul study was featured by an increased erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis (EM) in 13.5%, an increased erythropoiesis, megakaryopoiesis and granulopoiesis (EMG) in 31.3%, a normocellular megakaryocytic (M) proliferation in 29,1%, a megakaryocytic and granulocytic (MG) proliferation with a relative reduction of erythropoiesis in post-ET and Post-PV myelofibrosis in 26.2%. The bone marrow histology in 56 cases of CALR mutated MPN show a predominantly increased megakaryopoiesis (M) in two thirds and an increased megakaryopoiesis and granulopoiesis (MG) with a decreased erythropoiesis in one third. 

Thirteen consecutive CALR MPN patients in the Belgian & Dutch cross sectional study presented with thrombocythemia associated with a typical PMGM bone marrow histology in 11 and myelofibrosis in 2 cases. All 11 thrombocythemia and 2 myelofibrosis CALR mutated MPN patients did not have constitutional symptoms and did not suffer from microvascular erythromelalgic disturbances, major thrombosis at platelet counts between 400 and 1000x109/L. There was an occurrence of hemorrhages at platelet counts above 1000x109/L in two CALR thrombocythemia cases.

Bone marrow histology of CALR mutated thrombocythemia in the Seoul and Belgian/Dutch study showed loose clusters of large megakaryocytes (M) with bulky, cloud-like nuclei with a normal or a minor reduction of erythropoiesis and no increase in reticulin fibers grade 0 or 1 (RF 0 or 1). CALR thrombocythemia patients show various degrees of increased bone marrow cellularity due to dual megakaryocytic and granulocytic (MG) proliferation featured by large megakaryocytes with roundish bulky nuclear forms and cloud-like clumsy nuclei, which are almost never seen in JAK2V617F ET and PV. Assessment of allele burden is an independent and most important factor for all molecular variants MPN disease burden. Overt myelofibrosis with advanced post PV and or ET myelofibrosis at the bone marrow level occurred in one third (30%) of 208 evaluable JAK2 MPN patients and in 8 (14%) of 56 CALR MPN patients in the Seoul study.

Review Article

Altitude sickness and Antarctic polar plateau: A review

KP Mishra* and Shashi Bala Singh

Antarctica is known for its extreme environmental conditions. It is the best model to study multiple stress factors at a time on human physiological responses. Although the coastal Antarctica is on Sea level but the Antarctic plateau or pole at high altitude. Since Antarctica is also becoming tourist site it is pertinent to have a proper understanding of altitude induced illnesses. In this review we have described the human acclimatization process at high altitude of Antarctic polar plateu and South Pole. The review also highlighted the symptoms, clinical features and prevention of altitude induced diseases.

Research Article

Alternate day outpatient hemodialysis schedule is the appropriate practical alternative schedule to improve patients’ outcomes

Nasrulla Abutaleb*

The rise in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization rates among the hemodialysis (HD) patients after the long weekly inter-dialysis interval is very impressive. In fact, there is an additional long-term morbidity risk besides this acute rise in mortality and hospitalizations that can be expected from the weakly exaggerated pre-dialysis peaks of the less risky hemodynamic and biochemical parameters. An approach for eliminating these long weekend inter-dialysis intervals is through the provision of the hemodialysis sessions on every other day (EOD) basis, regardless of the week days. This is likely to be both practical and cost-effective. Such EOD schedule can be introduced easily beside the ongoing thrice weekly HD schedule without disturbance of the HD unit work. The availability of EOD schedule would provide a healthier and cost-effective alternative schedule for those patients who can’t tolerate the weekend intervals and for those looking for maintaining their long-term health on the option of hemodialysis. In fact, with available data, medical staff is expected to encourage all patients to shift their HD to the EOD schedule.

Research Article

Causes of hospital admission of chronic kidney disease patient in a tertiary kidney care hospital

Salman Imtiaz*, Ruqaya Qureshi, Amna Hamid, Beena Salman, Murtaza F Drohlia and Aasim Ahmad

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at the risk of increase hospital admission as compared to the general population, due to various reasons. They have increased vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as infections, therefore they usually got admit in health care units due to various reasons. The causes of hospitalization in CKD patients in this part of the world are not studied well.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in The Kidney Centre Post Graduate Training Institute (TKC-PGTI) of Karachi. Variables included in the study were age, gender, are of residence, ethnicity, smoking status and level of education. Comorbid conditions like causes of CKD and causes of hospitalization. Data analysis performed by using software IBM SPSS 21.

Results: Total of 269 patients were enrolled in our study. The male 148(55%), mean age was 55 years. The most common cause of hospitalization in our population was infection148 (55%) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common site of infection 55 (20%) followed by sepsis of unknown origin 29(10.8%). Cardiovascular events like volume overload 32 (11.4%) and acute coronary syndrome 20(7.4%) were the second most important cause of hospitalization.

Conclusion: Hospitalization of CKD patients is high, and in our population infection is found to be the leading cause of hospital admission. Infection originating from urinary tract is more common in all stages of CKD patients, while blood born infection originating from double lumen (DL) dialysis catheter or arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation is more common in dialysis population. Cardiovascular events, both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary edema due to volume overload followed the infections.

Review Article

Possible links between consumption of A1 “like” milk And Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)

Mohammad Raies Ul Haq*, Asima H, Aarif B

During the last three decades, there has been an interesting debate on the intake of A1 ‘like” milk and incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically predisposed individuals. The epidemiological, ecological and case-control studies have concrete pieces of evidences in favor of the hypothesis that is further supported by animal trials in mice and rat and in vitro trials on cell lines. But on the other hand, European Food Safety Authority reported that there isn’t sufficient data to draw a final recommendation at this stage in terms of contradictory results, lack of cause-effect relationship and being a mere suggestive evidence [1]. However, the report itself states that these studies are strong enough to formulate a concrete hypothesis and further research is needed to confirm the same. Keeping in view the published data in favor of the hypothesis and the counter-arguments, it is suggested that further research with well-designed animal and in vitro trials with intact proteins and peptides is needed to fully confirm the hypothesis. Until the issue is fully resolved, it’s the personal choice of the individuals at risk to T1D (genetically predisposed) to either remove A1 “like” or increase the A2 “like” milk from their diet.

Short Communication

Nanotherapeutic agent for cancer: Miracle or catastrophe

Archna Dhasmana*

Nanotechnology is a smart technology in the field of biomedical engineering used for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nanodrugs provide better encapsulation of drug and efficiency at low dosage to kill the targeted tissue/cells. However, the chances of chronic toxicity and high cost of treatment limits its applicability [1]. To overcome these problems still, the experts of the scientific community have been working on it, to design the best one and cost-effective treatment for the human welfare.

Review Article

Connected Health Apps and Devices: Implications for Healthcare Delivery

Helen Figge* and Joseph C Kvedar

Healthcare is realizing the importance of health information technology - its applications and devices in play today. Advancing healthcare best practices will rely on up to date data and analysis to provide the most effective forms of therapy. Healthcare is becoming more reliant on patients who are engaging in their own healthcare. With this we are seeing an increase in available health related apps for these devices. This summary reviews various connected health strategies using proven apps and devices to improving the quality of care, promoting patient engagement, and improving outcomes. Here we discuss several trends and the healthcare delivery implications.

Review Article

Utilizing Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy (Diapulse®) for Drug- Free Pain Management to Eliminate Reliance on Opioids for Non-Malignant Chronic Pain: A literature Review and Proposal for Pilot Study

Thomas A Sharon

The Federal and State governments have d