Research Article

Gynaecological malignancies after breast cancer diagnosis: A population-based study

Maria Pilar Barretina-Ginesta, Jaume Galceran*, Helena Pla, Cristina Meléndez, Anna Carbo Bague, Alberto Ameijide, Maria Carulla, Jordi Barretina, Angel Izquierdo and Rafael Marcos-Gragera

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies. BC survivors have higher risk of second primary cancers than the general population. There is an increased interest in BC survivor management, including the prevention of these second cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of gynaecological malignancy (GM) as second neoplasm among BC patients in our population.
Methods: Patients with invasive BC diagnosed from 1980 to 2014 included in the Girona Cancer Registry were included. The incidence of second GM in these patients was compared to those in the general population. Second primary cancer was stated as a tumour diagnosed after 2 months from the BC diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess of risk (AER) were calculated.
Results: 9,717 patients were diagnosed with invasive BC during this period, with a median age at diagnosis of 61 years, and a median follow-up of 7.9 years. 117 of them developed a second GM. By tumour type, the only statistically significant higher SIR was observed for corpus uteri cancer (SIR:2.28 95% CI 1.82-2.83; AER:6.43 95% CI 4.13-9.14). After reviewing the histology of the CUC cases, we found that 71.4% were type I (endometrioid adenocarcinoma), 15.5% type II (serous adenocarcinomas and clear cell carcinomas), 10.7% carcinosarcomas, 2.4% sarcomas and there were no unspecified malignant neoplasms.
Conclusion: BC survivors have an increased risk of corpus uteri cancer, with an increase in unfavourable histologies compared to the general population. Lifelong primary and secondary prevention interventions should be recommended for these patients.

Research Article

Renal function effects of FDS, a saponin isolated from Filicium decipiens seeds: Biochemical and Histopathological studies

Romero MP Brandao-Costa*, Juanize Matias S Batistaa, Thiago Pajeu Nascimento and Ana LF Porto

Physicochemical and pharmacological studies indicated that Filicium decipiens seeds contained various specialized metabolites, including saponins. The aim of this work is to reveal the nephrotoxicity of FDS, a saponin isolated from Filicium decipiens seeds on male Wistar rats histopathological and biochemical parameters. Rats were submitted to oral ingestion of FDS (6.0 mg/kg) and crude extract (120.0 mg/kg) and were observed high levels of urea and creatinine in blood analyses of all animals followed by an acute renal failure by glomerular retraction. In the present study, FDS and crude extract when administered in Wistar rats induced an increase of serum levels of Urea and Creatinine, biochemical markers of kidney function. Table 1 shows Urea concentration at Test group with FDS (54.3 ± 1.80 mg/ml) and Test group with crude extract (49.7 ± 2.00 mg/ml), were 47% and 34.7% higher, respectively, when compared to control group (36.9 ± 2.00 mg/ml), and Creatinine at the test group with FDS (2.1 ± 0.03 mg/ml) and test group with crude extract (1.6 ± 0.09 mg/ml) presented a value 3.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively, than control (0.6 ± 0.08 mg/ml). Based on these results, our data demonstrate a significant effect in renal function of rats treated with F. decipiens saponin.

Case Report

Stercoral perforation: A rare case and review

Lava Krishna Kannappa*, Muhammad Sufian Khalid, May Hnin Lwin Ko, Mohsin Hussein, Jia Hui Choong, Ameer Omar Rawal-Pangarkar, Danaradja Armugam and Yahya Salama

We present a 54-year-old male with abdominal pain, Vomiting and weight loss since 5 months. Perforation was noted at recto-sigmoid junction and underwent Hartman’s procedure with end colostomy. Histology of sigmoid colon confirmed a Stercoral perforation without any evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. Patient had chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of epiglottis a year ago and was on codeine phosphate and Oromorph as and when required since his treatment for SCC for pain. Patient also had been suffering from constipation since he finished chemotherapy. Stercoral perforation always need to kept in mind in patients who present with constipation and need to take all patients who present with chronic constipation and initiate measures we encounter commonly in everyday practice. We present a brief review about Stercoral perforation and its management.

Research Article

Evaluation of the predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc Score for no-reflow phenomenon in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Mahmoud Shawky Abd El-Moneum*

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the predictive clinical value of CHA2DS2-VASc score for no-reflow phenomena in patients having ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who applied to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Subjects and Methods: Three-hundred STEMI patients underwent primary PCI. They were classified into: group (1) included 27 patients with no-reflow and group (2) included 273 patients without no-reflow (control). CHA2DS2-VASc risk score was computed for each patient.

Results: This study found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in multivariate analysis of the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and no-reflow phenomenon. The predictive power of individual components in CHA2DS2-VASc score for no-reflow was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). So, significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc score is connected with higher risk of no-reflow and in-hospital mortality rate.

Conclusion: Significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc score is associated with higher risk of no- reflow phenomenon and in-hospital mortality rates in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI.

Research Article

Age Estimation Reports: Where do we stand?

Sakher Al Qahtani*

Age estimations process is not standardized worldwide. However, there is a wide agreement about the most suitable methods currently available. Up until now, the procedure of creating expert reports and to implement quality assurance in age estimation are variable.

Aim: The aim of this paper was to examine expert age estimation reports from around the world and identify the similarities and shortcomings present, which will help in providing recommendations to improve the reporting to reach standardization in expert age estimation reports.

Methods and Material: A questionnaire was developed to explore whether there is a universal consensus in writing age estimation reports. Countries participated in the survey were: Afghanistan, Australia, France, Indonesia, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Areas investigated by the survey included: Information about the individual in question and the entity requesting the assessment, if age interval is given along with if statistics were described in the report, if population reference data are used and reported and finally if the format of the report is standardized within each country.

Results: The results of this survey suggest that there is a high degree of individual variation in age estimation reports, sometimes even within the same country. While the majority of participants report the main findings, some important information is still missing. The statistical information remains extremely varied.

Conclusion: Although a resolution is not obvious, it is hoped that this study will promote further research and discussion on reporting age estimation. International guidelines on quality assurance in age estimation reports are urgently needed. Information to be reported should be specified on an international level and the exact report format to be used could be left to the national societies.

Research Article

Compliance of hypertensive patients with antihypertensive drug therapy at the Renaissance Hospital of N’Djamena, Chad

Adam Ahamat Ali*, Guillaume Mahamat Abderraman*, Zeinabou Maiga Moussa Tondi and Hissein Ali Mahamat

Introduction: High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. In hypertension, non-compliance is frequent. The objective of this work is to evaluate the therapeutic observances and to identify the predictive factors of poor compliances in Chadian hypertensive patients.

Patients and Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional study over a six-month period from January 15 to July 15, 2019. This was performed in the outpatient Cardiology and Nephrology units at the Renaissance Hospital of N’Djamena. We included all follow-up patients who had hypertension who consulted during the study period. However, dialysis patients and children were excluded from this study. The parameters studied were demographic characteristics, economic and therapeutic data and the rate of therapeutic compliance.

Results: Eighty-seven patients were included. The average age was 50 years old. The sex ratio was 2.5. Sixty-seven percent (n = 58) of the patients were from urban areas. The predominant cardiovascular risk factors were smoking in 25% (n = 22) and diabetes in 23% (n = 20). Hypertension was uncontrolled in 76% (n = 66) patients. Adherence was poor in 66% (n = 57) of patients. The monthly cost of treatment was respectively 10,000 and 20,000 FCFA in 52% (n = 45) of cases. Combination therapy was observed in 70% of cases (n = 61) and 56% (n = 49) of patients had more than one drug intake. The adherence rate was 93% (n = 28) in the urban population (p < 0.001). All patients (n = 30) who were observing their treatment were educated (p < 0.001). The adherence rate was 20% (n = 6) in patients who had a monthly income less than 100,000 FCFA (p = 0.004). The adherence rate was 60% (n = 18) when the monthly cost was less than FCFA 10,000 (p = 0.003). The adherence rate was 77% (n = 23) in patients receiving monotherapy (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study showed a low level of adherence in Chadian hypertensive patients. The complexity and cost of antihypertensive therapy, poor knowledge of hypertension, and ignorance of its severity have been the main factors of poor compliance.


We may need to reconsider when to apply sunscreen in our daily life

Win L Chiou*

Broad-spectrum sunscreens are now widely used worldwide as an adjunct to help prevent sunburn, skin cancers and premature skin aging. In the United States, all persons older than 6 months are recommended to apply sunscreen to all sun-exposed skin from toes to head except eyes and mouth even on cloudy days. Such a recommendation is apparently based on concepts that exposure to sunlight damages the skin, the damage is cumulative and hence any sun exposure should be minimized or prevented. This communication raises several questions suggesting that the above recommendation may need to be reconsidered. For example, numerous previous studies have indicated many potential health benefits from non-burning sun exposure including protection against sunburn, melanoma, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer, increasing vitamin D synthesis, helping sleep, reducing blood pressure, heart attack and stroke. Recent studies suggested that regular lifetime non-burning sun exposure may not result in premature skin aging and the skin aging is mainly caused by the intrinsic factor. Skin aging or whole-body aging has been recently postulated to be mainly attributed to a gradual reduction in cardiac output/index with age and a new anti-aging or age-reversing nutritional theory has been proposed. An apparent lack of long-term cumulative sunray damage was also supported by reported age independence in incidences of sunburn and skin cancers. It is of interest that the current US policy is different from that of World Health Organization and Australia recommending the need of sun protection only when UV Index is 3 or greater. In view of the above, some general guidelines regarding when to best apply sunscreen are proposed.

Case Report

Intestinal malrotation presenting with midgut volvulus in an adult

Marta Alberich Prats*, Ricard Frago Montanuy and Sebastiano Biondo Aglio

A 36-year-old man without previous medical history presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and vomiting of acute onset. His vital signs were stable and he had no fever. Abdominal exploration revealed distention with pain at palpation. Laboratory tests were normal. Abdominal X-Ray showed gastric and small intestine distention.A nasogastric tube was placed and fluid therapy started. Computed tomography showed an intestinal malrotation, without the duodenum crossing the midline and with the colic frame arranged in the left hemiabdomen (Figure 1), complicated with a midgut volvulus as demonstrated by the whirlpool sign (Figure 2, arrow). Ladd’s procedure was performed using a midline open approach. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy and chylous ascites was found (Figure 3). The volvulus was reduced by counter-clockwise detorsion without need of intestinal resection and Ladd’s bands division along with an extended Kocher manoeuvre (Figure 4) allowed a good position of the mesentery. Appendectomy was also conducted. Postoperative course was uneventful with the patient being discharged the fifth day, after resumption of bowel function. No alterations were detected at follow up one month later.

Case Report

Anterior Abdominal Wall Abscess: An unusual presentation of Carcinoma of the Colon

Keerthana Panchagnula, Poojitha Yalla, Badareesh Lakshminarayana*, Kshama Hegde and Ramesh Singaraddi

Background: Colorectal cancer progresses without any symptoms early on, or those clinical symptoms are very discrete and so are undetected for long periods of time. The case reported is an unusual presentation of colorectal cancer.

Case Report: A 60 year old man presented with right sided abdominal swelling. On examination, a well-defined, firm, tender swelling was noted. Computed tomography confirmed the presence of a mass arising from the right colon with infiltration of the right lateral abdominal wall and adjacent collection. An exploratory laparotomy with drainage of the subcutaneous abscess, resection of ascending colon, and ileotransverse colon anastomosis was performed.

Conclusion: A differential diagnosis of carcinoma colon should be considered when an elderly patient presents with abdominal wall abscess accompanied by altered bowel habits or per rectal bleeding, even if there are no other significant clinical symptoms and a thorough investigative work up is required to confirm the diagnosis, to avoid untimely delay in treatment, and reduce mortality.

Research Article

Nebulization as complementary therapy for dogs with respiratory tract infections

Stopyra Artur*, Sobiech Przemyslaw, Pomianowski Andrzej, Zarczynska Katarzyna and Edyta Kaczorek

Respiratory tract infections in dogs pose a significant problem and often require prolonged treatment. The effectiveness of pharmacological therapy can be improved through the administration of nebulized compounds to liquidize mucus and promote its evacuation from the respiratory tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nebulized 0.9% NaCl in dogs with respiratory tract infections. Respiratory functions were assessed based on the results of arterial blood gas analyses, and the patients’ clinical status was determined by evaluating the severity of symptoms on a point grading scale. Inhalation of nebulized 0.9% NaCl significantly accelerated improvement in the patents’ clinical status (normalization of body temperature, decreased cough frequency, decrease/elimination of nasal and ocular discharge, improved appetite) and improved pulmonary gas exchange by reducing partial pressure and total content of carbon dioxide and increasing partial pressure and total content of oxygen in blood.

Research Article

Impact of Pacemaker Implantation on 12-Month Resource Utilization Following TAVR Hospitalization

Steven D Culler*, Aaron D Kugelmass, David J Cohen, Matthew R Reynolds, Phillip P Brown, April W Simon and Marc R Katz

Purpose: This study reports resource utilization during a Medicare Beneficiary’s (MBs) Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) index hospitalization and all subsequent encounters for 12 months and compares data between MBs who did or did not receive a pacemaker implantation (PPM) during their index hospitalization.

Method: This retrospective study examined Medicare hospital claims from January 1, 2014 through June 30, 2015. 15,533 MBs who survived for 365 days were studied. Information from all encounters during the study period was combined to compare hospital resource utilization and outcomes.

Results: 14.8% of MBs had a PPM during the index hospitalization. 46.0% of MBs had at least one readmission to a hospital during the 365-day follow-up period. 54.6% of MB’s first hospital readmission occurred within 90 days of their TAVR discharge date. Average total Medicare reimbursement for all hospitalizations was $60,638 ± $28,974 associated with average total hospital length of stay of 11.2 ± 11.7 days. After adjusting for demographics and 47 comorbid conditions, MBs receiving a PPM during the index TAVR had significantly higher estimated Medicare reimbursement ($5,132) and longer total length of stay (1.8 days) for the entire study period than MBs not receiving a PPM.

Conclusion: Total Medicare reimbursement and hospital LOS were significantly higher among MBs that had a PPM implantation during their index admission; however, there were no significant differences in readmission rates, readmission length of stay, or days to first readmission during the follow-up period between the two study cohorts.

Research Article

The effect of anemia on serum hepcidin levels in patients with heart failure

Betul Borku Uysal*, Feray Akbas, Esma Altunoglu, Gulhan Ipek Denız, Duygu Uysal, Harun Uysal, Hanife Usta Atmaca, Yasin Yuksel, Hale Aral, Guven Cetın, Cem Ar M and Fusun Erdenen

Background: Anemia is an accelerating problem among patients with heart failure (HF) and its presence is associated with more symptoms. In this study, we investigated whether anemia in heart failure was related to hepcidin concentration.

Methods: 50 patients with heart failure and 20 healthy subjects with no history of a chronic illness including heart failure as control group, were included in the study. Heart failure was verified by echocardiography in each subject and patients were defined as ones with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) if EF ≤ 40% and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) if EF 40% - 50%. Blood samples were taken from all patients after 10-12 hours fasting. Anemia assessment was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criterias.

Results: There was a positive correlation between hepcidin concentration and urea, ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrite, C-reactive protein (p < 0,05). Hepcidin concentrations of anemic heart failure patients were significantly lower than the non-anemic heart failure patients (p < 0,05).

Conclusion: We found that serum hepcidin concentration in anemic patients with heart failure was lower than in heart failure patients without anemia. We believe that iron defiency occurs as a result of inflammatory process in heart failure and therefore hepcidin concentrations decrease as a response. However, long-term follow up studies are needed.

Research Article

Synthesis of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2@Ag core-shell nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced upconversion luminescence in bio-applications

Grigory Arzumanyan*, Dmitriy Linnik*, Kahramon Mamatkulov, Maria Vorobyeva, Anastasia Korsun, Valentina Glasunova and Anka Jevremovic

The present report highlights our results on synthesis of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2@Ag core–shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) for plasmon-enhanced upconversion luminescence (UCL). Hydrophilic surface UCL nanoparticles (UCLNPs) as cores were obtained by precipitation of Rare Earth Elements (REE) chlorides from water-alcohol solutions. The formation of a hydrophobic surface of α-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs was achieved by thermolysis method at 280 °C and β-NaYF4:Yb,Er by precipitation method in nonpolar medium at 320 °C. Silica shell was formed by the modified Stöber method on the surfaces of UCLNPs with different polarity and phase composition. A mixture of hexane-cyclohexane-isopropyl alcohol was used as a medium for the formation of mononuclear CSNPs on hydrophobic surfaces of cores with different thicknesses of the silica shell: 5 nm and 14 nm. Formation of a predetermined thickness of silica shell was carried out by introducing a precise quantity of TEOS taking into account the size of core NPs with molar ratio TEOS: H2O equal to 1:6. The morphology and phase composition of cores and CSNPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction, respectively. The insertion of Ag NPs into the structure of NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 was carried out in parallel at the stage of shell formation, which made this synthesis a one-step process. The control of the size of Ag NPs was implemented through the use of a colloidal solution of NPs of the cluster structure by changing the polarity of the medium. The highest intensity enhancement of 85-fold with 5 nm and 29-fold with 14 nm shell thickness was recorded, respectively. For the first time, tests on bioimaging of neutrophil cells by those CSNPs are demonstrated.

Research Article

Tamsulosin and Dementia in old age: Is there any relationship?

Rebecca Renata Lapenda do Monte, Karina de Andrade Vidal Costa, Arnaldo Santiago Nunes Junior, Amalia Cinthia Meneses Rego and Irami Araujo-Filho*

Tamsulosin is used to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), prescribed annually to about 12.6 million patients worldwide. It is an alpha-adrenergic antagonist that reduces the tone of the prostate smooth muscle involved in the pathophysiology of BPH. By acting on alpha 1A receptors, predominant in the prostate, tamsulosin also acts on receptors present in the brain. This study consisted of a literature review aimed at disseminating scientific knowledge about the relationship between the use of tamsulosin and the onset of dementia. PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, Embase, and Web of Science studies involving dementia in patients using tamsulosin in the last five years were selected. The review showed a risk correlation and a higher incidence of dementia in treated patients. The risk ratio, when compared to other medicines, approached 1.20. In conclusion, it was identified the need for clinical trials with higher sampling power to increase relational significance due to the high prevalence of BPH and the extensive use of tamsulosin in elderly patients with the disease.

Case Report

Fatal agranulocytosis associated with Metamizole treatment in a 16-year-old girl

Packo Dieu-le-veut Saint-Cyr Sylvestre*, Nanho Danho Clotaire, N’dhatz Comoe Emeraude, Boidy Kouakou, Camengo Police Serge Magloire, Diakite Mamady, Mbelesso Pascal and Koffi Kouassi Gustave

Agranulocytosis is one of the common reasons of consultation in hematology. It’s life-threatening because of an infection risk. The metamizole is a drug, known for its potential rare danger of inducing a severe agranulocytosis. However, it remains widely used because of its beneficial effect analgesic and antipyretic. We report in this study, a case of a girl who was 16 years old, referred for severe agranulocytosis, and appeared two weeks after treatment with Novalgin. The clinico-biological symptoms were dominated by Streptococcal septicemia with an infectious pulmonary and digestive focus. The blood cell count confirmed a severe agranulocytosis with total disappearance of neutrophils. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and stimulation with hematopoietic growth factor, the clinical evolution was fatal in the short term. What motivates us to add this case to those of the literature in order to remind practitioners about the danger of this drug, and to promote has doubled of vigilance during use.

Review Article

Three modern serological methods to detect plant viruses

Mahmoud Hamdy Abd El-Aziz*

The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of plant viruses is well documented. It proved to be a very valuable detection tools for the plant viruses. The efficiency of the ELISA technique was for practical purpose independent of the ratio of antibodies to antigen. This avoids the necessity of making specific enzyme conjugates for each antigen to be tested and eliminates the extreme specificity, thus allowing for quantitative evaluation of strain relationships. The advantages of indirect ELISA are sample. It needs only to be macerated and added to the plate. The crude antiserum could be used, although it should be cross absorbed before to prevent spurious host reaction. Single commercially available second antibody conjugate is utilized, thus eliminating the problems of preparing and storing many different conjugated antisera. Blotting technique has become widely used for specific identification of nucleic acid and proteins. This dot assay was modified to detect protein by spotting the antigen on a nitrocellulose membrane and incubating the membrane in test antibody followed by incubation in peroxidase-conjugated second antibody to the first antibody, and by development in 4-chloro-1-naphthol. The above procedure termed dot blot immunobinding assay (DBIA). The technique of tissue blotting on nitrocellulose membrane was described for detection of plant viruses in infected plants. Tissue blots were made by pressing with a firm and gentile force, the freshly cut tissue surface on nitrocellulose membranes. The possibility of using both sides of the nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) by tissue blot immuno assay (TBIA) for the detection plant viruses. In an effort to reduce the cost of virus assays, different types of regular paper were evaluated as possible replacements for the commonly used nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) as the solid phase in the tissue-blot immunoassay (TBIA) were  used. Comparisons between different serological methods were demonstrated by many investigators Dot immunobinding was eight times more sensitive for detection of PVX and four times more sensitive for detection of PVS and PVY than DAS-ELISA.

Research Article

Comprehensive phenotypic characterization and genetic distinction of distinct goosegrass (Eleusine indica L. Gaertn.) ecotypes

Robert A Kerr*, Tatyana Zhebentyayeva, Christopher Saski and Lambert B McCarty

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L. Gaertn.) is a troublesome weed in turfgrass systems throughout the world. The development of herbicide resistant ecotypes has occurred to multiple modes of action. Goosegrass is a prolific seed producer (~50,000 per plant), fast growing and diverse weed. Such growing attributes make it essential to have a better understanding of the genetic diversity of various ecotypes. The objectives of this study were to determine if morphologically distinct goosegrass ecotypes collected in Florida were phenotypically distinct and genetically different. Phenotypically, the goosegrass ecotypes can be classified as follows; dwarf, intermediate 1 (int_I), intermediate 2 (int_II) and wild. The dwarf had the least seedheads followed by the wild ecotype; 5 and 17 respectively, while int_I and int_II had highest number of seedheads; 22 and 34 respectively. The dwarf ecotype had lowest height of 6 cm and the wild ecotype had highest height of 36 cm. Dwarf and int_II ecotypes had shortest internode length of 0.2 cm and 1 cm, respectively, while the wild ecotype had longest internode length of 7 cm. The dwarf ecotype had lowest number of racemes per plant of 1, while the wild ecotype had highest number of racemes per plant of 7. Total biomass was lowest for the dwarf and int_II ecotype; 0.7 g and 1.5 g, respectively, and total biomass was highest for the wild ecotype at 5 g. Gene sequencing of two rice (Oryza) gene sequences (accession AP014964 (gene A) and AP014965 (gene B)) and subsequent phylogenetic analysis suggest the ecotypes are genetically different. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of interest were discovered indicating allelic differences between ecotypes.

Research Article

Serological and molecular characterization of two seed born cowpea mosaic Comovirus isolates affecting cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L.) in northern Egypt

Mahmoud Hamdy Abd El-Aziz* and Hosny Aly Younes

Cowpea plants naturally infected with cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) showed different mosaic, mottle, dwarfing, and vain clearing symptoms. Diseased plants were ollected from certain locations of Alexandria and El-Beheira governorates during the growing seasons from 2011 to 2012. CPMV was detected in infected sap at 8 to 24 days after inoculation by DBIA, indirect ELISA and tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA). Chlorotic local lesions were observed on Chenopodium amaranticolor in infectivity test. By using indirect ELISA and DBIA, CPMV were detected in infected plant sap of serial dilutions up to 1: 400. The incidence of CPMV in 21 day old cowpea seedlings grown from infected seeds was determined by ELISA and positive detection of virus antigen reached 65%. Nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA and DBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. Results revealed that both faces of nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. According to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of CPMV infected plant; the amplified product was approximately 800bp of partial coat protein gene. The nucleotide sequences accession number were LN606585 and LN606586. The phylogenetic tree was generated using sequences of CPMV isolates with the other CPMV records from GenBank.


The rising role of natural killer cells in patients with malignant hematological disorders and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Khalid Ahmed Al-Anazi*

Natural killer (NK) cells, the third population of lymphoid cells, comprise 5%-25% of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes and represent the first line of defense against infections and tumors [1-7]. They can be derived from: bone marrow, PB, cryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and various cell lines such as NK-92 and KHYG-1 [1].

Research Article

Plaque morphology in diabetic vs. non diabetic patients assessed by Multi-Slice Computed Tomography coronary angiography

Hesham Mohamed Aboul-Enein, Amr Elsayed El Naggar, Shereen Ibrahim Farag, Waleed Atef Ahmed Hassan*

Background and Objectives: Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) provides high accuracy for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). The introduction of the latest computed tomography technology allows comprehensive evaluation of various aspects of CAD, including the coronary calcium score, coronary artery stenosis, bypass patency, and myocardial function. This study aimed to assess the effect of DM on coronary arteries evaluated by MSCT-CA Comparing Plaque Morphology in Diabetic patients with Non-Diabetic Whoever Controlled or not assessed by HbA1c.
Methods: In this study we randomly assigned 150 adult patients were diagnosed with suspected coronary artery disease underwent MSCT-CA for evaluation their coronaries regarding luminal stenosis, Plaque analysis, Remodeling index, SSS, SIS and Ca score.
Results: There was statistically significant difference between diabetics & non-diabetic groups in LM lesions with (P = 0.029). also, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex, diabetics were shown a trend toward more mixed plaque with statistically significant {(OR): 3.422, 95% CI 1.66-7.023, P = 0.001}; whereas, after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, patients with diabetes also shown a trend toward more mixed plaque with statistically significant (OR: 3.456, 95% CI 1.668-7.160, P = 0.001). It means significant differences in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, with a higher proportion of mixed plaques, a more vulnerable form of atherosclerotic plaque in diabetics (P < 0.001) otherwise No significant difference.
Conclusion: MSCT angiography may be useful for the identification of CAD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. There were statistically significant differences in coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and composition, with a higher proportion of mixed plaques, between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Furthermore, MSCT may give accurate information about plaque characteristics according to different coronary risk factors, thereby identifying high risk features warranting a more intensive anti-atherosclerotic treatment.

Case Report

Scintigraphic non-invasive diagnosis of amyloid cardiomyopathy

Laroussi Mohamed-Salem*, Tomas E Rodríguez-Locarno, Tatiana Moreno-Monsalve, Isabel Castellon-Sanchez, Jose F Contreras-Gutierrez and Antonia Claver-Valderas

Amyloidosis encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble abnormal amyloid aggregates, due to a failure in protein quality control. Cardiac amyloidosis is a disorder in which proteins misfold and deposit as amyloid fibrils that infiltrate the myocardial extracellular space [1].

Transthyretin (ATTR) and light chain (AL) are the most frequent types of cardiac amyloidosis. Transthyretin is a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, it may be hereditary or acquired from either wild-type (ATTRwt) or mutant (ATTRm) amyloid [2]. Cardiomyopathy is a common manifestation of ATTR amyloidosis with a particularly poor life expectancy of 2 to 6 years after diagnosis [3]. Although considered rare, the prevalence of this serious disease is likely underestimated because symptoms can be non-specific, and diagnosis largely relies on amyloid detection in tissue biopsies.