Case Report

A Rare case of synchronous primary malignancies of gall bladder and ovary

Ridhi Narang*, T Das, M Dagar, M Srivastava, S Bhalla and I Ganguli

A malignant tumor has the capacity to grow rapidly and to metastasize to the other parts of the body. Ovary has been a common organ for secondaries caused by hematological spread of the tumor and exhibits the same histopathology as that of the primary tumor.


A flow perfusion bioreactor with controlled mechanical stimulation: Application in cartilage tissue engineering and beyond

Arshan Nazempour and Bernard J Van Wie*

To repair articular cartilage (AC) defects in osteoarthritic patients, one approach is to engineer threedimensional grafts with physicochemical properties similar to endogenous AC. Such grafts can be grown in bioreactors that provide environmental conditions favoring chondrogenesis.Studies show mechanical stimulation during the culturing process greatly enhances development of functional engineered grafts. A review of literature on bioreactor options reveals a lack of capacity to simultaneously stimulate cells with a combination of shear stress and oscillating hydrostatic pressure, both of which are important parts of the in vivo AC environment. It is hypothesized that combining both forces in a new bioreactor design will contribute to better AC tissue growth. In this paper, we provide a brief review of bioreactors and describe a new computer-controlled perfusion and pressurized bioreactor system, and the novelty of its control programming features for service in a host of applications. We briefly summarize results on synergistic effects in employing perfusion, oscillating hydrostatic pressure in a scaffold free environment and with the addition of encapsulation for inducing chondrogenesis. We further describe efforts to modify the newly developed system to include a continuous flow and pressurized centrifugal mode to enhance further the capabilities for inclusion of very high shear stresses. Applications for several other cell and tissue engineering approaches are discussed.

Review Article

Discrepancy in Microglia and Peripheral Monocytic Cells - A scope in the Pathophysiology of Psychiatric maladies

Jes Paul*

Broad medleys of research have recognized the microglial activation in perilous psychiatric maladies such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. There is a scenario of enlivening of peripheral monocytic cells along with the microglial interactions within the body
while considering the Pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders.this review, epitomize and discuss the activation of microglia and monocytic cells in psychiatric disorders, thereby showcasing the potential association between these cell types and the Pathogenisis of the ailment , and proffer perspectives for future research on these processes.

Research Article

Preparation, solid state characterization and evaluation of ketoprofenglucosamine HCl solid dispersions

Abdul Wahab, Gul Majid Khan*, Mohsen Sharifi, Ahmad Khan, Amjad Khan and Naqab Khan

In this investigation, solid dispersions were prepared and characterized to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug Ketoprofen, using glucosamine HCl as a carrier. For the improvement of the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs different techniques are used such as solubilization, salt formation, particle size reduction and solid dispersion etc, but in the present study, solid dispersions (SDs) of poorly water soluble NSAID Ketoprofen were prepared to improve its solubility and dissolution rate, using solvent evaporation method with drug-carrier ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Our results indicate that all solid dispersions of Ketoprofen and Glucosamine HCl exhibited more enhancements in solubility and dissolution rates than corresponding physical mixtures. The DSC thermograms and X-ray diffraction patterns showed a slight reduction in crystallinity in solid dispersions which were further verified by FT-IR and SEM. It is concluded that solid dispersion is an effective technique for enhancing the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug Ketoprofen using Glucosamine HCl as a carrier. This amino sugar (Glucosamine HCl) could be used as a novel potential carrier for preparation and formulation of SDs and would have potential commercial benefits.

Case Report

Low vision due to persistent Cloquet’s canal

Ayse Gul Kocak Altintas* and Cagri Ilhan

The Cloquet’s canal (CC) is the remnant of the primary vitreous and it disappears in the intrauterine developmental period of an eye. Rarely it can persist in mature eyes and cause low visual acuity. We detected a persistent CC and low visual acuity in a 36 year-old patient. Fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography examinations were completely normal in our case and low visual acuity was directly associated with opacification of the fibrovascular persistent CC tissue. Persistent CC can cause low visual acuity due to directly media opacity effect of fibrovascular tissue without any complication.

Review Article

Use of Geosynthetic materials in solid waste landfi ll design: A review of geosynthetic related stability issues

Lin Zhao and MA Karim*

Geosynthetics used in landfills provides a technical and economic advantages over traditional clay liners. It may create stability issue and even lead to landfill failure due to its low interface or internal shear strength if improperly designed and/or constructed. The most common failure mechanism in geosynthetic-lined landfills is transitional failure involving waste and bottom liner (deep-seated failure) or only final cover system (shallow failure). Shear strengths of geosynthetic-geosynthetic and geosynthetic-soil have a wide range of variations. Shear strengths of interface from literature may be used in preliminary design. For final design, site-specific interface shear strengths shall be used. Internal shear strengths of unreinforced geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) are less than those of reinforced GCLs. Unreinforced GCLs are not recommended for slopes steeper than 1:10 (1 Vertical and 10 Horizontal). Peak shear strength of interface and internal GCLs can be used in bottom liner; residual shear strength of interface and internal GCLs shall be used for geosynthetic placed along the slopes. Site-specific shear strengths of waste are recommended to be used in the design. Landfill failure could be triggered by static loadings including excessive leachate, pore pressure above the bottom liners, gas pressure, and excessive wetness of the geomembrane-GCL, and earthquake loading. The factor of safety of 1.5 is recommended for static loading and 1.0 for earthquake loading. A higher factor of safety is recommended if a failure could have a catastrophic effect on human health or the environment, and if large uncertainty exists in input parameters to calculate the factors of safety. The main objective of this review article is to provide a comprehensive knowledge of slope failure mechanisms, causes, and probable remedies in one place.

Letter to the Editor

The Essential Role of Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Prior to bariatric surgery

Reza Ebrahimi, Mohammad Kermansaravi and Abdolreza Pazouki*

We read with interest the case report entitled “Dieulafoy’s Lesion related massive Intraoperative Gastrointestinal Bleeding during Single Anastomosis Gastric Bypass necessitating total Gastrectomy: A Case Repor't published in Archives of Surgery and Clinical Research b Ashraf Imam et al. [1]. We appreciate the authors for managing such a complicated case and for sharing their experience but, we have some conϐlict about the management, and we wanted to add some comments regarding the importance of EGD before bariatric surgery.

Research Article

Pathological Effects of Cypermethrin on the Testes and Accessory Sexual Glands of Yankasa Rams

Ubah Simon*, Ogwu David, Rekwot Peter, Rwuaan Joseph, Chibuogwu Ijeoma and Njoku Celestine

An investigation into the pathological lesions of Cypermethrin on the testes, accessory sexual and pituitary glands of Yankasa rams was carried out. Sixteen Yankasa rams aged 18 - 30 months and weighing between 21.5 - 46.5kg were used. The 16 rams were divided equally into two groups (A and B) A served as the treatment group while B served as the control. Group (A) were given Cypermethrin (3%) at the dose rate of 3mg/kg (0.1ml/kg) body weight, topically. Group (B) rams were given distilled water at the same dose rate and route. These treatments were repeated every two weeks for a period of 12 weeks. The rams were sacrificed at the end of 12 weeks and the following organs (testes, pituitary, vesicular and prostate glands), were collected and weighed, gross pathological lesions were observed and photographs were taken. The samples were kept for histopathology. Results showed that there were no gross pathological lesions found on the testes, pituitary, prostate glands and the seminal vesicles of both groups. The mean weight of the pituitary gland, the prostate glands and the seminal vesicles of the treated and control groups were statistically not significant (P>0.05). No histologic lesions were found on them. The mean testicular weights of the treated (143.81±7.71g) and the control (130.43±0.63g) were significantly different (P<0.05). There was a reduced number of spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of the treated group. It was concluded that Cypermethrin reduced spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules.

Research Article

Exercise preserves pancreatic β-cell mass and function in obese OLETF rats

Jiawei Zhao, Zhihong Yang, Min He, Qinghua Wang and Renming Hu*

Although exercise has been proposed to be beneficial to type 2 diabetes, its effects on β-cell function and mass remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of long-term swimming training on the function and mass of β-cells in diabetic OLETF rats were examined. At 44 weeks of age after developing diabetes, the OLETF rats were divided into two groups: a control group and an exercise group. The exercise group had a daily swimming for 12 weeks. While not found with the control rats, in the obese OLETF rats, the exercise reduced the weight gain which was associated with improved glucose tolerance and elevated circulating insulin levels as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test and insulin ELISA. The exercise improved plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and also significantly increased the islet β-cell mass and pancreatic insulin content associated with decreased β-cell apoptosis and elevated activation of the serine/threonine kinase, Akt. The present studies suggest that exercise improves diabetes symptoms via enhancement of the β-cell mass and function through decreasing glucolipotoxicity and reducing β-cell apoptosis by activating Akt in obese OLETF rats.

Research Article

Detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato and chili seeds and farming area of Sinaloa, Mexico

Ruiz Alvarado Cristina*, Soto Ortiz Roberto, Cervantes Diaz Lourdes, Nunez Ramirez Fidel, Celaya-Michel Hernán and Rueda Puente Edgar O

Phytosanitary inspectors play an important role in diagnosing diseases in foreign plant material. However, some deficiencies have been detected in the detectionc ausing the entrance of many microorganisms.Therefore, it was of great interest to detect the presence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in foreign tomato and chili seed in the agricultural area of Sinaloa, Mexico, besides the growth and cell density of Cmm was evaluated in different selective media under continuous illumination and photoperiod. The results indicate that seeed of 35 varieties of tomatoes was collected; while for Chili seed were 18. This study was supported by farmers (225) which represent 79% of all growers and 32 business engaged in the sale of agro-supplies, provided seeds of varieties and hybrids. Those growers are from six areas (Culiacan, El Tamarindo, Navolato, Culiacan, El dorado and Badiraguato). For detection of Cmm in tomato seed, from 35, only four was variability considering Immunochromatography and ELISA techniques; however, considering chemical and physiological test, the result was negative. Similar results were in 18 varietes of chili seed, where eight showed variability to detect Cmm, and negative by chemical and physiological test. According to the growth and cell density of Cmm, the optimal medium was YDC under pH stable and continuous light conditions. It is recommended to consider the fusion of diagnostic techniques in the emission of a result.

Research Article

Similarity between Some Biological Systems, Organotropism and Metastatic Process: Active Role Played By Secondary Organ?

Luisetto M*, Behzad Nili-Ahmadabadi, Hossein Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Gamal Abdul Hamid, Kausar Rehman Khan, Behrooz Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa and Luca Cabianca

According to literature, about 90% of death from cancer is related to metastasis. Metastatic process present many similarity to some other biological processes. Once we have examined some relevant biomedical literature, by understanding the real causes of metastasis, it would become much more possible to introduce new therapeutic strategies to delay or in some cases even to stop this kind of killer process. Breast cancer, as an example, produces metastasis to different organs, which seems to be related to the subtype. We believe that a deep understanding of the roles of breast cancer cells and their interactions with the liver microenvironment in early breast cancer metastasis could be a crucial factor for the design and development of effective BCLM breast cancer liver metastases therapeutic strategies and to better understand the general process. Let’s suppose the secondary organ or organs can be considered as incubator/s for the primary metastatic cells. What kind of consequences we can have in therapy field if there is an active regulating role in determining the location of secondary cancers?

Let’s observe the role played by liver, bone marrow, CNS central nervous system, lungs, lymphocytes and other secondary locations/organs a little bit closer or maybe from a different angle let’s suppose we try to come up with just a hypothesis. Just let’s take this as a possibility, and we take the thread to see where it takes us.

Research Article

Perceptive and Rehabilitative Muscle Recruitment Facilitation Secondary to the use of a Dynamic and Asymmetric Spine Brace in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS)

Maurizio Falso*, Laura Forti, Silvia Iezzi, Gloria Cottali, Eleonora Cattaneo, Marco Zucchini and Franco Zucchini

Background: Supporting our adolescent people in realizing his/her self ability to reorganize and to establish a cross-linked paraspinal muscle control can be considered the most effective approach for muscle rehabilitation in adolescents affected by “AIS. Aim of this study was to evaluate the SEMG activity of paraspinal erector muscles by using an innovative dynamic and asymmetric spine brace called “BRIXIA” in the conservative treatment of patients affected by adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Methods: Five patients affected by adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were recruited for the aim of this study in line with an informed consent and simple inclusion criteria. Each patient underwent a first task-specific evaluation at time T0 and T1 and a secondary experimental course at time T2, T3 and T4. After a first postural and total spine X-ray evaluation, recruited patients began to use our innovative spine brace called BRIXIA (time T0 and T1). During the second experimental phase, a SEMG bilateral activity of the trunk large rhomboid, the latissimus dorsi and the quadratus lumborum was investigated without spine brace, by using a common Chenêau brace and afterwards the dynamic BRIXIA spine brace, with the acquisition of the so-called RMS SEMG Ratio value. The SEMG measurements were acquired in six study conditions: a. SiRP=Sitting Resting Position; b. SiRCP=Sitting Recruiting Position with a so-called pneumothorax thrust; c. StRP = Standing Resting Position; d. StRCP = Standing Recruiting Position; e. BA = Anterior Trunk Bending; f. BARC = Anterior Trunk Recruiting Bending. At the end of this SEMG evaluation, each patient received (for a daily use around 18 hours per day) the final version of the BRXIA spine brace and began an individualized educational postural rehabilitative treatment course (time T2). At time T3 and T4 a second and third SEMG assessment was made without using a spine brace and by using BRIXIA, with each patient evaluated in a resting condition and realizing a self-made cross-linked postural correction. Finally, a functional, radiographic and postural evaluation were made to define and quantify an amelioration and modification of patients’ postural attitude at the end of a combined rehabilitative and device supported treatment.

Findings: A comparative analysis of our SEMG data acquired in six study conditions showed different trends in all patients recruited proceeding from time T2 to time T5. Particularly, we observed at time T2 an homogeneous grade of paraxial muscle recruitment acquisition, expressed by the RMSsEMG ratio index, without using spine brace (53,3%) and by using Chêneau and BRIXIA brace (46,7%); specifically, a 57,14% of our patients used BRIXIA brace and a 42,86% Chêneau brace; the most homogeneous response was acquired in BA study condition; a symmetric paraxial muscle recruitment acquisition without using spine brace was observed in an 80% of our patients; the most grade of not homogeneous muscle activity response was observed in SiRP and StRCP study conditions; at time T3, an homogeneous grade of symmetric paraxial muscle recruitment activity, expressed by the RMSsEMG ratio index, was observed by using BRIXIA brace (56,7%); all patients recruited (100%) showed in SiRCP study condition the most homogeneous and symmetric paraxial muscle recruitment by using BRIXIA brace; in SiRP and StRCP study condition this trend was observed in an 80% of our patients with a reversion of this trend in StRP and BRAC conditions; at time T4, an immodification of the grade of symmetric paraxial muscle recruitment acquisition, expressed by the RMSsEMG ratio index, was observed in a 56,7% of patients who were using BRIXIA brace; all patients recruited (100%) showed in BARC study condition the most homogeneous and symmetric paraxial muscle recruitment by using BRIXIA brace, while in SiRP condition this trend was observed in an 80% of our patients. In a comparative and time-related analysis between our clinical and RMS data, Cobb angle trend showed a statistical significant correlation with RMS data, acquired at time T4 in BARC condition and without BRIXIA brace, and similarly with RMS data acquired at time T4 with BRIXIA brace. In line with the Visual Postural Analysis trend, our rehabilitative model showed a sensible capacity to modify patient’s individual sense of posturality, to increase the acquisition of cross-linked self-correction strategies and to induce a progressive rebalancing between the anterior and posterior kinetic muscle chains recruitment. These rehabilitative principles were perfectly in line with the perceptive and pro-rehabilitative value of our innovative BRIXIA brace.

Interpretation: This study will underline the professional attitude of all physiotherapists to use in a critical and task-specific way our dynamic and asymmetric spine orthesis called “BRIXIA”. This innovative brace allows to achieve: a. an individualized peripheral neuromodulation of patient’s sense of postural attitude (peripheral perceptive re-modulation of paraxial muscle recruitment); b. a neurorehabilitative re-learning device of postural self-correction strategies (peripheral neurosensitive facilitation of a dynamic process of motor corticalization device-related); c. an increase of patient’s quality of life in term of appearance and relational sense (life-impact device-related).