04/19/2018
Case Report

The Case of the Phantom Trophoblastic Tumor

Benedict B Benigno*

This report provides an insight into a very unusual problem in the First trimester of pregnancy, and describes the unfolding of a series of potential blunders.

We all know that most problems in gynecologic oncology become terribly magnified when the patient is pregnant. HB had a routine ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy, and a large, extremely vascular mass occupying most of the lower anterior abdominal wall, was found (Figure 1). Because she had received methotrexate two years earlier for a persistent elevation of the hCG titer following surgery for an ectopic pregnancy, she was referred to the gynecologic-oncology service with the working diagnosis of metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). An MRI showed a vascular mass in the subcutaneous tissue invading the rectus sheath and muscle, but not attached to the uterus (Figure 2). The report stated, in no uncertain terms, that the mass was strongly indicative of a metastasis from GTD. However, the hCG level was consistent with the estimated gestational age, and a mass such as this would represent an extremely unusual way for this disease to present. She had been told that she would need the have the pregnancy terminated, followed by chemotherapy to reduce the size of the mass prior to its removal.

04/19/2018
Research Article

Pathological Findings on Dental Panoramic Tomograms of Edentulous Patients Seen at a University Hospital

Ouma DO, Cyril Nyalik Ogada* and Mutave RJ

Objective: To describe pathological findings on pre-treatment dental panoramic tomograms of edentulous jaws taken before complete denture treatment.

Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.

Setting: Prosthetic division, Department of Conservative and Prosthetic Dentistry.

School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi.

Results: Data was obtained from clinical records and OPGs of 163 edentulous patients seen at the prosthetic clinic between 2010 and 2016 for complete denture therapy. From history and examination alone, clinicians reported significant findings on 50.3% of records, while 43.6% had no such findings. Ten (10) (6.1%) records were unclear. Examination of OPGs revealed 79.1% of the films had no pathological findings while in 20.9% had. Most of the findings (70.0%) were retained roots, 6% were radio-lucencies, 12% were other radio-opacities, 9% were impacted teeth while 3% had both retained root and radio-opacity. Most pathologies (64%) were located in the posterior region of jaws while the other findings were evenly distributed in the anterior and posterior regions of the jaws. There was no predilection of pathological findings to any other factor other than gender. In 83.4% records, queries on clinical notes coincided with significant findings on OPGs; while 16.6% were either unclear or did not coincide. Most (71%) OPG findings led to modification of treatment plan.

Conclusion: Pathological findings are common on pre-treatment OPGs. It may be good practice to take an OPG for edentulous patients prior to complete denture therapy where such services are available, to prevent complications from intra-bony pathologies. However, Most of the findings are either detectable by clinical exam or may not be of major consequence to the health of patients. Complete denture may be done without OPGs for new and old denture wearers where the service is not available.

 
 
Results: Data was obtained from clinical records and OPGs of 163 edentulous patients seen at the prosthetic clinic between 2010 and 2016 for complete denture therapy. From history and examination alone, clinicians reported significant findings on 50.3% of records, while 43.6% had no such findings. Ten (10) (6.1%) records were unclear. Examination of OPGs revealed 79.1% of the films had no pathological findings while in 20.9% had. Most of the findings (70.0%) were retained roots, 6% were radio-lucencies, 12% were other radio-opacities, 9% were impacted teeth while 3% had both retained root and radio-opacity. Most pathologies (64%) were located in the posterior region of jaws while the other findings were evenly distributed in the anterior and posterior regions of the jaws. There was no predilection of pathological findings to any other factor other than gender. In 83.4% records, queries on clinical notes coincided with significant findings on OPGs; while 16.6% were either unclear or did not coincide. Most (71%) OPG findings led to modification of treatment plan.

 

 
 
 
 
Setting: Prosthetic division, Department of Conservative and Prosthetic Dentistry.
 
School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi.
 
Results: Data was obtained from clinical records and OPGs of 163 edentulous patients seen at the prosthetic clinic between 2010 and 2016 for complete denture therapy. From history and examination alone, clinicians reported significant findings on 50.3% of records, while 43.6% had no such findings. Ten (10) (6.1%) records were unclear. Examination of OPGs revealed 79.1% of the films had no pathological findings while in 20.9% had. Most of the findings (70.0%) were retained roots, 6% were radio-lucencies, 12% were other radio-opacities, 9% were impacted teeth while 3% had both retained root and radio-opacity. Most pathologies (64%) were located in the posterior region of jaws while the other findings were evenly distributed in the anterior and posterior regions of the jaws. There was no predilection of pathological findings to any other factor other than gender. In 83.4% records, queries on clinical notes coincided with significant findings on OPGs; while 16.6% were either unclear or did not coincide. Most (71%) OPG findings led to modification of treatment plan.
 
Conclusion: Pathological findings are common on pre-treatment OPGs. It may be good practice to take an OPG for edentulous patients prior to complete denture therapy where such services are available, to prevent complications from intra-bony pathologies. However, Most of the findings are either detectable by clinical exam or may not be of major consequence to the health of patients. Complete denture may be done without OPGs for new and old denture wearers where the service is not available.

04/20/2018
Mini Review

Spinal muscular atrophy counteracted by Agrin biological NT-1654

Jes Paul*

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic and gravely disease, portrayed by motor neuron (MN) death, thereby leading to progressive and accelerating muscle fragility, respiratory collapse, and, in the most severe cases, it even pave the way to death.At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), abnormally have been reported in SMA, including neurofilament (NF) aggregation at presynaptic terminals, immature and smaller endplates, lowered transmitter release, and, eventually, muscle denervation. In this review the role of Agrin in SMA is studied. This review highlights the antagonizing role of Agrin in SMA.

04/20/2018
Research Article

Stem cells in patients with heart failure experience

Benetti Federico* and Natalia Scialacomo

Between 2003 and 2011, 17 patients with heart failure were treated with stem cells as part of our Foundation’s Regenerative Medicine program. In several centers and countries 4 with ischemic cardiomyopathy of which 3 were surgically implanted with autologous bone marrow stem cells (ABMSC) plus bypass surgery.One patient was treated with hyperbaric medicine plus bypass surgery. Patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy were implanted surgically with 2 different types of stem cells. Ten patients were implanted with stem cells derived from human fetuses (HFDSCs) and three patients with autologous bone marrow stem cells (ABMSC). The ejection fractions of the coronary artery bypass graft off pump OPCAB (control group) versus coronary artery bypass group off pump OPCAB plus stem cell transplantation were as followsin the entire serie: preoperative, 30.7% +/- 2.5% compared to 29.4% +/- 3.6%; 1 month, 36.4% +/- 2.6% versus 42.1% +/- 3.5%; 3 months, 36.5% +/- 3.0% vs. 45.5% +/- 2.2%; And 6 months, 37.2% +/- 3.4% versus 46.1% +/- 1.9% (p <0.001). The first patient performed at our center in Argentina in this series is alive and asymptomatic 15 years after implantation, and the rest of this series we do not have current data. A patient without visible vessels in the anterior wall of the left ventricle was treated with 18 hyperbaric chamber sections from one hour at 1.4 AT. After creating angiogenesis, the patient was operated on receiving 2 grafts (mammary and venous) without extracorporeal circulation in the anterior descending artery and diagonal artery. The preoperative ejection fraction was 33% at 90 months of follow up the ejection fraction was 58%. The patient at 90 months was asymptomatic. Of the idiopathic heart disease group, nine patients underwent median sternotomy, and received human fetal stem cells (HFDSCs from ectopic pregnancy or spontaneous abortion, three patients received autologous bone marrow stem cells ABMSC) and 1HFDSCs for Minimally Invasive Surgery.

Patients with HFDSC, compared to baseline, improved: The mean (±SD) NYHA class decreased from 3.4 ± 0.5 to 1.33 ± 0.5 (P = 0.001); Mean EF increased 31%, from 26.6% ± 4.0% to 34.8% ± 7.2% (p = 0.005); the yield in ETT increased 291.3%, from 4.25 minutes to 16.63 minutes (128.9% in metabolic equivalents, 2.45 to 5.63) (P <0.0001); the mean LVEDD decreased 15%, from 6.85 ± 0.6cm to 5.80 ± 0.58cm (P <0.001); the mean performance on the 6-minute walk test increased 43.2%, from 251 ± 113.1 seconds to 360 ± 0 seconds (P = 0.01); the mean distance increased 64.4%, from 284.4 ± 144.9m to 468.2 ± 89.8m (P = 0.004); and the mean score in the Minnesota congestive HF test decreased from 71 ± 27.3 to 6 ± 5.9 (p <0.001). Kaplan-Maier’s probability of survival at 40 months was 66%. No rejection or cancer was observed at follow-up, in this series follow-up was discontinued at 4 years. In idiopathic patients receiving autologous cells by Mininvasive technique preoperative NYHA was 3.6 (+/- 0.70) 6 months after receiving stem cell therapy. The mean value of the functional class was 1.9 (+/- 0.90) (p <0.005). ) showing marked clinical improvement. The preimplantation ejection fraction was 28% (+/- 3.6%) and at 6 months 44% (+/- 4.7%) (p <0.005). There was a similar change in ventricular diameters: After 6 months LVESV went from 50mm (+/- 3.3) to 42mm (+/- 4.5) (p <0.05). Two of the three patients in this group received re-synchronization therapy; one died at 10 years and 4 months, another at age 11 and another one alive at 12 years of the implant. More experience should be performed with different techniques and cells to find the appropriate treatment in this type of patients.

04/24/2018
Case Report

Meige Trofoedema: A form of primary lymphedema

Carlos Al Sanchez Salguero*

The lymphatic system consists of small non-contractile lymph vessels which collect fluid from the interstitial space and carry it to the major contractile lymphatic vessels with valves that maintain a unidirectional flow to the lymph nodes and is responsible for returning proteins, lipids and water from the interstitium to the venous system near the junction of the subclavian vein and internal jugular vein on both sides. Lymphedema would be the result of the failure of transport with the further accumulation of fluid rich in protein at the interstitium, especially in limbs.

Primary lymphedema, which affects 1.15 / 100000 children (especially pre-pubescent girls), not always clinically evident at birth, is a genetic disorder that represents many different subsets of phenotypes: congenital or congenital lymphangiectasia, congenital trofoedema family or Meige, congenital amniotic band and essence or idiopathic.

The most common form of presentation is due to congenital absence or abnormality of the lymphatic tissue caused by a genetic mutation of the genes responsible for the development of lymphatic vessels that is characterized by the difficulty of draining lymph vessels. This genetic alteration may be sporadic or inherited.

04/25/2018
Research Article

The Immunitary role in chronic prostatitis and growth factors as promoter of BPH

Mauro luisetto*, Behzad Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Ram Kumar Sahu, Farhan Ahmad Khan, Cabianca luca and Heba Nasser

In the actual medical therapy of BPH, we can see: antibiotics, alpha blockers, 5-ARI, fitotherapeutics/natural products (Serenoa repens) with different which display clinical activities and other molecules such as FANS (local or systemic dosage forms) cortisones and others. Relationship between immune systems and chronic prostatitis are strictly involved in BPH progression. A vicious cycle that involve chronic flogosis, tissue remodeling, grow factors, inhibition of apoptosis, and other phenomena. Observing BPH pathogenesis under an immunologic point of view make possible to search new pharmacological strategies, to improve actual therapy. 

The aim of this work is to observe some relevant literature in our opinion related the management of BHP and its progression under a pharmaceutical and immunological point of view. A deep knowledge in the pharmaceutical properties of some molecules (antimicrobials, anti-phlogosis agents, Anti-androgenic agents, alpha blockers, 5-ARI and other treatments, techniques, interventions or instruments) can help the physicians to pick the right choice.

04/24/2018
Review Article

Responding to Disasters More than economic and infrastructure interventions

David Crompton OAM*, Ross Young, Jane Shakespeare-Finch and Beverley Raphael AM

Objectives: Natural disasters confront individuals, communities and governments with the challenge of rebuilding and addressing psychosocial sequelae. With the increasing number of natural disasters it is timely to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and strategies to address the mental health needs of individuals and the community.

Method: An evaluation of literature related to the psychological impact of natural disasters, treatment efficacy and government strategies to confront the social and psychological impact of natural disasters for the period 1983-2016 was undertaken. 

Results: Epidemiological studies following natural disasters despite the use of differing psychological measures demonstrate significant psychological morbidity - anxiety (7-42%), complicated grief (28-41%), depression (6.5-38%), post-traumatic stress disorder (11-89%) and substance misuse (1.3-24%). Intervention studies post-disaster demonstrate efficacy variability.

Conclusions: The increase in the number and impact of meteorological and hydrological events since the 1980s and the psychological, social and economic consequences of these events has resulted in the development and implementation of government policies to confront the immediate and long-term adverse outcomes. The focus is typically on resources and infrastructure redevelopment with less focus on social and mental health interventions with long-term evaluation of interventions uncommon. The consequence of natural disasters emphasizes the importance developing strategies to ensure effective evaluated psychosocial interventions are available across at-risk communities.

04/27/2018
Research Article

Biomechanical analysis of Sit-To- Walk movement in Parkinson’s patients

Moataz M El Semary*, Nawal A Abou Shady, Hayam Mahmoud Sayed and Mohamed El Said Al Awaady

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ankle-knee-hip interaction during sit-to-walk (STW) movement and clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients.

Methods: Twenty male patients, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, stage ΙΙ & ΙΙΙ according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (1997) classification of disabilities and ten male healthy elderly subjects, ages ranged from 55 to 70 years, participated in this study. All subjects were assessed for; clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs, ground reaction force (GRF) & spatiotemporal data and range of motion (ROM) of hip, knee and ankle joints during STW movement.

Results: The results showed very significant differences in the GRF among the normal subjects and Parkinson’s patients during STW movement. There were significant differences in hip, knee and ankle joints ROM during STW. There were significant differences in spatiotemporal findings during STW movement. The Parkinson’s disease patients did not merge the two tasks of STW while the elderly subjects merged it. There was impairment in clinical functional abilities of the lower limbs in Parkinson’s patients.

Conclusion: A continuum of STW performance and clinical functional abilities whereby the healthy elderly people performed the task more efficiently than PD patients.

04/16/2018
Research Article

The short and mid-term effects of Mulligan concept in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain

Konstantinos Zemadanis*

Background: Mechanical chronic neck pain is very common musculoskeletal dysfunction among people, manifesting one or more pain-induced movements and disability impairments. Clinical guidelines suggest passive cervical mobilization and thoracic manipulation as manual therapy interventions.Mulligan concept has positive effect in patients with lumbar and thoracic spine mechanical chronic pain. Study objective was to investigate possible clinical effects of Mulligan techniques in patients with cervical pain according to pain and disability status.

Methods: forty participants diagnosed with mechanical chronic cervical pain, randomly assigned into experimental and control group. NAG, SNAG and self-SNAG joint mobilization in a nine-sessions protocol implemented to the study group, while SHAM-Mulligan techniques applied to control group. Self-reported questionnaires Numeric Pain Rating scale (NPRT) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were used for the measurement of pain and disability levels respectively. Possible Interactions among Factors (TIME X GROUP) and simple effects in three-time measurements of pre, post and one-month follow-up concerning NDI and NPRS variables, were detected with Mixed-ANOVA test.

Results: Baseline scores of pain and disability resulted in no differences between groups. A significant Group and Time factors interaction founded and simple main effects analysis showed that Mulligan concept-group had significant improvement in post-intervention NPRT and NDI scores (p<.001), compared to baseline scores. Follow-up also differed compared to post-treatment score (p<.001). SHAM-Mulligan control group had no significant differences in dependent variables at any level of TIME factor (p>.001). Significant differences were found between groups according to second and third measurement phase (p<.001).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Mulligan concept techniques improve symptoms of pain and disability in chronic mechanical neck pain patients in short and mid-term effect level.

Summary: Mobilization techniques of SNAGs, NAGS and self-SNAGs reduces pain and improve function in patients with mechanical neck pain. Taken into consideration the safety and simplicity of application, future studies are encourage to examine the underline mechanism of action.

 
 

04/04/2018
Research Article

Screening of Gestational diabetes mellitus

Gehan Farid*, Sarah Rabie Ali* and Reem Mohammed Kamal

Gestational diabetes mellitus is becoming a very common medical disorder associated with pregnancy especially so in the Middle East and more so in Saudi Arabia, thus putting the women and fetuses at an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

Screening for Gestational diabetes mellitus was recommended because of its asymptomatic nature and good proportion of patients with no classic risk factors. We recommended universal screening because of the beneficial effect of screening, diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

The most recent study done in Security Forces Hospital showed a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality with application of the new values of screening, in spite of the increase of incidence of Gestational diabetes mellitus from 14.5 % in 2005 study, to 23.9 % in the recent study in 2015.

Objectives: To highlight and determine the best screening method values of FBS and 2hrspp used to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus.

Maternal & neonatal out come and associated risks for patients who had Gestational diabetes mellitus, where scrutinized.

The study was done in the period from June 1st 2013-31 of May 2014.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Tertiary centre (Security Forces hospital _Riyadh_Saudi Arabia).

Patients: Out of 6849 patients who had their delivery in Security Forces Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014 (one year), 6340 patients (92.5 %) were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus, and out of these 1516 patients (23.9 %) were labeled as Gestational diabetes mellitus after exclusion of cases of IDDM and NIDDM.

Main outcome measured: The purpose of this study is to advise on using new values for diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to assess the outcome of pregnancy after new values are implemented in security forces hospital for diagnosis. The outcome included ages of mothers, parities, number of abortions, associated medical disorders, and estimated blood loss. Control methods were also reviewed, gestational age of induction of labor. Associated intrapartum complications as well as fetal outcome were also reviewed. The weight of babies, congenital abnormalities, admission to neonatal intensive care unit were also studied. The different values used , and percentages of diagnosed values of last 3 studies done in Security Forces Hospital in comparison to the most recent study with new values(2014-2015) as shown in table 11.

Results: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus increased from 14.5 % in the year 2003 - 2004 to reach 23.9 % in 2014, in the same institute (Security Forces Hospital), where the study was done using different values. In our study in Security Forces Hospital we recorded a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality on applying the new values.

A significant reduction in the number of expired babies of mothers who were diagnosed as gestational diabetes with new values with a decrease from 5.6 % in previous years studied to reach 1.5 % in 2014, reflecting the effective control and the good catch for the new values.

Conclusion: Universal screening, with whatever values to blood sugar used, is a better method screening than the selective one: Using 75 gram of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test proved to be cost effective, easily accessible, and with good pickup rate of up to 93 % of patients in Security Forces Hospital.

Recommendations: To continue using the new values that will be universally implemented, with long term follow-up of mothers and newborn.

04/05/2018
Mini Review

Significant influence for vitamin K on different metabolic diseases according to positive effect on levels of both vitamin D, and calcium

Walaa Fikry Elbossaty*

Vitamin K was discovered as nutrient of blood clotting. There are two main types of vitamin K, vitamin K1, and vitamin K2. Although the structure of vitamin k is stable but also, there are differences between them. Vitamin k1 is mainly present in dark green leafy plant; while vitamin k2 present in animal and fermented plant. There are different sources of vitamin k. The normal human body is required about 200µg/day from vitamin k in both forms. Vitamin k1 can easily converted into vitamin k2.There is big difference between work of types of vitamin k, where each one responsible for special job. Vitamin k play important role in various metabolic process; vitamin k especially k2 play important role in protect the body from heart attack , in addition to reduce the development of osteoporosis and bone disease in combination with vitamin D and calcium. Vitamin k responsible for increase the secretion of male sex hormone and infertility. Vitamin k is consider one of the most important vitamin, it can save human from death as result of precipitation of calcium on arteries. Due to the importance of vitamin k, this article will discuss vitamin k, its presence, and role in different diseases.

04/09/2018
Research Article

Effects of carazolol on electrocadiographic and trace element status in sheeps

Remzi Gonul, Lora Koenhemsı, Handan Aydın Vural*, Tevfik Gulyasar, Hasret Demırcan Yardıbı, Erman OR and Bora Barutcu

Carazolol is a non-specific β-adrenargic reseptor blocking agent. It ıs structurally analogous to catecholamins, in that, when administered, it forms reversible bonds with β-adrenergic, however, induce adrenergic effects, and it inhibits the actions of the catecholamins in times of stres by saturing their sites of operation. The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of carazolol on some serum enzymes, trace elements and cardiovascular status in sheep. Seven sheeps (age 6 months, 35 ± 10 kg) were used in this study. Carazolol administered by the intramuscular route at the dose of 0.01 mg/kg. Serum levels of urea, creatinin, ALT, AST, G-GT, LDH, T. protein, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Se were investigated. Although all serum enzymes did not show any difference, serum Fe and Zn levels were decreased. Important results were obtained in electrocardiography (abnormal T wave and ST segment depression).

These results suggest that carazolol may increase incidence rate of myocardiyal ischemia risk in sheeps and it investigated by new researches.

04/10/2018
Research Article

Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction supplementation improves metabolic balance, endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in athletes

Rocco Mollace, Micaela Gliozzi, Annamaria Tavernese, Vincenzo Musolino, Cristina Carresi, Miriam Scicchitano, Ernesto Palma, Saverio Nucera, Francesca Bosco, Federica Scarano, Francesca Oppedisano, Alessia Maretta, Jessica Maiuolo, Saverio Muscoli, Santo Gratteri, Francesco Romeo and Vincenzo Mollace*

Background: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 4-week Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF Gold; Bergamet Sport) supplementation on serum nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethyl-arginine (ADMA), Endopat indices of endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake (V_ O2max) of athletes.

Methods: The effects of dietary supplementation (BPF Gold, 650 mg twice a day for 4 weeks) and placebo administration on flow-mediated dilatation (via Endopat measurements), serum markers (NO, ADMA), lipid profile, and V_ O2max were analysed in 30 athletes both before and after dietary protocols.

Results: Significant differences between pre- and post-intervention baseline NO levels were observed after BPF Gold dietary protocol. Higher post-intervention baseline NO level was observed after BPF Gold diet compared with placebo. Moreover BPF Gold Sport increased baseline NO concentration (ΔNO). The positive correlation was observed between baseline post-intervention NO concentration and maximal oxygen uptale and also between ΔNO and ΔVO2max in response to BPF Gold supplementation. There was an association between a higher Edopat values of endothelial function and higher V O2max after Bergamet Sport diet compared with lower values of placebo.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that an increase in NO release in response to BPF Gold Sport supplementation may play a central role in cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and enhanced exercise performance in athletes.

04/09/2018
Review Article

The properties of nonlinear excitations and verification of validity of theory of energy transport in the protein molecules

Pang Xiao-Feng*

Based on different properties of structure of helical protein molecules some theories of bio-energy transport along the molecular chains have been proposed and established, where the energy is released by hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A brief survey of past researches on different models and theories of bio-energy, including Davydov’s, Brown et al’s, Schweitzer’s, Cruzeiro-Hansson’s, Forner‘s and Pang’s models were first stated in this paper. Subsequently we studied and reviewed mainly and systematically the properties and stability of the carriers (solitons) transporting the bio-energy at physiological temperature 300K in Pang’s and Davydov’s theories. However, these theoretical models including Davydov’s and Pang’s model were all established based on a periodic and uniform proteins, which are different from practically biological proteins molecules. Therefore, it is very necessary to inspect and verify the validity of the theory of bio-energy transport in really biological protein molecules. These problems were extensively studied by a lot of researchers and using different methods in past thirty years, a considerable number of research results were obtained. I here reviewed the situations and progresses of study on this problem, in which we reviewed the correctness of the theory of bio-energy transport including Davydov’s and Pang’s model and its investigated progresses under influences of structure nonuniformity and disorder, side groups and imported impurities of protein chains as well as the thermal perturbation and damping of medium arising from the biological temperature of the systems. The structure nonuniformity arises from the disorder distribution of sequence of masses of amino acid residues and side groups and imported impurities, which results in the changes and fluctuations of the spring constant, dipole-dipole interaction, exciton-phonon coupling constant, diagonal disorder or ground state energy and chain-chain interaction among the molecular channels in the dynamic equations in different models. The influences of structure nonuniformity, side groups and imported impurities as well as the thermal perturbation and damping of medium on the bio-energy transport in the proteins with single chain and three chains were studied by differently numerical simulation technique and methods containing the average Hamiltonian way of thermal perturbation, fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, Monte Carlo method, quantum perturbed way and thermodynamic and statistical method, and so on. In this review the numerical simulation results of bio-energy transport in uniform protein molecules, the influence of structure nonuniformity on the bio-energy transport, the effects of temperature of systems on the bio-energy transport and the simultaneous effects of structure nonuniformity, damping and thermal perturbation of proteins on the bio-energy transport in a single chains and helical molecules were included and studied, respectively. The results obtained from these studies and reviews represent that Davydov’s soliton is really unstable, but Pang’s soliton is stable at physiologic temperature 300K and underinfluences of structure nonuniformity or disorder, side groups, imported impurities and damping of medium, which is consistent with analytic results. Thus we can still conclude that the soliton in Pang’s model is exactly a carrier of the bio-energy transport, Pang’s theory is appropriate to helical protein molecules.

04/09/2018
Case Report

Predicament of classification: Multisystem small vessel vasculitis with cresentic Glomerulonephritis

Awad Magbri*, Shaukat Rashid and Balhinder Brar

The patient is a 28-year old Caucasian man with six month history of arthralgia and crampy abdominal pain who presented with acute dyspnea and cough for 6 months associated with migratory polyarthralgias involving his knees, ankles, wrists, and shoulders.

04/09/2018
Review Article

Guidelines that are just for guidance

Swethika Sundaravel*, Jonathan Nieves and Seth Baum

Hypertension (HTN) is a widely prevalent disease across the globe. Recent reports from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) indicate that the prevalence of HTN is 29% in adults more than 18 years in the US [1]. This is about 72 million adults. Worldwide, about 1.3 billion people are affected by HTN [2]. This number is projected to increase several-fold in the coming years. Given the huge burden of this disease to the healthcare system and the many deleterious effects that can result from uncontrolled HTN, we need strong guidelines to manage the same. The recently published 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines [3] on hypertension management are very meticulous and include a comprehensive stepwise approach in treating hypertension. Here we present a summary of the major changes and a concise review of the new guidelines.

04/09/2018
Research Article

The Role of Tau Protein in Diseases

Bhaskar C Das*, Sribidya Pradhan, Devi Prasana Ojha, Arpita Das, Narayan S Hosmane and Sasmita Das

Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and tau protein deposits in the human brain are the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Tau is a class of proteins that are abundant in nerve cells and perform the function of stabilizing microtubules. However, in certain pathological situations, Tau proteins become defective and fail to adequately stabilize microtubules, which can result in the generation of abnormal masses that are toxic to neurons. This process occurs in a number of neurological disorders collectively known as Tauopathies. Tau protein is the major factor of the intracellular filamentous deposits that relate to a number of neurodegenerative diseases which includes the progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Pick’s disease, and Parkinsonism. The identification of mutations in Tau established that dysfunction or misregulation of tau protein is sufficient to cause dementia and neurodegeneration. In this review article, we discussed the etiology of the tau formation and role in AD and subsequently therapeutic approach for disassembling and Tau inhibition.