Review Article

Wifi and health: Perspectives and risks

Myriam Ben Salah*, Hafedh Abdelmelek and Manef Abderraba

Increased exposure to electromagnetic fields such as radio frequencies used by Wifi technology raise questions and concerns about their impact on health. For answer these questions, several scientifi c studies have carried out followed by results publication in prestigious scientifi c revues.

Research Article

Ocular surface Rose Bengal staining in normal dogs and dogs with Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Preliminary fi ndings

Williams DL* and Griffiths A

Dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is commonly seen in the dog. Veterinary ophthalmologists diagnose this aqueous tear deficiency using the Schirmer tear test (STT), but this measures tear production and does not indicate ocular surface pathology. The vital dye Rose Bengal is commonly used in the diagnosis of dry eye in human patients but until now has not been reported in veterinary patients. Here we corelate the degree of Rose Bengal staining with the STT value and find a reasonable association between dye staining of the ocular surface and tear production, although clearly other factors are also important in the genesis of ocular surface damage in dry eye.

Case Report

Corticotomy facilitated correction of skeletal class II malocclusion

Arif Yezdani A*

Selective alveolar decortication and periodontal augmentation with a bone graft were the two procedures used for the correction of the skeletal class II malocclusion in the case reported.A 25-year-old male patient presented with a skeletal class II malocclusion with increased bi-maxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite and imbricated and rotated mandibular incisors with bilateral presence of supernumerary teeth in the maxillary right and left premolar regions. Extraction of supernumerary in the maxillary right and left premolar region, and impacted UL5 was done. Pre-adjusted edgewise appliance, Roth’s prescription (0.022x0.028-inch slot), was bonded and a week later full thickness labial and lingual flaps were reflected in the maxillary and mandibular arches. Circumscribed corticotomy cuts was done and subsequently augmented with a bone graft. Orthodontic treatment was commenced immediately after surgery and orthodontic adjustments were performed every 2 weeks. The entire orthodontic treatment was completed in 9 months. Regional acceleratory phenomenon, triggered by the alveolar decortication, was responsible for the rapid correction of the malocclusion and the augmentation with the bone graft provided adequate bone volume for housing the teeth, thereby decreasing the possibility of subsequent relapse.

Research Article

Upper gut bacterial overgrowth is a potential mechanism for Glucose Malabsorption after Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy

Matthew E Sharbaugh, Timothy R Shope and Timothy R Koch*

In 1955, nutrient malabsorption following upper gut surgery was shown to be related to altered upper gut microbiome. In individuals with abdominal symptoms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, we have reported that small intestinal glucose malabsorption is associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth.We hypothesize that individuals with abdominal symptoms after vertical sleeve gastrectomy have glucose malabsorption associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth, and to test this hypothesis, bacterial overgrowth and potential glucose malabsorption are examined after sleeve gastrectomy. This is a retrospective study of individuals with medically-complicated obesity who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2013 to 2016 with subsequent glucose hydrogen breath testing to evaluate abdominal symptoms. A fasting breath hydrogen or methane of ≥10 PPM or rise of ≥8 PPM ≤45 minutes after oral glucose is bacterial overgrowth, while glucose malabsorption is a second rise of ≥8 PPM at >45 minutes. Seven females (mean age: 48.0 years; mean body mass index at surgery: 45.7 kg/m2) are described. Five subjects (71%) have an early rise in hydrogen or methane, while three (43%) have a second rise in hydrogen or methane >45 minutes after glucose. The mean percent excess weight loss at one year was 40% in three individuals with a second peak and 46% in four subjects without a second peak. After sleeve gastrectomy, subjects have glucose malabsorption associated with the presence of bacterial overgrowth. Completion of a larger prospective study is needed to confirm and expanding upon these findings. Further work should examine the potential effects of bacterial overgrowth on expression of intestinal glucose transporters.

Research Article

Brain changes in Hypothermia: Surface-versus Core-cooling in pigs

Hammersborg SM, Husby P, Morild I, and Lilleng PK

The process of hypothermia in the clinical setting has been practiced for 50 years and is known for its neuroprotective properties. This paper describes histopathological changes either by an ice sludge mimicking accidental hypothermia (S-group n=7) or by endovascular core-cooling (C-group n=7). Focal infiltrates of neutrophilic granulocytes were found in five of seven brains in the S-group and in one of seven brains in the C-group. These granulocytes were found in the arachnoids, in vessels, in vessel walls, and in the cerebral cortex. Fungi, bacteria, lymphocytes or plasma were not found.

Research Article

Cytokine Modulatory Effects of Sesamum Indicum Seeds Oil Ameliorate Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Mohammad Reza Javan*, Mohammad Reza Zamani, Saeed Aslani, Ghader Dargahi Abbasabad, Masoud Beirami Khalaj and Hamed Serati-Nour

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nerve system (CNS), which affects the brain and spinal cord. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly applied experimental model for studying the MS. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sesamum indicum seeds oil on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice.

Methods: Sesame oil was administrated intraperitoneally three days before immunization. IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β levels and mRNA expression in supernatant of and within cultured mononuclear cells were assessed.

Results: According to our results, sesame oil treated mice demonstrated significant disease severity reduction (P=0.01 and 0.001, respectively). Treated EAE mice also represented statistically significant delay in the onset of symptoms in comparison with control group. The average IFN-γ levels and mRNA of sesame oil treated EAE mice were less than untreated EAE group. IL-10 and TGF-β levels and mRNA did not differ significantly in sesame oil treated EAE mice in comparison to untreated EAE group. IL-17 levels and mRNA were also found to be decreased significantly in treated mice in comparison to untreated mice.

Conclusions: Even thoughTH1 and TH17 cells through secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17, respectively, are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and EAE, but IL-10 has been shown to exhibit suppressive effects on these disorders. It can be concluded that sesame oil is able to induce TH2 and TH17-related immune responses and suppress TH1 type in EAE.

Case Report

Seroma formation as a rare complication of lateral epicondylitis release: A case report

Parth B Patel, Allison L Boden*, Bryan J Sirmon, Spero G Karas and Michael B Gottschalk

Case: A 45 year old male, >1 year status post left elbow lateral debridement for lateral epicondylitis, presented with a two week history of a progressive, tender mass on the lateral aspect of his left elbow.MRI showed evidence of a defect in the joint capsule, consistent with the formation of a seroma. The patient underwent revision of the left lateral epicondyle debridement with ECRL/EDC tendon repair and capsular reconstruction.

Conclusion: Tendon repair and capsular reconstruction is an effective and successful method for the treatment of a seroma caused by leakage of joint fluid after lateral epicondylar debridement.

Research Article

Thirty days post-operative complications after Sleeve Gastrectomy, Gastric Bypass and Mini Gastric Bypass/one Anastomosis Gastric Bypass. Analysis of the Italian Society for Bariatric Surgery and Metabolic Disorders (S.I.C.OB.) database of 7 years time frame

Maurizio De Luca*, Nicola Clemente, Cristiana Visentin, Natale Pellicano, Cesare Lunardi, Alberto Sartori, Gianni Segato, Luigi Angrisani, Marcello Lucchese and Nicola Di Lorenzo

Background: To date, the scientific community has mainly focused on outcomes of obesity surgery such as weight loss and resolution of associated complications. Adverse post-operative events and reoperation rates have been poorly reported even if they are a marker of surgical safety and therefore of great importance in guiding patients and surgeons in the choice of the more suitable operation.

Methods: This retrospective multicenter observational study is based on the data extracted from the Italian Society of Bariatric Surgery and Metabolic Disorders (S.I.C.OB.) database, which covers almost all the bariatric operations performed in Italy. We analysed the 30 days post-operative complications occurring, in the period from 2009 to 2015, after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) and Mini Gastric Bypass/One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (MGB/OAGB) qualitatively, quantitatively and on the basis of the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications. Complications following surgeries were tested using the 95% confidence interval. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS).

Results: In the 2009-2015 time frame, a total of 31,624 operations were performed of which 6,864 RYGB, 10,833 SG and 992 MGB/OAGB. The complication rate was 4.39 %, 4.04 % and 3.83% respectively. The most frequent complications were hemoperitoneum (0.9%) and perforation, fistula and dehiscence (1%) which were higher in SG when compared with RYGB (with a statistical significance) and when compared with MGB/OAGB (without a statistical significance). When dividing the complications by the different grades of the Clavien-Dindo classification, the only significant difference encountered, from a statistical standpoint, was between MGB/OAGB and SG. MGB/OAGB was associated with a lower grade I Clavien-Dindo complication rate (1.31% versus 2.34%).

Conclusions: This study supports a safe profile of obesity surgey in Italy, along with positive bariatric outcomes. The rate of 30 days post-operative complications is progressively lower after MGB/OAGB (3.83%), SG (4.04%) and RYGB (4.39%) respectively. In particular, MGB/OAGB records statistically less low-grade Clavien-Dindo complications compared to SG and RYGB.

Review Article

Lack of applicability of the Enterocyte Chloride ion secretion paradigm to the Pathology of Cystic Fibrosis

Michael L Lucas*

This review examines of the concept of a defective chloride channel in epithelial cells being a major cause of cystic fibrotic pathophysiology. The central concept of the defective chloride ion channel paradigm is that faulty CFTR protein or failed delivery of CFTR protein to the mucosal membrane of epithelial cells is the basis of cystic fibrosis. Defective placement or function of CFTR prevents hydration of bronchial mucus that is normally caused by epithelial cells; these are capable through chloride ion secretion of transporting fluid to the mucosal surface. This concept relies heavily on a paradigm taken from intestinal physiology-namely that the intestinal epithelial cell secretes chloride ion and fluid and that this has conferred heterozygote selective advantage in carriers of the cystic fibrosis gene. This present review examines the evidence for that hypothesis and assembles evidence from past studies that it is the smooth muscle cell that is of greater relevance. This review does not aim to provide an overview of current research into cystic fibrosis. The intention is to provide an overview of past research that led to the concept of a failure of epithelial cells to hydrate bronchial mucus because of compromised CFTR function. It is important to present all past evidence for aspects of the chloride secretion hypothesis and its associated heterozygote advantage concept so that the important evidential milestones can be re-assessed.

Research Article

Detection of Ganglion Cell Loss in Preperimetric Glaucoma by Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Suneeta Dubey*, Baswati Prasanth, Lokesh Chauhan and Saptarshi Mukherjee

Background: Glaucoma is a multi-factorial optic neuropathy characterized by a loss of retinal ganglion cells with subsequent loss of the retinal nerve fibers ultimately resulting in visual impairment. The macula region has a high density of retinal ganglion cells thereby being a likely region to detect early cell loss .Since glaucoma affects mainly the inner layers of the retina, Ganglion Cell Complex (GCC) mapping can help to detect glaucomatous damage early as compared to the total retinal thickness.

Purpose: To map GCC thickness and average Macular Retinal (MR) thickness with high-speed Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) and correlate it with the Retinal Nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in preperimetric glaucoma.

Design: Observational cross-sectional study.

Methods: Forty four eyes diagnosed as preperimetric glaucoma were studied. GCC, MR thickness and RNFL thickness was mapped using the RTVue FD-OCT system. The GCC thickness map, the deviation map and the significance map were obtained in all cases. Average GCC thickness and MR thickness were correlated with the RNFL thickness.

Results: Average GCC of patients was 85.99±6.9 µm. There was GCC loss in 35 (87.5%) eyes which correlated well with areas of RNFL loss (r=0.408, p<0.001). Nine (22.5%) eyes were seen to have decreased MR thickness. GCC loss correlated well with the loss of average RNFL thickness and MR thickness. Further GCC loss was also seen in 23 (74.19 %) eyes with a normal MR thickness.

Conclusion: GCC analysis may prove to be a robust diagnostic parameter and is complementary to RNFL analysis in preperimetric glaucoma.


Comments for the Nuremberg Code 70 Years Later

Jie Zhang, Chao-Jun Kong and Zhong Jia*

The story of Nuremberg code in human experiments was evolved by a 70-year old historical link, aiming to provide an alert message for scientists in case of nonprovisional disaster caused by immoral human experiment. It played a safeguard role standing on the front line [1].

Research Article

Clinical significance of Vibration Anesthesia on reducing pain of Ring- Block (Subcutaneous Injections) in the patients undergoing Hair Restoration Surgery

Muhammad Ahmad* and Mohammad Humayun Mohmand

Pain is a complex phenomenon which is unpleasant. Different cosmetic procedures are associated with varying degrees of pain. Various modalities are adopted to decrease the severity of pain. The commonly used is the administration of analgesics (opioid or non-steroidal).

Research Article

Comparison of Cardiovascular Risks following Smoking Cessation Treatments Using Varenicline vs. NRT among Schizophrenic Smokers

I-Hsuan Wu, Hua Chen, Patrick Bordnick, Ekere James Essien Michael Johnson, Ronald J Peters and Susan Abughosh*

Background: Schizophrenic patients have a lot higher smoking rates when compared to people in the general population. A variety of pharmaceutical cessation aids are available, which include nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), Bupropion SR, and Varenicline. Our objective was to assess which cessation medication would have lower risks in developing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the General Electric (GE) electronic medical record database (1995-2011). The cohort consisted of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ICD-9 code 295.00-295.99) and who had newly initiated use of any smoking cessation medication. We excluded our cohort who (1) were not prescribed atypical antipsychotics and (2) already had diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia or hypertension prior to index date. Follow up period was from 12 weeks onwards index date up to one year. The hazard ratio of developing cardiovascular risks was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression model after controlling for other covariates.

Results: A total of 580 patients were included in our cohort. Among those, nearly half (n=276, 47.59%) developed one or more criteria of the metabolic syndromes. We found that smokers who were prescribed NRT were less likely to develop metabolic syndromes as compared to those who were prescribed Varenicline.

Conclusions: Physicians are advised to carefully weigh the risks against the benefits before prescribing cessation medications since risks for metabolic syndromes were found to be very high. Healthcare providers should monitor patients’ lab data regularly as this minority population is under higher risks.

Review Article

Hyperthermia and Breast cancer: A short review

Bora Uysal*

The main goal of hyperthermia is to elevate the tumor temperature to kill tumor cells and improve local control. The usage of hyperthermia is combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Hyperthermia is delivered in different types of cancers like breast cancer, melanoma and sarcoma.Breast cancer treatment enroll surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Hyperthermia is given once or twice a week concomitantly with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This short review will enlight the types, physics, and the results of hyperthermia especially in the management of breast cancer therapy.

Research Article

Vertebral pain syndrome and physical performance assessing in older women with vertebral fractures

Grygorieva Nataliia*, Povorozyuk Vladyslav and Rybina Olena

The purpose of this study was to assess the peculiarities of vertebral pain syndrome, parameters of physical performance and quality of life indices in women of older age depending on the presence of vertebral fractures (VF). This study was performed with participation of 215 women aged 50-89 years old which were divided into two groups: first one-women without any previous osteoporotic fractures (n=143), second group - patients with VF in thoracic and/or lumbar spine (n=72).

The presence and intensity of pain in the thoracic and lumbar spine were evaluated using the 11-component visual analog scale (VAS), physical performance-with following functional tests: 3-, 4- and 15-meter tests (gait speed), static balance (a side-by-side position, a semi-tandem position and a full-tandem position), 8-feet test and «five timed chair stands» (coordination and strength), hand grip strength (by dynamometer), measurement of arterial pressure (systolic and diastolic), heart and respiratory rates, breath holding, chest excursion (mean and on the inhalation and the exhalation), lateral trunk lean, Schober and Thomayer tests.

It was demonstrated that the intensity of vertebral pain (pain at the time of investigation, the most common level of pain, pain in the best periods of the disease) and some physical performance tests (lateral trunk lean and chest excursion (mean index, during the inhalation and exhalation), hand grip strength, 15-meter gait speed test and five-repetition sit-to-stand test) are significantly worse in women with VF than corresponding parameters in persons without fractures. It should be taken into account during the assessment of physical performance and development of rehabilitation programs for older age women with vertebral fractures.

The presence and intensity of pain in the thoracic and lumbar spine were evaluated using the 11-component visual analog scale (VAS), physical performance-with following functional tests: 3-, 4- and 15-meter tests (gait speed), static balance (a side-by-side position, a semi-tandem position and a full-tandem position), 8-feet test and «five timed chair stands» (coordination and strength), hand grip strength (by dynamometer), measurement of arterial pressure (systolic and diastolic), heart and respiratory rates, breath holding, chest excursion (mean and on the inhalation and the exhalation), lateral trunk lean, Schober and Thomayer tests.
Research Article

Combinatorial Therapeutic Approaches to DNA/RNA and Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G), Fluoxetine Hydrochloride (Prozac and Sarafem), Propofol (Diprivan), Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) (Aspirin), Naproxen Sodium (Aleve and Naprosyn) and Dextromethamphetamine Nanocapsules with Surface Conjugated DNA/RNA to Targeted Nano Drugs for Enhanced Anti-Cancer Effi cacy and Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Nano Drugs Delivery Systems

Alireza Heidari* and Christopher Brown

In the current study, combinatorial therapeutic approaches to DNA/RNA of human cancer cells and Benzylpenicillin (Penicillin G), Fluoxetine Hydrochloride (Prozac and Sarafem), Propofol (Diprivan), Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) (Aspirin), Naproxen Sodium (Aleve and Naprosyn) and Dextromethamphetamine nanocapsules with surface conjugated DNA/RNA of human cancer cells to targeted Nano drugs for enhanced anti-cancer efficacy and targeted cancer therapy using Nano drugs delivery systems were investigated.

Research Article

Antiviral activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves ethanolic extract on herpes viruses infection

Aya Abu-Jafar and Mahmoud Huleihel*

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Ec) is considered as a traditional medicinal plant with valuable therapeutic effects. Here we evaluated the antiviral activity of its ethanolic leave extract on different herpes viruses. Vero cells were infected with either of the tested viruses [herpes simplex virus -1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] with or without treatment with Ec extract and viral infection development was evaluated by plaque assay. Our results showed significant antiviral activity of the examined extract against all tested viruses. The 80%-MeOH fraction of this extract offered the highest activity against these viruses with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.1±0.08, 0.3±0.02 and 1±0.03 μg/ml against HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV respectively and 50% cytotoxicity (CC50) at 700 μg/ml. The highest antiviral effect of this fraction was obtained mainly when it was added during and post infection (p.i.) or when it was added only p.i. Also, this fraction significantly reduced the amount of infective endogenous viral particles in cells that were treated with the 80%-MeOH fraction only post viral entry into the host cells. A synergistic antiviral effect against all tested viruses was also observed when cells were treated with a combination of acyclovir (ACV) and 80%-MeOH fraction of Ec. Further study is required for the isolation and identification of the anti-virally active component/s of this fraction.

Case Report

Focal Ab-amyloid deposition precedes cerebral microbleeds and Superfi cial siderosis: a case report

Parnesh Raniga, Patricia Desmond, Paul Yates, Olivier Salvado, Pierrick Bourgeat, Jurgen Fripp, Svetlana Pejoska, Michael Woodward, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe and Victor L Villemagne*

This case report presents in-vivo findings on the spatial and temporal relationship between focal Ab-amyloid deposition, cerebral micro-haemorrhages and superfi cial siderosis.A 65-year-old woman underwent 11C-PiB PET scans that revealed an atypical focal and asymmetrical pattern of Ab-amyloid deposition and MRI scans that revealed cerebral micro-haemorrhages and superficial siderosis. Almost all micro-haemorrhages were associated with focal Ab-amyloid deposition. Follow-up 11C-PiB PET and MRI scans showed progression of the disease. We speculate that Abamyloid deposition affects the structural integrity of arterioles, thereby predisposing them to micro haemorrhages. In support of this hypothesis, progression of MRI lesions was observed only in areas associated with Ab-amyloid deposition.

Research Article

Comparison of Lung Function of normal and persons with chronic low back pain and its relation with duration and severity of Chronic Low Back Pain

Amit Baruaa, Monalisa Pattnaik and Patitapaban Mohanty*

Introduction: Chronic low back pain is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders. Studies have shown certain relations between physical fi tness and chronic low back pain (CLBP) by examine some measures of physical fi tness. The aim of study was to measure lung function using winspiro PRO in patient with CLBP versus normal healthy individual, and relation of lung function with duration and intensity of CLBP.

Methodology: The study population is comprised of a total of 120 adult persons. 60 subjects with chronic low back pain (41 male and 19 female) with a mean age of 30.69 years (+4.34) and 60 normal individual (39 male and 21 female) with mean age of 29.00 years (+5.34).

Results:The result of comparison of the respiratory parameter forced vital capacity (FVC), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) of individual with CLBP show a significant difference as compare to the normal healthy population. In unrelated ‘t’ test the patient with CLBP (N=60) of age 30.51(SD±4.33), height 169cm (SD±1.23), weight 57.86(SD±7.73) and body mass index (BMI) 20.46 (SD±2.54) show a significant difference in respiratory parameter FVC ( t=17.244, P=0.000), and MVV ( t=11.048, P=0.000) as compare to the normal healthy persons (N=60) of age 29.79 (SD±5.28), height 170cm (SD±1.13), weight 59.40(SD±6.97) and BMI 21.59 (SD±3.29).In patient group- FVC range is 34.0% to 75.00% (52.85%±9.30). MVV range is 45.0% to 86.80%. (63.11%±12.06)In control group FVC range is 63.90% to 98.83% (83.63%±7.59). MVV range is 63.00% to 98.00% (78.96%±7.86).

Conclusions:The overall result of the study show that there is a significant difference in the respiratory parameter that is FVC (forced vital capacity), and the MVV (maximum voluntary ventilation) in persons with chronic low back pain as compare to the healthy person of same age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI).



Results:The result of comparison of the respiratory parameter forced vital capacity (FVC), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) of individual with CLBP show a significant difference as compare to the normal healthy population. In unrelated ‘t’ test the patient with CLBP (N=60) of age 30.51(SD±4.33), height 169cm (SD±1.23), weight 57.86(SD±7.73) and body mass index (BMI) 20.46 (SD±2.54) show a significant difference in respiratory parameter FVC ( t=17.244, P=0.000), and MVV ( t=11.048, P=0.000) as compare to the normal healthy persons (N=60) of age 29.79 (SD±5.28), height 170cm (SD±1.13), weight 59.40(SD±6.97) and BMI 21.59 (SD±3.29).In patient group- FVC range is 34.0% to 75.00% (52.85%±9.30). MVV range is 45.0% to 86.80%. (63.11%±12.06)In control group FVC range is 63.90% to 98.83% (83.63%±7.59). MVV range is 63.00% to 98.00% (78.96%±7.86).
Case Report

Enclosure asphyxia as a cause of death in 3 Nigerian children trapped at the boot of car-Case reports and review of literature

Martin A Nzegwu *, FMCPath Nig, DB Olusina Francis Ikechukwu Ukekwe and Victor Nzegwu

The paper reviews enclosure asphyxia as a cause of death of three Nigerian children aged three years, five years and seven years respectively, who were found dead and locked in the boot of a Mercedes Benz 200E Sedan car a day after they were declared missing. The first two were siblings of the same parent whose fathers actually owned the car, while the older child was a neighbour kid all of whom were well known to each other as friends and playmates. They had gone missing for a few hours prior to being seen playing together. Search parties were raised and they were never found until the following day when they were found dead in the boot of the car parked a few meters away from the house under a tree. Incidentally the same car was driven round the neighbourhood for 3 hours during the search the previous day with no inkling that they were in the boot of the car. Autopsy was ordered by the coroner to determine the cause of death.

Review Article

Wifi and health: Perspectives and risks

Myriam Ben Salah*, Hafedh Abdelmelek and Manef Abderraba

Increased exposure to electromagnetic fields such as radio frequencies used by Wifi technology raise questions and concerns about their impact on health. For answer these questions, several scientific studies have carried out followed by results publication in prestigious scientific revues. Literature conducted on the effects of non-ionizing radiation and Wifi waves is vast and sometimes controversial. Epidemiological studies and the results of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies have showed the biological effects of electromagnetic field in different frequencies range. These effects caused disorders at the molecular and behavioral level. However, these studies were insufficient to confirm the directly related effects to the cause. Therefore, further research must be done to raise the controversy about the safety of wireless waves.

Research Article

In silico analysis and characterization of fresh water fi sh ATPases and homology modelling

Rumpi Ghosh, AD Upadhayay and AK Roy*

ATPases is known to be a crucial in many biological activities of organisms. In this study, physicochemical properties and modeling of ATPases protein of fish was analysed using In silico approach. ATPases a protein selected from fish species, including Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus), Zebra fish (Hypancistrus zebra), White fishes (Coregonus autumnalis), Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and Anabas testudineus (Koi) were used in this study. Physicochemical characteristics showed with molecular weight (25045.58-25148.57Da), theoretical isoelectric point (9.30-9.97), extinction coefficient(26470-34950), aliphatic index(147.31-150.35), instability index(32.84-42.67), total number of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues (5/7-6/8), and grand average of hydropathicity (1.014-1.151) were computed. All proteins were classified as transmembrane proteins. In secondary structure prediction, all proteins were composed of random coils as predominant, followed by extended strands, alpha helix and beta turn. Three dimensional structure of protein were predicted and verified as good structures. All model structures were evaluated being accepted and reliable based on structural evaluation and stereo chemical analysis.

Research Article

The effect of cognitive strategies of association and dissociation on central nervous activation: A controlled trial with long distance runners

Oswaldo Rivera Rodriguez, Juan Jose Ramos Alvarez, Juan Carlos Segovia Martínez, Francisco Javier Lopez-Silvarrey Varela and Ricardo De la Vega Marcos*

The purpose of the present study was to experimentally assess the effect of cognitive strategies of association and dissociation while running on central nervous activation. A total of 30 long distance runners volunteered for the study.The study protocol consisted on three sessions (scheduled in three different days): (1) maximal incremental treadmill test, (2) associative task session, and (3) dissociative task session. The order of sessions 2 and 3 was counterbalanced. During sessions 2 and 3, participants performed a 55 min treadmill run at moderate intensity. Both, associative and dissociative tasks responses were monitoring and recording in real time through dynamic measure tools. Consequently, was possible to have an objective control of the attentional. Results showed a positive session (exercise+attentional task) effect for central nervous activation. The benefits of aerobic exercise at moderate intensity for the performance of self-regulation cognitive tasks are highlighted. The used methodology is proposed as a valid and dynamic option to study cognitions while running in order to overcome the retrospective approach.


Practical implementation of the SWEEP-session of Stimulation- Registration in CI fitting

Petrov SM*

Levels of electrically evoked stapedial reflex thresholds (eESRTs) are frequently used as most comfortable levels (MCL) in cochlear implant fitting. The problem of routine one-channel-technique of reflexometry is long duration of this procedure. In order to “compress the time” we suggest method of consecutive stimulation of all electrodes of implant with simultaneous registration of stapedial reflexes-SWEEP-session. Practical implementation of the SWEEP-session is described here. This method has been successfully used in several hundred CI patients. Registration of evoked electrical stapedial reflex thresholds (eESRTs) during CI fitting is long procedure. In order to “compress the time” we suggest our SWEEP-session method. Practical implementation of this SWEEP-session is described here in accordance with the patent of Russian Federation.

Research Article

Cumulative Effect Assessment: preliminary evaluation for Environmental Impact Assessment procedure and for environmental damage estimation

Marco Ostoich* and Andrea Wolf

The paper presents and develops the issue of Cumulative Effect Assessment (CEA) in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) screening procedure established by the State and Regional regulations In Italy. In the period 2001-15 in the territory of the Venice province (north east Italy, Veneto region) n. 328 projects (and the related environmental preliminary/definitive studies) were applied to competent Authorities (6% to the State, 39% to the Region and 55% to the Province). All the Environmental Impact Studies (EISs) and Environmental Preliminary Studies (EPSs) referring to the this territory officially applied to competent Authorities in the period 2001-2010, have been analysed with focus on the identification and assessment of cumulative effects (CEs); the projects considered and analysed for this purpose comprise a total of n. 181 EIA screening and ordinary procedures; the remaining 147 projects in the period 2011-15 (for a total of 328) are here considered only for statistical reason to an update assessment of project typologies in the same territory.

The methodology applied for the analysis of the sample of environmental studies in the period 2001-10 refers to that presented by Cooper and Sheate (2002) with modifications. The investigation has been developed looking for the way in which the topic is performed by practitioners in the environmental studies as from qualitative as well as quantitative point of view. Specific attention has been paid to waste management plants which are always subject to EIA screening procedure since 2008 according to Directive 97/11/EEC and in case to the whole EIA procedure. The approach proposed by Lombardia Region (North Italy; 2010) for EIA screening procedure of waste management plants has been applied to identify CEs and modified according to the characteristics of the considered territory; it allows the performance of the project-based approach and must be completed with a regional-based approach (Dubè, 2003). The proposed approach can be useful in case of waste management and IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, Directive 96/61/EEC, amended with Directives 2008/1/EC and 2010/75/EU) plants to define the financial warranties required for the authorization of operative activity of the plants to cover potential environmental damages produced in cases of accidents and other conditions as required in Europe (art. 14 Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability).

Several project categories were chosen and their EISs analysed as an exemplificative case according to the potential generation of cumulative impacts and the characteristics of the territory. With reference to the completed procedures where the competent Authority presented a final judgement, it has been observed that the CEA has been seldom developed due to not compulsory legal requirements as already observed by Burris and Canter (1997). Moreover, when it is considered, the methodology is limited and not systemized. Indices of impact have been identified according to emission for the main environmental components focussed with the analysis of the pressure factors of the plants. The study points out the need to analyse and evaluate the cumulative effects (CEs) at a strategic level (within the Strategic Environmental Assessment-SEA- procedure) with a view to preparing the study for EIA/EPS framework procedure for the projects derived from the corresponding plan/program. A sound knowledge of the considered territory and in particular of its pressure sources is of main importance for CEA assessment and impacts’ prevention. Geographic Information Sytesm (GIS) application is strongly needed for pressure sources’ census and control data storing.

Research Article

Chlorophylls and xanthophylls of crop plants as dyes for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

Rossi M, Matteocci F, Di Carlo A and Forni C*

Natural dyes have become a viable alternative to expensive and rare organic sensitizers because of their low cost, easy attainability, abundance of supply of raw materials and environmental friendliness.Chlorophyll, the most abundant pigment, can be extracted from plant leaves with simple and inexpensive methods, but it’s difficult to use as a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) sensitizer due to the absence of OH and COOH groups. The opposite is true for xanthophylls, a particular class of carotenoids that contain free hydroxyl groups and thus may be considered as potential DSSC sensitizers. In this work we describe a new and inexpensive method of chlorophyll extraction from leaves based on the use of a basic solvent that provides the creation of COOH groups, allowing chlorophyll binding on the TiO2 layer. This modified chlorophyll dye showed a higher DSSC efficiency level (0.72%) compared to xanthophylls, which had lower efficiency.

Research Article

Laparoscopic partial nephrectomydoes tumor profi le infl uence the operative performance?

Krishanu Das*, George P Abraham, Kishnamohan Ramaswai, Datson George P, Jisha J Abraham, Thomas Thachill and Oppukeril S Thampan

Introduction: Laparoscopic approach is emerging as a standard of care approach for management of masses amenable to partial nephrectomy. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is a challenging surgery and its successful performance depends on various factors. We aim to evaluate the influence of tumor characterestics on the operative performance for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

Methods: Patients undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in our institution were recruited for this study. The tumor profile was evaluated by a senior radiologist from cross sectional imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging). Tumor characerestics was defined by assessing tumor size, tumor location and RENAL score. The operative performance was evaluated in terms of warm ischemia time, blood loss, operation duration and any significant operative complications. Statistical inference was drawn.

Results: 37 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy between January 2010 and June 2012 were included in this study. The mean tumor dimension was 3.81 cms. 21 tumors involved left kidney and 16 involved right kidney. 12 were located in upper pole, 8 were located in midpole and 17 were located in lower pole. The average RENAL score was 6.56. The mean warm ischemia time, blood loss and operation duration was 26.29 minutes (min), 256.76 millilitres (ml) and 208.11 min respectively. Statistically significant correlation was appreciated between tumor location (polar location, side, anterior/ posterior location) and RENAL score and operative parameters (warm ischemia time and operation duration). Tumor size did not have any correlation with the operative parameters.

Conclusion: The operative performance of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is significantly influenced by the tumor location and RENAL score.

Research Article

Rapid Microbial Growth in Reusable Drinking Water Bottles

Hongjun Liu and Qishan Liu*

Bacteria has been known to grow in pipes of water distribution systems and bottled drinking water. Its growth in reusable drinking water bottles is not clear even though they have become more popular and used by children and adults daily everywhere. This study found that there is an extremely high level of bacteria content and a rapid microbial growth in reusable drinking water bottles. The bacteria content tested by heterotrophic plate count (HPC) is in a range of 0-2.4x105 CFU/mL with an average of about 34,000 bacteria counts/ml for bottles used by children and 75,000 bacteria counts/ml for bottles used by adults. Bacteria number can quickly increases to 1-2 million counts/ml in the bottles one day later. Considering the high level of HPC bacteria content in the reusable drinking water bottles, it may be necessary to have some control measures to reduce the bacteria level and to minimize the associated likely health risk of the disease spreading since many people use reusable water bottles every day.

Research Article

Experimental ‘hindbrain related’ syringomyelia: some mechanisms of spinal cord damage

Sergey N Larionov*, Sorokovikov VA and Rudakova AV

Syringomyelia in combination with inherent or acquired hindbrain abnormalities is the non seldom and at the same time controversial issue.

Purpose: The etiology and pathogenesis creates a lot of discussion.

Methods: Experimental syringomyelia was induced in 20 anesthetized rabbits by injecting 0.5 ml of 25% kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six rabbits with puncture and injection sterile saline NaCl were used as a control. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after the kaolin injection. Four hydrocephalus rabbits were sacrificed in 17 hours after the puncture of lateral ventricle with injection of solution of colloidal gold labeled human albuminum. The sections of the brain and spinal cord were stained with hematoxylin and eosin by Nissle and Marchi methods and with immunogold technique. Retropharyngeal lymph nodes of the animals were examined by electron microscopy.

Conclusion: Our observation showed that water hammer effect and internal destruction of the spinal cord may lead to continuous antigen stimulation of regional lymph nodes and play an important role in pathogenesis of experimental syringomyelia.

Research Article

Drawings as learning aid for the human anatomy students’ based evaluation

Faaiz Y Alhamdani and Hatem A Hatem

Introduction: One of the essential requirements for efficient oral and maxillofacial surgeon is comprehensive knowledge in anatomy of head and neck regions. Authors believe that asking students to draw anatomical
sketches will assist them to improve their imaginary memory for human anatomy. However, drawing, as learning aid in anatomy, has not been given enough attention as a learning aid for human anatomy.

Aim of the study: To determine dental students’ level of appreciation to drawings as practical learning aid in human anatomy.

Materials and methods: Seventy nine first year dental students in Ibn Sina University for Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences College of Dentistry for the academic year 2016-2017, were requested to complete a questionnaire. The questions were mostly related to the importance of drawing in anatomy and its relation to Anatomy education. The participation in the questionnaire was optional.

Results: This study showed highly significant relationship between the ability to understand anatomy subject and the importance of drawing (P=0.006). It also showed highly significant relationship between the importance of drawings and giving clinical examples during lectures or anatomical labs (P=0.006). Furthermore, the results showed no significant relationship between the importance of drawings and the load of anatomical material, introduced in anatomical lectures and labs (P=0.639).

Conclusion: Anatomical drawings, from first year dental students’ perspective, are a useful learning tool and can relate to different aspects of proper education of human anatomy. Drawings can be implemented as practical tool in human anatomy curriculum for undergraduate dental education.

Research Article

Efficacies of 11% Lactoferricin and 0.05% Chlorhexidine Otological Solution compared, in the treatment of microbialotic overgrowth: A randomized single blinded study

Luisa Cornegliani*, Federico Leone, Francesco Albanese, Mauro Bigliati, Natalia Fanton and Antonella Vercelli

Background: Topical therapy with antimicrobial agents is used in otitis treatment. Due to increase of antibiotic resistance, new strategies are needed. Antiseptics are used but they may induce contact dermatitis. Natural antimicrobial peptides may represent future effective drugs.

Objectives: The objectives were to test the efficacy of an 11% lactoferricin otological solution (LCF) in bacterial and yeasts otic overgrowth and compare LCF with a commercial one containing chlorhexidine (CLX) 0.05%.

Materials and methods: Forty-one dogs diagnosed with bacterial or yeasts otitis overgrowths were included according to general good practice. They were randomly assigned to lactoferricin or chlorhexidine group for treatment. Otological solution were applied twice a day for a week and then daily for another week. Clinical and cytological score was assessed at day 1 and day 14. At the end of the study, the owners had to express an opinion on the overall efficacy of the products. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilkoxon’s test and T test for paired samples. Results in lesional and cytological score were significative with a p<0.05.

Results: Forty dogs completed the study. All cases, receiving lactoferricin or chlorhexidine, were successfully treated with clinical signs remission and regression of infection (p<0.05). The owners’ judgment was good in 87%, mild in 13% for LCF group. For CLX they scored good in 41%, mild in 24% and unuseful in 35% of cases.

Conclusions: Lactoferricin, an antimicrobial natural peptide, showed the same efficacy of chlorhexidine in the treatment of otitis characterized by bacterial or/and yeast overgrowth.

Review Article

Determining the use and value of social support in Telerehabiliation Interventions for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A narrative synthesis review

Lucinda Pidgeon, Trudy Pelton and Andrew Soundy*

Background: Telerehabilitation has been identified as an effective treatment that promotes exercise rehabilitation in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Social support is recognised as a core element of such interventions. However further research is needed to consider the role and value of different social support domains.

Aim: Review available literature to assess and synthesise the use and value of social support within telerehabilitation interventions for individuals with MS.

Method: A narrative synthesis was conducted. A systematic search of included articles was conducted. Electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2017. Other search methods were undertaken. Evaluation and synthesis of included articles utilised risk of bias assessment and a 4-stage synthesis process.

Main Results: A total of fourteen studies, involving 718 participants (505 female, 213 male; aggregated mean age 47.6 years) with MS, were included. Esteem support was the most frequently reported method of social support, followed by informational, emotional and tangible. It would appear social support can be beneficial in assisting participants to adhere to treatment interventions. Visual feedback may be directly beneficial to improve impaired balance in individuals with MS. A model for future interventions is provided.

Conclusions: Social support appears to increase the adherence of participants with MS to telerehabilitation interventions. Unique findings provide an indication for the direction and content of future interventions. Further research is necessary to ascertain the optimal types and frequencies of social support delivery and its effect on health outcomes for participants with MS.