Research Article

Development and quality evaluation of Jam from Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) and Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) juice

Adedeji Temileye Omotayo*

The seasonal nature of most fruits available in the market coupled with inadequate storage and processing facilities has limited their consumption by majority of the people in the country. Jams made from fruits are good bread spread rather than any other food products because they serve as adequate balance diet and it contains antioxidant such as vitamin C and A which play an important role in preventing cancer, cardiovascular problem and improvement of eyesight. Pawpaw and watermelon fruits have been reported to be nutritive and high in antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby improving the antioxidant status of the body. It is therefore deemed fit to produce jam from these perishable commodities in other to make them available all through the year and as well as adding to varieties of food products. The aqueous extracts of watermelon with pawpaw juice were processed into jam and the physicochemical properties of the jam samples were analysed. The resulting jam samples showed moisture content ranging between 30.60-35.30%, protein 0.40-0.80%, fat 0.20-0.40%, ash 1.20-1.70%, crude fibre 0.10-0.30%, carbohydrate 62.10-67.16%, β-carotene 610-1350µg/100g and ascorbic acid 9.60-15.40mg/100g. The jam samples were found to be very nutritive and high in antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby can improve the antioxidant status of the body. Sensory evaluation tests showed that the samples were acceptable and compared favourably with the commercial imported brand while sample AA had the highest preference in all the sensory attributes evaluated by the panellists. Microbiological examination also showed that the jam samples had total plate count ranging from 4.10x101 to 2.00 x101 cfu/g, yeast and mould count ranged from 2.10x101 to 1.00 x101cfu/g with no observable coliform count.

Research Article

Influence of elbow angle on the reliability and validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis

Robert W Pettitt , Jacob B Mehrhoff, David S Mandeville , Cherie D Pettitt and Steven Ross Murray*

Hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance (HH BIA) is a low-cost method to estimate percent body fat (%BF). The BIA method is consistently reliable, but questions on validity remain.We have observed anecdotally that elbow position can render consistently different measures of %BF while using HH BIA, thus leading to the question: Does elbow angle influence the validity of measures derived using HH BIA? The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of elbow position (i.e., IN=flexed to 90° versus OUT=fully extended) on the reliability of HH BIA on 44 male and 24 female healthy adults (age=21±2 yrs, BMI=23±3). An additional aim was to assess the validity of the HH BIA %BF on a subset of subjects (n=12) using air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®) as the criterion measure. The IN position was ~4%BF lower than the OUT position for HH BIA (p=0.05, effect size=0.67). Measures of %BF for both trials for the IN [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.99, coefficient of variation (CV)=2.99%] and OUT (ICC=0.99, CV=1.48%) conditions were highly reliable. On the subsample, the OUT (18.3±6.7 %BF) position exceeded both the IN (14.5±7.4 %BF) and the BOD POD® (16.1±7.8 %BF) measures (p<0.05); however, IN and BOD POD® measures of %BF did not differ (p=0.21). These findings support that HH BIA is a reliable measure at both elbow positions; however, %BF estimations vary considerably (~4%) with respect to the criterion measure depending on elbow position. The OUT position was found to overestimate criteria %BF. Further research may reveal an optimum elbow angle position for HH BIA estimates of %BF.

Research Article

Intravitreal ranibizumab in the management of acute central serous Chorioretinopathy

Ibrahim Nawaiseh, Ahmad Halawa* and Dina Alardah

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of ranibizumab in hastening the recovery of acute CSCR when given immediately at time of diagnosis.

Methods: In This retrospective case series, a total of 72 patients diagnosed with acute CSCR where reviewed, of which 63 received Ranibizumab at presentation. The patients were evaluated using Best corrected visual acuity, Ophthalmic examination, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography, in addition to indocyanine green angiography and OCT angiography in some cases, at presentation, one week, one month and two months’ post injection.

Results: From the total 72 patients diagnosed with acute CSCR, 63 of them received intravitreal ranibizumab and the remaining 9 patients preferred to go for observation. The mean age of patients was 41.2 year old. The ratio of male to female was 8:1. The mean BCVA at presentation was 6/15 on Snellen chart. All patients who received ranibizumab injection showed an improvement after 1 week, with a mean improvement in BCVA of two lines. Of them, 43 patients were back to BCVA of 6/6 after 2 months and showed complete resolution of sub retinal fluid. The remaining 20 patients showed an additional mean of improvement of one line (over the previous two lines) after the 2 months.

Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab hasten the recovery of both the BCVA and central macular thickness on OCT in acute CSCR when given immediately at presentation.

Case Report

Clinical Case: Necrotizing Fasciitis of the neck after surgery of a Mandibular Radicular Cyst

Egils Kornevs* and Normunds Bauers

Necrotizing fasciitis is a quickly progressing soft tissue infection that can be described with diffuse necrosis of subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. The cause of this can be infectious process of odontogenic origin, most commonly caused by mixed gram+ and gram- , aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that are found in patients that are predisposed to infections. In a case of undiagnosed illness, there is a possibility of life threatening complications. This case analysis introduces the diagnostic criteria of the disease and treatment plan, encouraging doctors to devote more attention to prevention of infections.


Fabrication of Lingual Retainer made easy

Madhvi Bhardwaj, Shantanu Khattri and Rohit Kulshrestha*

Direct bonding of a lingual retainer is challenging because it requires a long working time on the lingual aspect of the anterior teeth. Due to no direct vision there is a risk of contamination from saliva and moisture, which can cause bond failure; and it is difficult to apply the adhesive exactly where it is needed. The indirect method described in this article shows an easy way to increase better-quality bonding of the retainer.

Research Article

Safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic management in 210 patients with erosion of adjustable Gastric banding

Ramiro Galvez-Valdovinos*, Juan francisco Funes-Rodriguez, Ernesto Marin Y Santillan, Gustavo Lopez Ambriz and Juan Francisco Ramirez-Arias

Background: The band erosion (BE) is defined as the partial or complete movement towards the lumen of the stomach, is also known as migration, gastric incorporation and gastric inclusion. The presentation of this complication involves failure of bariatric procedures being ineffective and consequently requires the removal of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), usually through laparoscopic surgery.

The objective of this study is to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, surgical procedure, postoperative evolution in the integral treatment of BE. Material and Methods: We captured the data of patients with BE since January 2010 to October 2017. Database included the year of patient care, age, and sex, BMI before band placement, percentage of excess weight loss, number of device adjustments, clinical data and surgical procedure performed for resolution.

Results: A total 379 LAGB complications were diagnosed in our Institution; 210 patients with BE were diagnosed and treated, the average age was 39 years; range from 19 to 66 years, sex was 178 women and 32 men. The diagnosis was endoscopic in the 210 patients (100%). The surgical procedure to solve the problem was: to remove the LAGB, the fistulous orifice was closed and patch of omentum. The hospital stay was 3-5 days. The motility was zero. Complications were minor in 3% of the 210 patients (fever, atelectasis, wound infection). One patient was re-operated for evolving to residual abscess.

Conclusions: The BE is a serious failure in bariatric surgery. The resolution in this group of patients was to remove the band, direct closure of the fistulous orifice with patch of omentum. The surgical technique that was performed in this complication is safe, effective and easily reproducible.

Review Article

Impact of alloimmunization on transfusion-dependent patients

Surapon Tangvarasittichai*

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization can be a life-threatening complication for patients with thalassemia major and sickle cell disease (SCD) who must receive chronic therapeutic transfusions. Chronic transfusions can lead to erythrocyte alloimmunization, patients continue to develop alloantibodies due to the transference of the immunogenic antigens on the donor RBCs. Many complications are possible. Difficulty in finding compatible match units for the patients can cause transfusion delays delayed, or present alternative risks to the patients from delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. This review discusses the possible mechanisms, risk factors associated with alloimmunization formation and the hemolytic transfusion reactions and also describe the guideline for transfusion management of these patients, including opportunities and emerging approaches for minimizing this life-threatening complication.

Research Article

Pros and Cons Controversy on Molecular Imaging and Dynamics of Double- Standard DNA/RNA of Human Preserving Stem Cells-Binding Nano Molecules with Androgens/Anabolic Steroids (AAS) or Testosterone Derivatives through Tracking of Helium-4 Nucleus (Alpha Particle) Using Synchrotron Radiation

Alireza Heidari*

In the current study, we have investigated pros and cons controversy on molecular imaging and dynamics of double-standard DNA/RNA of human preserving stem cells-binding Nano molecules with Androgens/Anabolic Steroids (AAS) or Testosterone derivatives through tracking of Helium-4 nucleus (Alpha particle) using synchrotron radiation. In this regard, the enzymatic oxidation of double-standard DNA/RNA of human preserving stem cells-binding Nano molecules by haem peroxidases (or heme peroxidases) such as Horseradish Peroxidase (HPR), Chloroperoxidase (CPO), Lactoperoxidase (LPO) and Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) is an important process from both the synthetic and mechanistic point of view.

Case Report

New era of liver transplantation for HIV-HCV Co-infected patients: A case report

Konstantinos A Zorbas*, Sunil S Karhadkar, Kwan N Lau, Andreas Karachristos and Antonio Di Carlo

Morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients have been improved over the last decades with the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy. As a result, other comorbidities such as chronic kidney and chronic liver diseases have emerged in the HIV population. A considerable percentage of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) in HIV population is attributed to hepatitis C co-infection and reactivation, and a growing need for solid organ transplantation has emerged among those patients. On the other hand, several studies on liver transplantations of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have shown discouraging results both in patient and graft survival rates. As a result, HIV-HCV co-infection has been considered a relative contraindication for liver transplantation. Thankfully, new drugs for HCV treatment have been discovered, acting direct on viral replication of HCV and they have changed the whole clinical course of HCV/HIV co-infected liver transplant recipients. Our case illustrates the long-term efficacy and safety of the new combination of Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir in HCV/HIV co-infected liver transplant recipients.


Dendritic cells and TNF-Related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) represent new possibilities for sepsis treatment

Petya Ganova, Lyudmila Belenska-Todorova and Nina Ivanovska*

Sepsis refers to a generalized inflammatory response of the organism to an infection or to bacterial products in circulation, rather than the development of an infection per se. Despite recent advances in clinical practice and overall medical care, sepsis remains a great health care problem and is still the most common cause of death in critically ill patients with infection. We suppose that during the course of sepsis the expression of TRAIL in different organs correlates with acute mortality and further development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It is expected that dendritic cells (DCs) might become targets for apoptotic processes in a result of elevated TRAIL expression. This hypothesis is a bias for detailed investigations for in vivo studies in animal models and for in vitro studies of septic patients.

Research Article

Chemical composition and organoleptic properties of Cocoyam starch-wheat fl our blend noodles

Adedeji Temileye Omotayo*

Noodles are strips or strands cut from a sheet of dough made from flour, water and either common salt or a mixture of alkaline salt. Noodles consumption represents about 40% of the total wheat flour which are mainly consumed by school children. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat. Utilization of locally available, inexpensive materials like cocoyam that can substitute a part of wheat flour without adversely affecting the acceptability of the product will be a product development. This study therefore studied the chemical composition and organoleptic properties of instant noodles from the blend of wheat and cocoyam starch. Cocoyam starch was substituted into wheat flour at 20, 40, 60 & 80%. Analysis revealed higher carbohydrate (63.50-70.05)%, moisture (4.54-5.07)% and vitamin A (10.01-30.47) mg/100g, B1 (11.43-32.15) mg/100g but lower protein (4.56-8.79)%, phosphorus (0.34-0.52)%, calcium (1.83-0.98)%, iron (0.15-0.32) % and ash (1.19-3.20)%. The composite noodles revealed higher carbohydrate and mineral but lower protein than the commercial noodles. The sensory analysis revealed that 20% cocoyam compared favourably with the commercial noodles in terms of all the sensory attributes evaluated. This shows the possibility of producing noodles from cocoyam tubers which serves as novel food. This will further help to promote and improve utilization of cocoyam tuber.

Research Article

The outcome of Acute Kidney Injury in patients with severe Malaria

Joao Alberto Brandao1 and Joao Egidio Romao Jr.*

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious clinical complication in patients with severe malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of AKI in a large population of hospitalized patients with a primary admission diagnosis of malaria, and to investigate the robustness of the KDIGO criteria for predicting the need for dialysis, length of hospital stay and hospital mortality.

Results: We studied 695 consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnoses of malaria, in a 6 months period. AKI occurred in 86 (12.4%) patients (Stage 1 in 30.2%, Stage 2 in 23.3% and Stage 3 in 46.5%), and 19 (22.1%) patients required hemodialysis. No patient in the no-AKI or AKI Stage 1 groups (admission or maximum AKI Stage) required hemodialysis, and the requirement of hemodialysis was higher in patients with AKI Stage 2 (23.1%) and Stage 3 (42.4%). The length of hospital stay was longer (7.3±7.4 days vs 5.1±3.0 days; t=4.996, p<0.0001), and mortality was higher in patients who developed AKI than in those who did not (22,5% vs 2,5%; χ2=79.52; p<0.0001). Patients with AKI Stage 1, 2 and 3 had significantly higher hospital mortality (11%, 23% and 30%, respectively), compared with 2.5% for patients without AKI [odds ratio 5.2 (1.40-19.11, p=0.0331), 13.2 (4.24-41.06, p=0.0002), and 16.9 (7.26-36.65, p<0.0001)], respectively.

Conclusion: In a relatively large cohort of patients with falciparum malaria infection, the KDIGO criteria identified 12.4% with a diagnosis of AKI. The KDIGO classification was robust in this population for predicting the need for dialysis, length of hospital stay and hospital mortality. The results support the utilization of the KDIGO criteria in diagnosis and to predicting outcomes for patients with malarial AKI.

Research Article

Assessment of Complementary Feeding Practice of infants and young children aged 6-23 months in Gode Town, Somali Regional State of Ethiopia

Yimer Mihretie*

Malnutrition is the largest risk factor caused by inadequate nutrition that leads to childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as inadequate growth and development. Infants are at increased risk of malnutrition by six months, when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet their nutritional requirements. However the factors associated with nutritional status of infants after 6 months of age have received little attention in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the complementary foods of infants and young children (6-23 months) in Gode town of Kebele 01. The prevalences of wasting, stunting and underweight among infants and young children were 6.1%, 56.1%, 10.0% reespectively. Undernutrition is a public health problem among infants and young children in Gode town of Kebele 01. Breastfeeding was slightly positive associated with lower chances of wasting at r=0.61, p= 0.01 and underweight at r=0.331, p=0.01. While diarrheal disease was associated with higher chances of wasting and underweight. Initiation of complementary food was slightly positive association with wasting at r=0.179, p=0.05.

Research Article

Administration of Non- Pharmachologic Intervention in the control of Hypertension among selected volunteer retirees in Awka Metropolis Anambra State Nigeria

Alagbu Chukwubuikem Eugene*, Alagbu Chinwe Adline, Chike Ijezie Ifeoma Blessing and Agwubike Elias Okey

High blood pressure under medical palance is associated with a variety of circulatory diseases, and it has been estimated that over 12% of all deaths in the world is directly or remotely connected with hypertension. It is said that one out of every five persons, can expect to have high blood pressure at one time or the other, during one’s life time. Based on hemodynamic equation, the mean arterial pressure is equal to cardiac out-put, times resistance (p means=Q x R). Hence hypertension is usually as a result of either an increased cardiac output and/or an increased resistance. The most common form of high blood pressure in humans is called “essential hypertension”, while is said to have no known cause. However this research aims at showing how a 12-week moderate exercise with bicycle egometer (i.e., use of non-pharmacologic approach to reduce the resting heart rate and blood pressure of 6 volunteer retired civil servants from Anambra state civil service and 6 retired academic staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe university in Awka. The paired T-test analysis of data obtained revealed a statistical significant effect of the moderate 12-week exercise on bicycle egometer, on the resting heart rate and blood pressure of the experimental group of the respondents. Hence it could be concluded that the administration of moderate exercise on bicycle egometer could be an effective use of non-pharmacologic intervention in the control and prevention of high blood pressure or hypertension among the elderly.

Case Report

The transnasal bilobed flap for medial canthal reconstruction

Corredor-Osorio Rafael*, Massaro-Corredor Martha Gabriela and Buitrago-Corredor Vanessa Gabriela

Reconstruction of the eyelids, especially medial canthal area, is one of the greatest challenges faced by the oculoplastic, head and neck surgeons. A patient with a medial canthal defect, following oncological resection involving the medial canthus, upper and lower eyelids, and nose is presented. The defect was reconstructed using a transnasal bilobed flap. The transnasal bilobed flap is a simple and effective for medial canthal reconstruction and provides in one-time reconstruction and preserves the local anatomy.

Research Article

Perception of Nutrition and Exercise as a Tool in Controlling Cardiovascular Diseases among the Elderly in Anambra State

Alagbu Chukwubuikem Eugene*, Alagbu Chinwe Adline, Chike Ijezie Ifeoma Blessing and Agwubike Elias Okey

The research investigated the perception of nutrition and exercise as a tool in controlling Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) among elderly civil servants in Anambra State of Nigeria.A total of 250 respondents comprising 150 elderly academic staff Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka and 100 senior civil servants in the Anambra state civil service, who willingly, volunteered to participate in the study. Their ages ranged between 55-65 years purposively selected. The instrument for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire, with a reliability value of 0.73 using the test retest method. All data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and chi square tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study showed that nutrition (diet) and exercise have significant effect in the prevention/control of (CVDs) among the elderly. It is therefore recommended that at the civil service secretariats, universities and other establishments/parastatals, should establish high standard eateries (restaurants) where qualified caterers, would regularly provide nutritious diet, at subsidized rate for workers in this category. In order to enable these class of workers have at least one good meal per day, in addition to a mandatory one- work-free afternoon (2.00pm-4.00pm) for routine/regular physical exercises for these class of workers.

Research Article

Assessment of Oral Hygiene awareness in Geriatric patients attending OPD at ESIC Dental College, Rohini, New Delhi

Abhishek Singh, Aanchal Sahani, Rohit Kulshrestha*, Sahil Gupta, Deepak Passi and Mayank Gupta

Aim: To assess and learn oral health awareness and hygiene practices among geriatric patients and also to identify important barriers in the establishment of oral health services, disease prevention and oral health promotion programmes for the same.

Materials and Methods: A total of 500 patients in the age group of 50 years and above were selected using random sampling technique. A self‑administered structured questionnaire including 20 multiple choice questions was given to them. The results were analyzed using percentage.

Results: The result of this study shows an acute lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices. In Rohini, few people use tooth brush.

Conclusions: Hence, there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational programs to promote good oral health and impart education about correct oral hygiene practices.

Review Article

Intensive Care Units (ICU): The clinical pharmacist role to improve clinical outcomes and reduce mortality rate- An undeniable function

Luisetto M* and Ghulam Rasool Mashori

Observing relevant biomedical literature we have see that clinical pharmacist play a crucial role in ICU settings with reducing in mortality rate and improving some clinical outcomes.