08/03/2017
Case Report

AngioJetTM rheolytic thrombectomy induced intravascular haemolysis leading to Acute Kidney Injury requiring Dialysis

Hultin Sebastian*, Nguyen Tam and Murali Karumathil

Background: AngioJetTM rheolytic thrombectomy has been used in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome. Though not widely appreciated, it has the potential to cause intravascular haemolysis.

Report: A 37 year old man with no previous medical history presented to his GP with a three week history of progressive right upper limb swelling. Doppler imaging confirmed right upper limb DVT and CT scan demonstrated thoracic outlet syndrome. The patient underwent AngioJetTM thrombectomy followed by IV heparin infusion. Successful revascularisation of the occluded vein was achieved. Overnight he developed haematuria, which was initially attributed to IV heparin. Urinalysis however revealed no red cells or casts. Apart from an Hb drop from 134 to 117 his blood profile and blood film showed no abnormality. He subsequently developed progressive oliguria with marked oedema and acute kidney injury (AKI). His creatinine peaked at 1070umol/l at 96 hours post procedure and he was started on intermittent dialysis. He remained dialysis dependent for 6 days. Ultrasound imaging excluded urinary obstruction. Autoimmune and vasculitic serology were negative. Intravascular haemolysis and haemoglobinuria was confirmed by raised LDH (1714u/L) and low haptoglobin (<0.1units). Direct Coomb’s test, Cold agglutinin test and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria screen were negative. The patient’s renal function normalised over 3 months.

Conclusions: The likely cause of this man’s AKI is heme pigment nephropathy from intra-vascular haemolysis. Increased awareness of this condition may allow early identification and intervention to reduce the risk of renal injury from AngioJetTM associated haemolysis.

08/30/2017
Case Report

Lateralized Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy presenting with recurrent Lacunar Ischemic Stroke

Yi Li*, Ayman Al-Salaimeh, Elizabeth DeGrush and Majaz Moonis*

Here we reported an interesting case of an 84-year-old woman with acute onset of paresis of left arm and paresthesia of left face and arm. The symptoms resolved within two hours. She also had a similar prior episode two weeks ago with only left arm paresthesia.Her MRI revealed different stages of lacunar ischemic lesions. Interestingly, the SWAN sequences showed lateralized rather than global multiple microhemorrhages over the right MCA and PCA territory, and the sulcal hyperintensity on FLAIR was also seen with no associated susceptibility effect and minimal enhancement, indicating probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) based on Boston Criteria.

It has been acknowledged that the CAA could manifest with certain localization preference. Cerebral microinfarct and white matter disease in CAA have been more often observed in the posterior circulation territory, however the restricted lateralization reported in our case has not been seen. Since CAA is often diagnosed when the characteristic MRI findings are picked up incidentally, recognizing this as a potential “TIA mimic” will be important for guiding treatment due to its higher risk of bleeding. In summary, this case highlights that the CAA could present as restricted lateralized lesions and occur as transient neurologic deficits, which to our knowledge has not be reported before. Recognition of it as a potential manifestation of CAA will be valuable in the clinical diagnosis process.

08/29/2017
Research Article

Physiological impact of Zinc nanoparticle on germination of rice (Oryza sativa L) seed

Upadhyaya H*, Roy H, Shome S, Tewari S, Bhattacharya MK and Panda SK

Nanoparticles affects growth and development of Plant. Zinc is an important micronutrient that regulates various physiological responses in plant. Application of nanoparticles for modulating plants physiological response is a recent practice. Zinc nanoparticles has been widely used in industry for several decades. However, no significant work had been made on its potential use in agriculture. Understanding physiological effect of Zn NP on rice seed germination could suggest the basis for its prospective application in agriculture to improve plant growth. In the present experiment effect of Zn NP was studied in Kmj-6-1-1 which is a commonly growing rice cultivar of Karimganj district of Assam, India. An exposure to Zn NP (0 mg/L, 5mg/L,10mg/L, 15mg/L, 20mg/L & 50mg/L) caused significant changes in radicle and plumule length , mass ( fresh & dry mass) and seed moisture content in rice. Antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione reductase (GR) also increased due to ZnNP treatment. This suggest that Zn NP may significantly alters antioxidant metabolism during rice seed germination. In conclusion, Zn NP protected rice plants from ROS damage by improving levels of antioxidant enzyme activities during germination. As a consequence the Zn NP treated seeds, showed better potential for germination. Further, genomic analysis of germinating rice seeds are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which Zn NP modulates germination process in rice.

08/23/2017
Research Article

Study of body composition, physiological variables in Grade III obese submitted to arm ergometer test

Felipe Monnerat Marino Rosa, Renato Vidal Linhares*, Jose Quaresma, Joao Regis Ivar Carneiro, Valeria Bender Braulio, Roberto Simao Denise Pires de Carvalho and Jose Fernandes Filho

Introduction: Number of obese people is growing on a daily basis in Brazil, including morbid obese ones, but there is still a lack of studies with this subject. Due to this, the main goal of this study was to identify body profile, physiological variables behavior and oxygen consumption in grade III obese women, submitted to an ergospirometric test in arm ergometer.

Method: Take part in this study, thirteen (13) female grade III obese patients between 20 and 40 years. They were submitted to an electric bioimpedance test for body composition measurement and an Ergospirometric test in arm ergometer for oxygen consumption, heart rate, and oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, resting and after exercises, analysis.

Results: The patients revealed a BMI of 46.5±3.81 kg/m², 51.9±1.59% of body fat percentage. The patients reached 168.2±4.57bpm of heart rate, didn’t make any hypertensive response to the effort reaching an arterial pressure of 171.1±22.15mmHg x 87.5±4.18mmHg. Oxygen saturation was 98±0.71% and oxygen consumption peak was, also in average, 12.3±2.75ml.kg.min-1.

Conclusion: It was verified that there was no oxygen saturation drop nor hypertensive response and all of the patients reached the maximum heart rate.

 
 
08/30/2017
Research Article

Profile of vitamin D receptor polymorphism Bsm I and FokI in end stage renal disease Egyptian patients on maintenance hemodialysis

EL-Attar HA*, Mokhtar MM and Gaber EW

Objective: In end stage renal disease, the synthesis of vitamin D is disturbed.Hyperparathyroidism is one of the key factors in the pathogenesis of many of the complications of dialysis mainly bone and cardiovascular complications.Aim:This study aimed at assessing vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms BsmIand FokI in Egyptian patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis and the assosciation of these polymorphisms with cardiovascular complications and hyperparathyroidism among these patients.

Methods: One hundred subjects, recruited from Medical Research Institute, from March to July 2014, divided into two main groups; the control group which included thirty apparently healthy subjects and the patients group which included seventy patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis with median 4 years. To all studied subjects, detailed history was taken, thorough physical examination, carotid intima media thickness, presence of plaques and ECG ischemic changes. Laboratory investigations included serum levels of: glucouse, urea, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoproteins, calcium, phosphorus, and CRP as well as plasma PTH level. For molecular studies, the detection of BsmI and FokI polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR / RFLP) technique.

Results: 1.No statistically significant difference could be detected in both BsmI and FokI gene polymorphisms between the hemodialysis patients and the controls, suggesting that the development of ESRD had no relation with either VDR BsmI or FokI gene polymorphisms.2.No statistically significant difference were found in these polymorphisms between the hemodialysis patients with or without cardiovascular complications or between patients with PTH level less or more than 300 pg/ml. These results suggest that the development of cardiovascular complications and secondary hyperparathyroidism among Egyptian patients on maintenance haemodialysis cannot be attributed to these two gene polymorphisms.

Conclusion: No association could be found between the variant alleles of BsmI and FokI gene polymorphisms and the development of ESRD, cardiovascular complications and secondary hyperparathyroidism among the studied samples of Egyptian patients on maintenance haemodialysis.

08/25/2017
Research Article

The influence of Infliximab on the development of Experimental Pancreatitis

Lychkova AE*, Golubev Yu Yu and Puzikov AM

Aim: To identify the possibility of correction of motor function of the gastro-intestinal tract in experimental pancreatitis with the administration of infliximab.

Material and methods: Pancreatitis was modeled by the administration of picrylsulfonic acid retrogradely into the pancreatic duct of rat (n=5) and 4 animals were control. Electromyogram (EMG) of the pancreatic duct was monitored immediately after the administration of picrylsulfonic acid and on the 15th day of pancreatitis simulation before and after the administration of infliximab. The morphological investigation of pancreas was conducted on the 15th day of development of pancreatitis and on the 15th day of treatment of pancreatitis with infliximab.

Results: Infliximab restores the motor function of pancreatic duct and structure of pancreas during acute pancreatitis.

Conclusion: Protective action of infliximab during acute pancreatitis was shown.

08/31/2017
Case Report

Potter Syndrome: A case study

Konstantinidou P, Chatzifotiou E, Nikolaou A, Moumou G, Karakasi MV, Pavlidis P and Anestakis D*

Potter syndrome (PS) is a term used to describe a typical physical appearance, which is the result of dramatically decreased amniotic fluid volume secondary to renal diseases such as bilateral renal agenesis (BRA). Other causes are abstraction of the urinary tract, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and renal hypoplasia. In 1946, Dr Edith Potter characterized this prenatal renal failure/renal agenesis and the resulting physical characteristics of the fetus/infant that result from oligohydramnios as well as the complete absence of amniotic fluid (anhydramnios). Oligohydramnios and anhydramnios can also be due to the result of leakage of amniotic fluid from rupturing of the amniotic membranes. The case reported below, concerns of stillborn boy with potter syndrome.

08/31/2017
Research Article

Effect of Pre-Treatments and Drying Methods on the Chemical Quality and Microbial Density of Wild Edible Oyster Mushroom

Ibrahim TA*, Adaramola-Ajibola KM, Adesuyi AT Olanrewaju SO and Akinro EB

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of pretreatments and drying methods on the chemical quality and microbial density of wild edible oyster mushroom. The mushroom samples were pretreated by steeping in 0.5% citric and sodium metabisulphite at room temperature for 10 minutes before being subjected to sun and cabinet drying until a constant weight was reached. The dried samples including the control samples (Samples not pretreated with chemicals) were evaluated for proximate, mineral composition and microbial density. The proximate analysis (protein, ash, fat, moisture and fibre) showed that untreated mushroom samples (both sun and cabinet dried) had the overall best results followed by samples pretreated with 0.5% sodium metabisulphite while samples pretreated with 0.5% citric acid had the lowest values. The mineral analysis (calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium) of the mushroom samples followed the same trend as the proximate analysis. The microbial density of the samples showed that samples pretreated with 0.5% citric acid had the lowest count followed by samples pretreated with 0.5% sodium metabisulphite while the untreated samples had the highest microbial density. This implies that pretreatment with citric acid and sodium metabisulphite reduced the microbial density which may invariably extend the storage life of the edible oyster mushroom.

08/28/2017
Review Article

Microarray Analysis of Fish Genomic Data for enhancing Aquaculture Productivity of India

Ajit Kumar Roy*

This review gives a brief introduction to the microarray technology and its experimental design and data analysis and a discussion of recent global progress in research using microarray technology in fish biology and aquaculture. DNA microarrays have been reported to have been used for the analysis of gene expression during various physiological, developmental or cellular processes in fish. During the recent past, investigators have begun to use microarrays on fish to address ecological, evolutionary and environmental questions including the variability of gene expression in natural populations, speciation, ecotype diversity, environmental remediation and host-pathogen interactions. The study suggests that a lot of gene expression studies have been conducted on salmon and zebrafish in Europe and USA. The same may be applied on Indian Major Carps and Catfishes to augment productivity from aquaculture sector.

08/28/2017
Letter to the Editor

The revolution of cardiac surgery evolution Running head: Cardiac surgery evolution

Marzia Cottini*

From the First case of primitive cardiac surgery (CS), treatment of stab wound of the heart (Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, 1893), to recent surgical procedures and device implantations for end-stage heart failure (HF), the CS has grown and emerged in the public health more and more [1].

The heart valve disease had interested immediately since the non-cardiopulmonary era because of the multitude of rheumatic patients and congenital valve disease. In the 1952, Hufnagel implanted the first valve in descending aorta and it was the sign of the first step of the CS evolution. New prosthesis and heart valve techniques were tested between 1970 and 2000 with optimal results in patients’ quality of life and survival, at the same time of CPB evolution.

08/29/2017
Research Article

Convenient route synthesis of some new benzothiazole derivatives and their pharmacological screening as antimicrobial agents

Ahmed A Fadda*, Nanees N Soliman and Ahmed Fekri

Background: The reaction of 2-(benzo]d[thiazol-2-yl)-3-oxopentanedinitrile 4 with DMF/DMA has been investigated to explore the synthetic potentialities of this novel activated nitrile in heterocyclic synthesis.

Results: Pyrano, pyridino, pyrazolo, azepino and oxothiepano carbonitrile derivatives could be obtained starting from 4 and plausible mechanisms for their formations are reported.

Conclusion: The newly synthesized compounds were assessed for their antimicrobial activity. Compounds 7, 10 and 12 exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial profile against the tested organisms.

08/31/2017
Case Report

Tinnitus: Diagnosis and treatment options

Roya Vahdatinia, James Keane, Victoria Troncoso and Leonard B Goldstein*

Tinnitus-derived from the Latin “tinnire” meaning “to ring” is a perceived ringing, buzzing, or hissing in the ear(s) or around the head-which has multiple etiologies and is sometimes idiopathic. As of 2009 in the United States, approximately 50 million Americans were affected for six months or greater, while a United Kingdom study in 2000 reported a 10% prevalence in the adult population [1].Tinnitus may vary widely with regard to pitch, loudness, description of sound, special localization, and temporal pattern [2]. Most often, tinnitus is associated with other aural symptoms, such as hearing loss and hyperacusis [3]. Tinnitus may result in sleep disturbances, work impairments, and distress. The severity varies within this cohort of chronic sufferers, with some unable to fulfill daily activities. Though tinnitus is more likely to affect adults and the incidence increases with age, children can experience tinnitus as well [4]. Males are more likely to suffer as are individuals who smoke [5].

08/31/2017
Review Article

Use of MicroRNAs to Screen for Colon Cancer

Farid E Ahmed*, Nancy C Ahmed, Mostafa Gouda and Chris Bonnerup

Colon cancer (CC) screening is important for diagnosing early stage for malignancy and therefore potentially reduces mortality from this disease because the cancer could be cured at the early disease stage. Early detection is needed if accurate and cost effective diagnostic methods are available. Mortality from colon cancer is theoretically preventable through screening. The Current screening method, the immunological fecal occult blood test, FOBTi, lacks sensitivity and requires dietary restriction, which impedes compliance. Moreover colonoscopy is invasive and costly, which decreases compliance, and in certain cases could lead to mortality. Compared to the FOBT test, a noninvasive sensitive screen that does not require dietary restriction would be more convenient. Colonoscopy screening is recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC). Although it is a reliable screening method, colonoscopy is an invasive test, often accompanied by abdominal pain, has potential complications and has high cost, which have hampered its application worldwide. 

A screening approach that uses the relatively stable and nondegradable microRNA molecules when extracted from either the noninvasive human stool, or the semi-invasive blood samples by available commercial kits and manipulated thereafter, would be more preferable than a transcriptomic messenger (m)RNA-, a mutation DNA-, an epigenetic-or a proteomic-based test. That approach utilizes reverse transcriptase (RT), followed by a modified quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). To compensate for exosomal miRNAs that would not be measured, a parallel test could be performed on stool or plasma’s total RNAs, and corrections for exosomal loss are made to obtain accurate results. Ultimately, a chip would be developed to facilitate diagnosis, as has been carried out for the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods. The gold standard to which the miRNA test is compared to is colonoscopy. If laboratory performance criteria are met, a miRNA test in human stool or blood samples based on high throughput automated technologies and quantitative expression measurements currently employed in the diagnostic clinical laboratory, would eventually be advanced to the clinical setting, making a noticeable impact on the prevention of colon cancer.

08/25/2017
Review Article

Surface Plasmon Resonance technology to assess biological interactions

Silvia Bartollino*, Alessandro Medoro, Donatella Mignogna, Erika di Zazzo and Bruno Moncharmont

Molecular interactions between proteins or between proteins and small molecules are pivotal events for selective binding of biological structures and, consequentially, for their correct function. In this scenario, the evaluation of kinetic parameters, characterizing a molecular interactions, is considered a crucial event to reveal the nature of binding processes.

The focus on peculiar forces involved in the molecular recognition represents an opportunity to explore biological interactions in real time, and to develop a number of innovative biotechnological methods for diagnosis and/or therapy.

Currently, optical biosensors, offering an increasingly effective technology to detect in real time molecular binding, are usually composed by a detector, a sensor surface and a sample delivery system: only definite substances, which are able to interact specifically with the biological part, lead to an optical or electrical signal of the physical transducer.

In this review we want to highlight the exponentially-growing interest of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based optical biosensors for molecular binding analysis in different research fields.

08/30/2017
Review Article

The role of UK national ligament registry as additional source of evidence for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Review of the literature and future Perspectives

Tarek Boutefnouchet*, Thomas Laios and Keshav Mathur

Background: There is paucity in studies reporting long-term results following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. A UK national ligament registry (NLR) designed to collect demographic, clinical and outcome data on patients undergoing ACL reconstruction was launched in 2013. There was therefore an emergent question on the role of such registry as an additional source of evidence.

Study aims: A framework analysis aimed to provide a basis for the evaluation of outcomes following ACL management and formulate a structure of the evidence, which can be derived from the registry.

Methods: A systematic approach was adopted to select relevant studies. Qualitative thematic and meta-narrative analyses were conducted. Level-1 registry data were recorded for all primary ACL reconstruction procedures from January to June 2016. Registry data content and validity were evaluated.

Results: Seven studies were suitable for analyses yet none defined the pattern of meniscal injury following initial treatment. When reported the incidence varied markedly between 23% and 80%. There was evidence of collection of at least one principal outcome measure in at least 85% of participants across all studies. Thematic analysis identified four key domains of outcome measures (1) intervention selection, (2) Knee stability evaluation, (3) Patient reported outcomes, (4) Radiographic evaluation and risk of secondary osteoarthritis. Graft choice, rate of meniscal and chondral injuries and cumulative risk of revision surgery had incomplete and inconsistent reports. Comparison of demographic and clinical data with the first registry report demonstrated: predominately younger patient population; older female patients at time of intervention; and higher incidence of meniscal tears.

Conclusions: Registry data driven quality and research improvement open a new paradigm in ACL reconstruction evidence base and future practice. Early observations have consolidated the importance of associated meniscal injuries in the management of ACL rupture. Further work is needed to improve registry data completeness, accuracy and validity. A proposed data migration process using available technologies can help harmonise data collection without the added burden on clinical services.

 
 
 
 
Study aims: A framework analysis aimed to provide a basis for the evaluation of outcomes following ACL management and formulate a structure of the evidence, which can be derived from the registry.
08/31/2017
Research Article

Exploring novel medical applications for commonly used veterinary drug (tilmicosin antibiotic)

Fatma I Abo El-Ela* and El-Banna HA

Tilmicosin (TMC) is a semi synthetic macrolide antibiotic of tylosin derivatives commonly used by veterinaries, has been shown to reveal beneficial pharmacological activities. In the current study, the potential wound healing activity, Anti-oxidant effect (ulcer and hepatoprotective) were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic (central and peripheral), hypnotic and antispasmodic activity were also screened. This study included adult both sexes of rats (200-250 gm), mice (20-25 gm) and adult rabbits. Experimental wound was induced on the anterior-dorsal side of each rat whereas, ulcer induced by ethanol causing mucosal damage in rats. The oral anti-inflammatory induced through formalin producing edema, antipyretic (Brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia) and analgesic (writhing test, hot plate method, tail immersion method) while hypnotic effects induced through thiopental sodium. Anti-spasmodic effect on isolated organs (intestinal and uterine muscles) using new method of Modular Single Chamber Organ Bath were carried out on experimental animals. Tilmicosin antibiotic at different two doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt., has an important role in treatment of ulcer (cytoprotective effect) and improvement the wound healing processes besides anti-inflammatory, analgesics, and anti-pyretic effects. Tilmicosin revealed also hypnotic and intestinal anti-spasmodic effects but showed Pharmacovigilence hepatotoxic effect through the histopathological studies which revealed sever hepatic damage especially at larger dose.

08/31/2017
Research Article

Nutritional Value of Three Different Oyster Mushrooms Grown on Cattail Weed Substrate

Ram Naraian* and Bharti Dixit

Three distinct oyster mushroom strains including Pleurotus florida (PF), Pleurotus eous (PE) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS) were successfully cultivated on cattail weed substrate. A comparative analysis of different parameters viz., biological efficiency (BE) and protein, carbohydrate, crude fiber and fat content in fruitbodies were evaluated. According to biological efficiencies obtained PF (90%) was superior strain, while order can be represented as 90%> 89%> 82% respectively in PF>PS>PE. The highest protein (4.8 g), lipid (0. 61 g) and dietary fiber (31.6g) values were obtained in the fruitings of Pleurotus sajor-caju. However, the utmost level of carbohydrate (41g) was recorded in Pleurotus eous. On the basis of the observation of the present study we recommend use of cattail weed substrate for cultivation of oyster mushrooms for better nutrients.

08/30/2017
Research Article

How does a Personalized Rehabilitative Model infl uence the Functional Response of Different Ankle Foot Orthoses in a Cohort of Patients Affected by Neurological Gait Pattern?

Maurizio Falso*, Eleonora Cattaneo, Elisa Foglia, Marco Zucchini and Franco Zucchini

Background: Orthoses need to support physiotherapy as well as surgical treatment. Related to patient’s rehabilitative goals and pathological gait pattern, orthotists have to produce an orthoses that using an adjustable ankle joint system with preloaded disc springs can store the energy brought in by the body weight and produce a tuning effect on patient’s gait and sense of balance.The purpose of this study was to establish how a personalized proprioceptive individualized rehabilitative treatment could influence the functional response of different AFOs (Ankle Foot Orthoses) in a cohort of patients affected by neurological gait pattern.

Methods: Five patients affected by different neurological gait pattern and volunteered to participate to this study were recruited. The comparative spatio-temporal and functional effect on gait pattern of 3 types of AFOs was investigated under 4 study conditions: 1) without AFO or free-walk (FW); 2) wearing a Codivilla spring, 3) wearing a carbon unjointed AFO (“Toe-Off”); 4) wearing an innovative carbon-kevlar dynamic joint DAFO (DAFONS=Dynamic Ankle Foot Orthoses with Neuroswing). In line with our rehabilitative model, patients underwent to a weekly treatment session, 80 minutes duration per session, for 4 weeks. Evaluation was made before (time T3=time of recruitment) and after our individualized rehabilitative treatment course (time T4=1 month from T3) by using: a. G-Walk sensor (by BTS) spatio-temporal measures in different gait performances; b. clinical/functional outcome measures (Modified Ashworth Scale or MAS for the affected upper and lower limb; Medical Research Council or MRC; orthostatic stability evaluation by using the Berg Balance Scale or BBS).

Findings: A comparative analysis of clinical and instrumental data, performed in the pre-defined four investigational conditions, showed:

√ a statistical insignificant change of MRC and MAS scales at time T4, with a significance trend outcome observed at the same time by using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

√ a statistical significant difference between test duration (sec) by using Toe-Off vs DAFONS and by using Codivilla spring vs Toe-Off

√ a statistical significant increase of the stride length on the left side (% cycle length) by using DAFONS compared to Toe-Off for patient P1, P3 and P5 with a parameter decrease by using DAFONS compared to Codivilla spring and Toe-Off use for patient P2

√ a statistical significant correlation between BBS trend and test duration (sec) by using Codivilla spring at time T3 and T4

√ in a comparative post-treatment visual gait analysis a modification of each patient’s static and dynamic postural assessment by using 3 different types of orthoses

Interpretation: In line with our study design we noted at the end of the proposed rehabilitative treatment an amelioration of gait quality with the use of DAFONS in all those patients (P1, P3 and P5) who showed a neurocognitive competence with a related functional grade of neurorehabilitative re-learning attitude of the physiological gait pattern and with a compromised perceptive control of gait and core stability. The proprioceptive profile of our rehabilitative program could promote the pro-adaptive and facilitation properties of a personalized gait control, induced by an innovative dynamic ankle foot orthoses with a modulable ankle joint system called Neuroswing. In the daily clinical practice, the personalized integration of a neurorehabilitative program and DAFONS can perform an individualized peripheral neuro-facilitation of gait cycle (peripheral perceptive facilitation), a neurorehabilitative re-learning process of physiological gait pattern (peripheral assisted neuroplasticity facilitation DAFONS induced) and an increase of patient’s motor abilities and quality of life in all daily performances.

 
Interpretation: In line with our study design we noted at the end of the proposed rehabilitative treatment an amelioration of gait quality with the use of DAFONS in all those patients (P1, P3 and P5) who showed a neurocognitive competence with a related functional grade of neurorehabilitative re-learning attitude of the physiological gait pattern and with a compromised perceptive control of gait and core stability. The proprioceptive profile of our rehabilitative program could promote the pro-adaptive and facilitation properties of a personalized gait control, induced by an innovative dynamic ankle foot orthoses with a modulable ankle joint system called Neuroswing. In the daily clinical practice, the personalized integration of a neurorehabilitative program and DAFONS can perform an individualized peripheral neuro-facilitation of gait cycle (peripheral perceptive facilitation), a neurorehabilitative re-learning process of physiological gait pattern (peripheral assisted neuroplasticity facilitation DAFONS induced) and an increase of patient’s motor abilities and quality of life in all daily performances.
 
 
√ a statistical significant correlation between the BBS trend and the double gait support duration on the right side (% cycle) with number of left step cycles by using DAFONS at time T3 and T4
 
√ a statistical significant correlation between the BBS trend and the double gait support duration on the right side (% cycle) with number of left step cycles by using DAFONS at time T3 and T4
 
 
 
 
 
 
Findings: A comparative analysis of clinical and instrumental data, performed in the pre-defined four investigational conditions, showed:
08/23/2017
Case Report

Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction/ Vocal Cord Dysfunction and the Role It Plays in Refractory Asthma

Jorge Villalpando, Jay I Peters* and Sandra G Adams

Chronic asthma accounts for a significant amount of unscheduled office and emergency department (ED) visits. According to the latest World Health Organization statistics, asthma worldwide affects 300 million individuals and creates a substantial health burden by restricting the patient’s lifetime activities. Data estimate that asthma causes a loss of disability-adjusted life years over 150,000/year [1].

08/22/2017
Research Article

Prevalence of reported drug allergy and its impact on Beta lactam use with fi nancial and health implications

Abirami Murugesh-Warren#, Ranu Malhi#, Yogini Jani, Christopher Corrigan, David Walker, Harsha Kariyawasam and Joanna Lukawska*

Background:While recognition and documentation of true drug allergy is critically important, most physicians acknowledge that its prevalence is likely overestimated, often on the basis of historical, sometimes anecdotal evidence. Correct or not, once applied, drug allergy labels may result in altered, potentially inferior therapy, increased costs and prolonged hospitalisation.

Objective:Estimate the point prevalence, accuracy and symptomatology of self-reported drug allergy in a typical, large NHS Acute Trust adult inpatient population. In the subset with penicillin allergy (PA), estimate additional management costs from the use of alternative antibiotics and readmission rates in the previous 5 years.

Methods:Data on self-reported drug allergies were extracted from 440 adult inpatient prescription charts over a 4 month period. Where penicillin allergy (PA) was reported, alternative antibiotic regimens were recorded and their additional costs calculated. Hospital electronic records were used to assess readmission rates of PA patients.

Results:194/440 inpatients (44.5%) reported at least one drug allergy. Antibiotic allergy was most commonly reported (51%), followed by analgesic (23%) and antiemetic (12%) allergy. PA accounted for 76% of reported antibiotic allergy. The commonest reported symptoms were cutaneous (42%) and gastrointestinal (18%). Where antibiotic therapy was required for patients with PA to manage acute infections, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Teicoplanin, Clindamycin and Cefuroxime were the most commonly employed alternatives. Extrapolation of these figures to include the entire Trust inpatient population suggested that the use of alternative antibiotics in PA patients incurred additional annual expenditure of £268,000. Further, 87% of PA patients had been admitted more than once in the preceding 5 years, with 74% requiring further courses of antibiotics during these admissions.

Conclusion:Self-reported drug allergy, and in particular PA, is common in hospital inpatient populations and, in addition to the potentially unnecessary hazards to individual patients resulting from the use of alternative antibiotics, results in a considerable additional financial burden to the healthcare system. This problem could be eliminated by the provision of a nationwide and equitable tertiary Allergy service.

08/29/2017
Research Article

Parathyroid Functions in Thalassemia Major Patients

Ayfer Gozu Pirinccioglu*, Deniz Gokalp and Murat Soker

Background: Hypoparathyroidism is well known to occur in thalassemia major patients, but it is thought to be uncommon and its incidence is considered to be decreasing with improvements in chelation therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of parathyroid dysfunction in the first decade of life of the patients with thalassemia major.

Patients and Methods: Ninety children with beta-thalassemia major (55 males and 35 females) with a mean age of 7.17±3.78 years (1-13 years) and age and sex matched control group of 60 healthy children (36 males and 24 females) with a mean age 6.98±3.66 years (1-13) years. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum total Calcium (Ca), serum phosphorus (P), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and serum ferritin levels were measured.

Result: PTH levels were higher than normal range in 23 (25.6%) patients with a mean value of 75.2±31.3 µg/mL compared to those having normal range level (35.3±15.2 µg/mL). Ca levels were found low in 11 patients (12.2%), and P levels were found high in 2 (2.22%) and low in 4 (4.44%) patients while high ALP levels were found in 6 (6.67%) patients. 25-OHD levels were low in all patients with a mean value of 24.95±5.82.

Conclusion: Reports in the literature indicate that parathyroid dysfunction due to iron overload generally occurs in 2nd or 3rd decade of patients with thalassemia major. However, our study shows that PTH due to iron overload may develop in a significant number of thalassemia major patients, therefore, all thalassemics should be carefully watched for endocrine organ function such as hyperparathyroidism might occur even in the first decade of the patients with thalassemia major.

08/18/2017
Research Article

Value of electrocardiographic T wave inversion in lead aVL in prediction of Mid Left Anterior Descending Stenosis in patients with stable Coronary Artery

Gehan Magdy* and Awad Yousef

Background: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a simple and noninvasive bedside diagnostic tool with a well-established role in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to study the diagnostic value of electrocardiographic ST-T wave changes in lead aVL in prediction of site of coronary artery stenosis in patients with chronic stable angina. 

Patients and Methods: study was conducted on 156 patients referred for invasive coronary angiography with history of stable CAD as proved by non- invasive tests, 12 lead ECG was recorded and fully interpreted with more focus on T wave direction in aVL lead. T waves in aVL were categorized into one of three groups: upright, flat or inverted.

Results: regarding T wave in lead aVL, inverted T wave was reported in 71(45.5%) patients, 58 (37.2%) patients were with upright T wave in lead aVL and 27(17.3%) patients were with flat T wave in lead aVL, and we found that inverted T wave in lead aVL was most evident in 56(73.7%) patients with mid LAD with (highest κ value equal to 0.550[moderate agreement], and p value<0.001.

Conclusions: This study confirmed the diagnostic value of T wave inversion in lead aVL in prediction of mid left anterior descending artery lesions in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

08/21/2017
Case Report

Photon Absorption characteristics of some selected Enzyme Inhibitors used in Cancer Research in the Energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

Mustafa Recep Kacal, Huseyin Ali Karatas and Ferdi Akman*

The absorption parameters such as total mass attenuation coefficients, molecular, atomic, and electronic cross sections, effective atomic numbers and electron densities were calculated for some selected enzyme inhibitors in the photon energy range from 1 keV up to 100 GeV.The changes in the absorption parameters were interpreted with the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production processes. It is observed that the 2-Imino-1-imidazolidineacetic acid enzyme inhibitor has more radiation shielding feature when compared to other chosen enzyme inhibitors. The present investigation is anticipated to be useful for researchers studying with radiation in several fields and cancer researchers.

08/22/2017
Case Report

Otogenic lateral sinus Thrombosis: a rare complication of chronic Otitis media

Eghoihunu Ireo*, Prashant Gupta and Ganapathy Dhanasekar

Since the advent of antibiotics, lateral sinus thrombosis is an infrequent complication of otitis media. Lateral sinus thrombosis may occur by thrombophlebitis or penetration by offending pathogens through the dura of middle and posterior cranial fossae. We present a case of right-sided sigmoid and transverse venous sinus thrombosis as a rare complication of chronic suppurative otitis media in an adult. We discuss the patient’s imaging, management and relevant literature to offer clinical recommendations.

A 39-year-old woman presented with headache, neck pain, vomiting, fever and photophobia with a tender right mastoid on examination. Computerised Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Venogram of the head revealed complete opacification of the right mastoid air cells and middle ear, with absent flow void in the right transverse and sigmoid sinus, consistent with thrombosis. After discussion with neurosurgery, she was commenced on anticoagulants. The patient was readmitted with right otalgia and otorrhea refractory to medical treatment, and ultimately underwent right mastoid exploration.
 

A 39-year-old woman presented with headache, neck pain, vomiting, fever and photophobia with a tender right mastoid on examination. Computerised Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Venogram of the head revealed complete opacification of the right mastoid air cells and middle ear, with absent flow void in the right transverse and sigmoid sinus, consistent with thrombosis. After discussion with neurosurgery, she was commenced on anticoagulants. The patient was readmitted with right otalgia and otorrhea refractory to medical treatment, and ultimately underwent right mastoid exploration.

Conclusion: Lateral sinus thrombosis may occur with other intracranial or extracranial complications of otitis media. Clinicians should approach any complication of otitis media with vigilance as antibiotics may mask some signs and symptoms of mastoiditis, which can progress to otogenic brain abscess.

08/31/2017
Research Article

Anti-nutrient and mineral properties of Complementry Food produced from Malted Red Sorgum and Defatted Soybean Flour Blend

Agbaje RB, Oloye DA*, Olatunji CA and Olawale-Olakunle OE

This study was aimed at producing a high nutritious food that will meet the nutritional requirements of consumers. Blends of malted red sorghum and defatted soybeans flour were processed and the resulting flours were formulated at ratios of 100:00; 95:5; 90:10 and 80:20 (malted red sorghum: defatted soybeans flour). The resulting products were subjected to antinutrients and minerals properties determination. The results obtained showed that the antinutrients decreased linearly with increase in the mineral elements. Antinutrients in the blends decreased from 2.25-1.80mg/g (oxalate); 2.45-2.16mg/g (phytate); 14.16-9.26g/100g (Alkaloids); 2.12-1.69/100g (saponin) and 0.18-0.13mg/g (Tannin). A percentage increase of 12.6% (sodium); 10.8% (calcium); 9.5% (potassium); 3.7% (magnesium) and 14.1% (Iron) was recorded as the quantity of defatted soybeans flour increased in the blends. The low levels of antinutrients in the blends produced make them safe and suitable for human consumption. Substitution of malted red sorghum with 20% defatted soybean flour showed a remarkable improvement in the mineral contents of the diets.
08/30/2017
Research Article

Effect of drying methods on the physicochemical properties and Fatty Acid composition of Moringa Seeds Oil

Omosuli SV, Oloye DA and Ibrahim TA*

Effect of drying methods (sun-drying and cabinet oven drying) on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oils extracted from moringa seeds was investigated. Oil from the seeds was extracted using solvent (hexane) after drying. Drying increased the yield from 30.30-33.11%. The oil samples were less dense than water with specific gravities of 0.9032, 0.9075 and 0.9030 respectively. A significant difference exists in the moisture contents (0.11-0.21%); smoke point (202-2250C), flash point (310-3170C) and fire point (360-3690C). Sun-drying and cabinet oven drying brought about a decrease in the acid value (1.80-1.08mgKOH/g), saponification value (174.87-105mgKOH/g), Iodine value (16.10-13.90wijs) and peroxide value (11.24-2.3-Meq/kg). The decrease is an indication of quality improvement of the oils. More unsaturated fatty acids were present in the samples between 76.61% and 81.66%. Oleic acid was predominant (44.92% raw, 45.71% sundried and 43.60% cabinet oven dried). Sun-drying and cabinet oven drying did not have much significant effect on the physical, chemical and fatty acid compositions of the oil. The results obtained from this study showed that the three oil samples are good as edible oil and for commercial purpose.

08/04/2017
Research Article

Effect on Vitamin D status of Breastfeeding Infants after Vitamin D3 Supplementation during Breastfeeding Lactation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

Sathit Niramitmahapanya*, Surasak Kaoiean, Varaporn Sangtawesin, Anusorn Patpanaprapan, Narisa K Bordeerat and Chaicharn Deerochanawong

Background: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy increases several risks of breastfed mothers. To prevent these adverse events, vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation is recommended, but suggested dose ranges vary.

Objective: To determine whether vitamin D3 1,800 IU/d supplementation in lactating mothers improves the vitamin D status of their breastfed infants.

Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo–controlled trial with Thai pregnant women was conducted. Lactating mothers (n=72) and their breastfed infants with insufficient maternal 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in the third trimester were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which received 1,800 IU/d vitamin D supplementation and the other a placebo. Maternal serum 25(OH)D during lactation, cord blood, and 6-week breastfed infant serum were measured using LC-MS/MS.

Results: Mean maternal age (±SD) was 27±5 years, and pre-gestational BMI was 22.29±5 kg/m2. Maternal serum 25(OH)D at baseline was 22.29±7.15 nmol/L. At 6 weeks, both maternal 25(OH)D and infant 25 (OH)D levels had increased significantly in the vitamin D supplement group of mothers and infants (68.30±15.40, 40.40±12.56 nmol/L) compared to those in placebo groups (55.15±13.57, 24.28±17.20 nmol/L) (p <0.001, p<0.001). The changes in infant 25(OH)D levels increased substantially in the vitamin D supplement group but decreased in placebo(17.49±16.27 ng/ml compared to -1.34±19.23 nmol/L in the placebo group, p<0.001). The change of maternal 25(OH)D were positively correlation to the change of 25(OH)D level in breastmilk mothers and infants by r=0.697, p<0.001 and r=0.379, p=0.003 respectively.

Conclusions: Vitamin D3 supplementation to breastfed mother during lactation can increase serum 25(OH)D level in Thai breastfed mother and infants. Further work is needed to determine the optimum duration of vitamin D supplementation to normalized breastfed infants with 25(OH)D level >75 nmol/L.

08/18/2017
Review Article

Surgery and new Pharmacological strategy in some atherosclerotic chronic and acute conditions

Luisetto M*, Nili-Ahmadabadi B and Ghulam Rasool Mashori

In actual pharmacological therapy we can see that some drugs can be added to other medical instruments to improve their activity: in example we can see medicated stent for some coronary disease, or hormonal medical devices used in pregnancy prevention, but other example are known today. In example Carmustine wafer is delivered by delivery systems in some brain cancer and radioactive seed implants in prostatic cancer. Ocular intra vitreal implants for some macular degenerations (MABS or cortisones) other implants delivery systems drugs, naltrexone implant for opiate dependence. Other strategies imply carrier use to deliver the drugs in the site of action: In example MABS linked to radioactive isotopes in some relapse of severe Hodgkin disease but many other example we can see in therapy used today. So we can think that other chronic conditions can be treated using a combination of drugs with other instrument to improve the clinical outcomes. This to make possible that the ERLICH MUGIC BULLETS can act in the right site reducing the side effect. In example today we can see various medical interventional radiological strategy to treat in coronary and hearth disease with medicate stents positioning or to local use of contrast agents or other valvle surgery procedures with global good clinical results.

08/17/2017
Case Report

Investigation on the occurrence of Hairy Polyp and Choristoma in Oral Cavity: A case study

Fernando CN, Abeyratne WMSD, Tilakaratne WM and Siriwardena BSMS

Hairy polyp and choristoma are rare benign developmental malformations. Hairy polyp mainly occurs in the nasopharynx whereas choristoma occurs in the dorsum of the tongue. Aetiology and pathogenesis of both hairy polyp and choristoma still remain unknown. Diagnosis is made by histological examination and complete excision is the treatment of choice. We report a case of hairy polyp and choristoma on the palate and the dorsum of the tongue respectively in a seventeen days old baby.

08/16/2017
Research Article

The Effect of Cement and wrapping on the Decomposition rate of the Rabbit Carcasses

Lai Poh Soon*, Khoo Lay See, Nazni Wasi Ahmad, Azlina Zulkapli, Nurul Kharmila Abdullah, Mohd Shah Mahmood and Ahmad Hafizam Hasmi

Taphonomic study was first time conducted in Kuala Lumpur, capital city of Malaysia. In this research model, male Oryctolagus cunicullus weighed 1.8-2.6 kg each were killed by Dolethal intravenously at the ear region. In Phase 1 study, eight subjects were wrapped in a sack and cemented within a container to be compared with the other four controls at each location labelled A (ground) and B (manmade freshwater pond). Phase 2 involved duplicating set of 15 cemented samples comparable to 1 control made up to total of 32 subjects which were all put into a compact polytank containing freshwater to simulate a case study. Taphonomic changes were observed and scored using TBS system incorporating of fresh stage, early decomposition stage, advanced decomposition stage and skeletonisation stage. The ambient temperature of surroundings with 28.81C±4.21°C and 29.21°C±4.57°C (mean±S.D.) while relative humidity of air with 74.49 %±14.61% and 79.15%±16.32% (mean±S.D.) were recorded for Phase 1 and Phase 2 study respectively. Time taken for ground control exposed and wrapped carcasses to reach first sign of skeletonised stage were four days and five days respectively. Whilst freshwater controls reached initial skeletonised stage within one week for exposed carcass and two weeks for wrapped carcass. Within the control and cemented sample carcasses, TBS scores increased from initial stages of decomposition and become plateau after advanced decomposition. The cementing factor have superseded the wrapping factor due to its stronger physical barrier effect to slow down the decomposition more than half compared to controls based on Multiple way ANOVA test. Phase 2 study has demonstrated more accurately on the decomposition rate of the cemented samples. It showed that wrapping and cementing factors have delayed the decomposition process of the rabbit carcasses about 4 times to reach the initial stage of skeletonisation compared to the control carcasses. There was absence of insect activity within the cemented samples, hence the microorganism activity would be the only contributor to the decaying process within the cemented samples at slower rate comparing to the exposed or wrapped controls.

08/14/2017
Research Article

Effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on Moisture percentage of dried Tomato Slices

Pokharkar KK*, Delvadia DV, Jadhav Parag B and Bhor PB

A study was undertaken the effect of pretreatments and drying methods on quality parameters of tomato slices with respect to storage using two factors as treatments i.e. 5 pre-treatment levels (P1-Peeled by hot water dip blanching, P2-Peeled by hot brine dip blanching, P3-Unpeeled by hot water blanching, P4-Unpeeled by hot brine blanching, P5-Control- No peeled and no blanched) and 2 drying methods i.e. (D1-Tray drying, D2-Sun drying) with completely randomized design of factorial concept with three repetitions at Post Graduate Laboratory of Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh. The quality was evaluated on the basis of physicochemical (i.e. drying time (h) and moisture content (%) at 1, 20, 40, 60 and 80th day of storage. Result of study depicts that the pretreatment P2 i.e. peeling of tomato by hot brine dip blanching followed by tray drying (D2) recorded minimum (14.50 h) drying time and the minimum changes in moisture content (4.00%-6.54%) observed in treatment P1 at 1st to 80th day of storage, respectively.

08/11/2017
Mini Review

Do Fishes Hallucinate Human Folks?

Dinesh R*, Sherry Abraham, Kathiresan K, Susitharan V, Jeyapavithran C, Paul Nathaniel T and Siva Ganesh P

Hallucinogenic fishes are fishes that can create hallucinations if their tissue is ingested. These incorporate certain types of fish found in a several parts of the tropics. The impacts of eating hallucinogenic fishes are rumored to be comparative in a few viewpoints to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) or dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The encounters may incorporate distinctive sound-related and visual hallucinations. This has offered ascend to the collective common name “dream fish” for hallucinogenic fish. Sarpa salpa, a species of sea bream, is commonly claimed to be hallucinogenic. In 2006, two men who apparently ate the fish experienced mind flights going on for a few days. It is misty whether the poisons are delivered by the fish themselves or by marine algae in their diet.

08/10/2017
Research Article

Effect of storage period on the quality characteristics of two varieties of African Mango Seed Flour at ambient temperature

Adedeji TO*

The effects of storage of Ogbona seed flour (Irivingia gabonensis and Irivingia excelsa), at ambient condition (30±20C, 65-74% RH) for 0-4 months on some physical characteristics were investigated. The samples were subjected to storage in air tight polyethylene bags for up to four months. Samples were removed at intervals of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months for analysis. The chemical: proximate constituents, free-fatty acids and peroxide values; selected functional properties: water/oil absorption capacity, foam capacity and viscosity and sensory attributes of the samples were investigated. The result shows that there was no observable change in the chemical composition, selected functional and sensory properties of the two varieties of Ogbona seed flours when stored up to two months but decreased from third to fourth month during storage at ambient temperature. Therefore, storage at ambient temperature (30±20C, 65-74% RH) could extend the shelf life of the samples for up to two months in air-tight polyethylene bags of 0.7mm thickness without losing its quality characteristics.

08/17/2017
Case Report

Subacute infectious endocarditisassociated membranoproliferative glomerular nephritis: A Case Report and Review

Yi De Zhang, Ya Min Yu, Hou Yong Dai, Xiao Lan Chen, Li Yuan and Hui Shi*

We experienced a case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) caused by subacute infectious endocarditis (SIE). A 57-year-old male farmer complained of fatigue, lack of appetite and gross haematuria for a month; he had no cough, chest pain, or exertion dyspnea. After admission, lab tests showed mild proteinuria(1.04g/d) and heavy dysmorphic red blood cells(RBC) (543/HP), with serum creatinine(Scr) slightly elevated(1.46mg/dl) and anemia(hemoglobin Hb 85g/L). A renal biopsy revealed MPGN lesion with 16.6% cellular crescents. The echocardiogram test revealed mitra valve prolapse with perforation of the anterior lobe, vegetation, and severe regurgitation. He was diagnosed as SIE induced MPGN. Then he underwent mitral valve replacement after systemic antibiotic treatment without immunosuppressive agents. Follow-up showed that he dramatically regained normal kidney function in total 1 year after the operation. Thus, antibiotic administration and valve replacement may be efficient enough for some of SIE induced MPGN. We did a brief review of the literature on SIE induced MPGN, which was sometimes misdiagnosed due to its silent characteristics; some SIE patients may initially have other organs involved.

08/04/2017
Research Article

Use of Orthodeoxia by pulse Oximetry in the detection of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome

Cesar Raul Aguilar Garcia and Guadalupe Viridiana Ontiveros Guerra

Chronic Hepatic deficiency due to the ingestion of alcohol remains as one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in our country. From it a variety of complications arise, one of them is the Hepatopulmonary Syndrome, which usually goes unnoticed and undiagnosed; this syndrome is distinguished by the presence of hypoxemia and pulmonary vasodilation. The gold standard to establish a diagnostic is contrast-enhanced Echocardiogram. No pathognomonic sign is known for this syndrome, which leads the present elaboration to evaluate the use of orthodeoxia by pulse oximetry as a screening test in the detection of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome cases.

08/09/2017
Short Communication

HBV: Genomic Structure, HBVsAg Isolation and innovative Virotherapy Initiation in the Middle East

Essam M Janahi, Aboul-Ata E Aboul-Ata*, I M El-Kalamawy, Kathleen Hefferon and Amal Mahmoud

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the world’s major infectious diseases with 350 million people who are chronic carriers of HBV [1]. Significant minorities go on to develop liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and over 1 million die annually from HBV-diseased liver.Janahi E. at faculty of science, Bahrain University, Bahrain has submitted the following information [2], on HBV-genome organization as part of his Ph.D. degree (2007) in Imperial College, England. HBV genomic organization has 4 Open Reading Frames (ORFs) i.e. Pre-S/S Gene, Pre-C/C ORF, P ORF and X ORF. Regulatory Elements has 4 promoters (pre S2, pre S1, C promoters and X promoters), Pregenomic RNA, Enhancers (Enh 1 and Enh 2) where they are involved in cccDNA formation, Glococorticoid-Responsive Element which is located in X ORF and P ORF overlapping, Polyadenylation Signal (Direct Repeat 1 (DR1) and Direct Repeat 2 (DR2)), Epsilon-Stem Loop and Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Element. HBV genotype D is prevalent in our Middle East area. The HBV genome is a partially relaxed-circular dsDNA molecule consisting of a full length strand (minus strand) with a single unique nick and a complementary (positive strand) of variable length. HBV is considered as a para-retrovirus because its replication involves the reverse transcription of an intermediate-RNA function, of pre-genomic RNA (pgRNA). Replication of HBV genome starts with the encapsidation of the pgRNA and encodes HBV polymerase into an immature nucleocapsid formed by the viral core antigen. Inside the immature nucleocapsid, the viral polymerase converts pgRNA into minus-strand DNA, which in turn is used as a template for the synthesis of the plus-strand DNA, resulting in the formation of the characteristic mature double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA molecule [2]. HBVsAg has been isolated from Egyptian samples and identified using RTPCR [3-5]. Polymerase and HBVsAg regions have been also isolated and identified [5]. HBVsAg (S) gene has been identified at the band size 25.42 kDa [3,4]. Virotherapy for plant-based vaccine structure has been speculated for future work. Proposed CMV-HBVsAg chimeric-virus construct. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 26 kDa hybrid coat protein (CP D/S) gene for 2 strains (CMV/S and CMV/D) were isolated and amplified from sgRNA 4 using F and R primers. Replicase gene (RP) and 30 kDa movement protein gene (MP) were used. Promoter (35sP). Nopaline synthase terminator (Nos3T) are constructed between Right and left boarder (RB and LB). Proposed BeYDV-HBVsAg chimeric virus construct. HBVsAg (S) protein -Bean Yellow Dwarf Begomovirus chimeric virus [6]. Long and short intergenic regions (LIR & SIR) of bean yellow dwarf Gemini virus as well as capsid protein (CP), movement protein (MP) and replication-associated protein (RepA) genes and as well as 35s P and Nos3T will be constructed between Right and left boarder (RB and LB). Brief processing of vaccine production is as follow: a. Virus and RNA sources, which is HBVsAg that has isolated as two isolates from Egypt by El-Kalamawy et al. [4]. Also Mahmoud and Hashem [5], have isolated HBVsAg and HBVpAg. Also, Elghannam et al. [3], have isolated HBVsSg. b. Computer-Assisted Analysis, c. in vitro Construction of Chimeric Viruses (1. Construct Design, 2. Target Gene (Sub-units), Gene Promotors, Terminators and Orientation, 3. Virus-Based Vector (Recombinant Viral Genes), 4. CP, Replicase and Movement Protein Genes, 5. Chimeric Virus Stability. 6. Plant Bioreactor Inoculation, Vacuum and Agrobacterium infiltration, 7. Transient Expression, 8. Gene Transformation, 9. Plant-expressed Protein Vaccine Confirmation (Symptomatology, EM and WB). Scaling up vaccine-containing plants, Expressed-protein vaccine purification and dosing. Bioreactor host plant has to be chosen.

08/08/2017
Research Article

Effects of Vochysia haenkeana extract on the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararaca venom on chick biventer cervicis preparation in vitro

Fernanda Dias da Silva, Natalia Tribuiani, Isadora Caruso Fontana Oliveira, Regina Yuri Hashimoto Miura, Rafael S Floriano, Marcio Galdino dos Santos, Sandro Rostelato-Ferreira and Yoko Oshima-Franco*

Vochysia haenkeana extract (Vh-E) was assessed against the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararaca venom on chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparation. Pre- and post-venom incubation treatments (Pre-vit and Post-vit) were analysed here. Contractures ACh (110 µM) and KCl (20 mM) were evoked before and after addition of venom without stimulation. Vh-E (600 µg/mL) under Pre-vit was more efficient to neutralize the neuromuscular blockade by venom (40 µg/mL) [72.5±4.6% (venom) vs. 45.2±14% (Vh-E) of blockade, p<0.05, n=4]. Vh-E (600 µg/mL) did not cause significant changes under Post-vit [72.5±4.6% (venom) vs. 63.4±8.2% (Vh-E) of blockade, n=4]. The Pre-vit inhibited the blockade of the contracture to ACh (106±17% of response; n=4) while the Post-vit was able to attenuate the effect of the venom on this contracture (55±5% of response; n=4); related to those contractures to KCl both of treatments with Vh-E attenuated the blocker effect of the venom (62.5±7.7% and 55±5% of response for Pre-vit and Post-vit, respectively; n=4). In conclusion, Vh-E neutralizes partially the neuromuscular blockade in Pre-vit, an effect that can be related to preserved function of “extrinsic” post-synaptic receptors, by measured contractures in response to ACh. The myotoxicity of the venom was significantly reduced by Vh-E in both, Pre-vit and Post-vit, by measured contractures in response to KCl.