Case Report

External Root Resorption associated with Impacted Third Molars: A Case Report

Gabriela Mayrink, Paula Ramos Ballista, Laisa Kinderlly, Stella Araujo and Renato Marano*

The indications for impacted third molar extraction include the prevention of dental reabsorption on the adjacent tooth. Resorption can be classified as physiological (when deciduous teeth are exfoliated) or pathological (when caused by injury or irritation to the periodontal ligament). Many causes can trigger external root resorption (ERR), the most common cause of which is orthodontic forces.The most common cases of ERR involve impacted third molars which, due to the lack of space for their eruption, generate a greater chance of ERR on the distal portion of the second molar. This pathology is becoming progressively more frequent in clinical dental care. Periapical and panoramic radiographs are used to aid in diagnosis, as is cone beam computed tomography. In cone beam computed tomography scans, radiolucent areas with irregular gaps are detected; these gaps represent a significant loss of dental material. The objectives of this article were to report a case of second molar resorption triggered by an impacted third molar and to perform a review of the literature on the causes of external root resorption. Ideally, this information will aid dental clinicians (and orthodontists in particular) in understanding the features of this pathology so that they may recommend preventive third molar extraction when necessary.

Review Article

Facial Necrotizing Fasciitis in Adults. A Systematic Review

Diego Abelardo Alvarez Hernandez*, Alberto Manuel Gonzalez Chavez and Alexia S Rivera

Introduction: Necrotizing Fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressing, severe suppurative infection of the superficial fascia and the sorrounding tissues that may lead to necrosis, septic shock and death if left untreated. Facial NF is rarely seen and symptoms may be non-specific at the onset and depend on the origin site and the stage of the disease, making it difficult for diagnosis.

Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done following the PRISMA guidance. PubMed database was searched for case reports published between January 2007 and March 2017. Full text articles were obtained and assesed for relevance. Data extraction was performed as an iterative process.

Results: A total of 24 articles, describing 29 adult patients with facial NF were included. Facial NF was more common in males. Skin trauma was the most frequent mechanism of lesion and diabetes mellitus was the most common associated systemic disorder. Periorbital area was the most affected area. In order of appereance, swelling and pain were the most common initial clinical manifestations. Group A Streptococcus was the most frequent microorganism isolated. Advanced airway management was needed in more than 50% of the cases and surgical management was done in 90% of the cases.

Conclusions: Practitioners should be aware of its existance, epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and initial clinical manifestations to develop a high index of suspicion, to order studies that may discard or confirm the diagnosis, and to offer prompt treatment to preserve patient’s life and reduce the disfigurement and disability that it may cause.

Case Report

Secondary Onychomycosis Development after Cosmetic Procedure-Case Report

Mariusz Dyląg*, Emilia Flisowska, Patryk Bielecki, Maria Kozioł-Gałczynska and Weronika Jasinska

The authors describe the unusual case of subungual onychomycosis, due to fluconazole and itraconazole resistant Candida albicans after using the hybrid and acrylic lacquers and nail tips. The etiology of these atypical changes was supported by isolation of the fungus from the nail lesions, and its consistent identification by means of morphological and molecular diagnosis. In the presented case, topical treatment with ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer allow to fight the pathogenic fungus but did not restore the natural appearance of the nails.

Review Article

Overview of Interferon: Characteristics, signaling and anticancer effect

Huaiyuan Wang, Haijun Hu and Kangjian Zhang*

Interferons are multifunctional cytokines widely used in clinical settings as an anti-viral drug. In addition, interferon’s exhibit anti-cancer and anti-bacterial effects. Nearly two thousand papers related to interferon are published each year, which illustrates the importance placed by researchers on the study of interferon. This review focuses on recent advances in the study of interferon, particularly in the areas of its mechanism of anti-cancer effect and signal transduction. We also describe the tumor resistance to interferon and the side-effect of interferon-based therapy, which leads to an expectation of future research of interferon.

Research Article

Intraperitoneal and Subsequent Intravenous Vancomycin: An Effective Treatment Option for Gram-Positive Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis

Barone RJ*, Gimenez NS and Ramirez L

Intraperitoneal vancomycin absorption is higher when there is peritoneal inflammation, but the absorption decreases with recovery from peritonitis. Consequently, intraperitoneal maintenance doses are ineffective, reducing the rate of cure.

Aim:To evaluate the outcome of Gram-positive peritonitis treated with intraperitoneal and subsequent intravenous vancomycin.

Methods: In April 1996, we initiated a protocol for treating peritonitis caused by Gram-positive organisms using a 2-g intraperitoneal loading dose of vancomycin followed by intravenous vancomycin at 1 g twice in 5 days for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and at 1 g three times in 5 days for Staphylococcus aureus. We analyzed episodes of Gram-positive peritonitis (coagulase-negative and S. aureus) and the efficiency of the treatment protocol in 113 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis between 1 April, 1996 and 3 August, 2016. There were 6090 patient-months and the mean treatment lasted 54±44 months. The outcomes were evaluated as (1) complete cure, (2) relapsing peritonitis, (3) catheter removal for refractory peritonitis, and (4) death.

Results: A total of 51 cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus peritonitis and 37 of S. aureus were seen in 46 of the 113 patients (40.7%). Of these, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (92.15%) and 34 S. aureus peritonitis (91.89%) resolved.

Conclusion:The response to treatment was very satisfactory.


Anatomical Distribution of Intramuscular Lipomas

N K Sferopoulos**

Lipomas are the most common type of soft tissue tumor occurring in the subcutaneous tissue. Rarely, lipomas present in the deep soft tissue such as intermuscular, intramuscular, and parosteal sites. When they occur within a skeletal muscle they are called intramuscular lipomas. Intramuscular lipomas may involve both children and adults. They are benign, nontender, deep located, circumscribed but unencapsulated lesions. Intramuscular lipomas account less than 1% of all lipomas. Most are located within a single muscle (solitary), while cases involving two or more muscles are very rare. They present with typical histological features. They may be divided into the infiltrative, the well-circumscribed and the mixed type. Differential diagnosis of the infiltrative type from liposarcoma is very difficult. Local recurrence may be evident if the surgical margin is not clear. They can occur in almost any anatomical site [1-15].

Intramuscular lipomas of the head may involve the tongue, which is one of the most commonly involved sites [16-24] or the tongue and the submandibular space [25]. They may also involve the cheek [26], the nose [27], the masseter [28] and the temporalis muscle [29,30]. In the eye the orbicularis oculi muscle and the eyelid [31], the superior oblique muscle [32], the superior rectus [33], the medial rectus in a child [34] have been involved.

Research Article

Comparative Hemodynamic Evaluation of the LUCAS® Device and Manual Chest Compression in Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Mirek S, Opprecht N*, Daisey A, Milojevitch E, Soudry- Faure A and Freysz M

Chest compression is the fundamental technique in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with cardiac arrest [1]. The quality and the early implementation of CPR are essential to improve the prognosis and the chances of restoring spontaneous circulation. In the literature, there are some articles about the poor quality of chest compression [2-4]. Therefore chest compression is as crucial as alerting the emergency services or early defibrillation in the survival chain. In accordance with the guidelines, chest compressions have to be performed continuously to improve the outcome [5]. However, the efficacy of manual chest compression diminishes over time with the fatigue of the provider (which appears within minutes of starting the procedure), and is impaired during transportation manoeuvres, which expose patients to unforeseen interruptions and a deterioration in the quality du massage in terms of power and rhythm. The efficacy of manual chest compression has been reported to fall by 20% per minute [6,7]. Mechanical chest compression overcome this problem of operator fatigue by ensuring constant efficacy in terms of both quality and quantity. Even though current data show no difference between manual chest compression and automated systems in terms of survival, haemodynamic studies in animal models have shown that mechanical techniques are more effective [8].

The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic impact (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure) of the LUCAS™ active compression-decompression device (Medtronics® Jolife; Lund, Sweden) as the mechanical chest compression technique versus manual chest compression. The secondary aims were on the one hand to evaluate in a quantitative manner cardiac output and its evolution during mechanical and manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on the other hand to evaluate the correlation between cardiac output and other routinely-measured hemodynamic parameters, in particular the EtCO2.

Case Report

A Short Synthesis Concerning Biological Effects and Equivalent Doses in Radiotherapy

Cyril Voyant* and Daniel Julian

The limits of classical equivalent computation based on time, dose, and fractionation (TDF) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. In this letter, we propose an outline related to the different models usable for equivalent and biological doses that are likely to be the most appropriate. The used methodology is based on: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames.

Case Report

Orthodontics Miniscrews to Correct an Anchorage Loss: Case Report

Houb-Dine A* and Zaoui F

The recent introduction of the miniscrew in orthodontics revolutionized the clinical and biomechanical approach of anchoring. Used as direct or indirect anchoring, the orthodontic micro screws indications field is expanding due to their easy insertion, and their immediate loading ensuring an absolute anchoring.Our objective through this clinical case is to show the effectiveness of these miniscrews in the correction of the uncontrolled loss of anchoring.